Results for 'James R. Rest'

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  1. Moral Development in the Professions: Psychology and Applied Ethics.James R. Rest & Darcia Narváez (eds.) - 1994 - L. Erlbaum Associates.
    Every year in this country, some 10,000 college and university courses are taught in applied ethics. And many professional organizations now have their own codes of ethics. Yet social science has had little impact upon applied ethics. This book promises to change that trend by illustrating how social science can make a contribution to applied ethics. The text reports psychological studies relevant to applied ethics for many professionals, including accountants, college students and teachers, counselors, dentists, doctors, journalists, nurses, school teachers, (...)
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  2. Summary: What's Possible.James R. Rest & Darcia Narvaez - 1994 - In James R. Rest & Darcia Narváez (eds.), Moral Development in the Professions: Psychology and Applied Ethics. L. Erlbaum Associates.
     
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  3.  54
    A Neo-Kohlbergian Approach to Morality Research.James R. Rest, Darcia Narvaez, Stephen J. Thoma & Muriel J. Bebeau - 2000 - Journal of Moral Education 29 (4):381-395.
    Kohlberg's work in moral judgement has been criticised by many philosophers and psychologists. Building on Kohlberg's core assumptions, we propose a model of moral judgement (hereafter the neo-Kohlbergian approach) that addresses these concerns. Using 25 years of data gathered with the Defining Issues Test (DIT), we present an overview of Minnesota's neo-Kohlbergian approach, using Kohlberg's basic starting points, ideas from Cognitive Science (especially schema theory), and developments in moral philosophy.
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  4.  35
    A Psychologist Looks at the Teaching of Ethics.James R. Rest - 1982 - Hastings Center Report 12 (1):29-36.
  5.  31
    Why Does College Promote Development in Moral Judgement?James R. Rest - 1988 - Journal of Moral Education 17 (3):183-194.
    Abstract Evidence is reviewed showing that college attendance is associated with development in moral judgement. Six interpretations of why college has this effect are discussed: (1) simple age/maturation; (2) socialization; (3) learning specific knowledge or skill; (4) generalized understanding; (5) intellectual stimulation; (6) self?selection. Findings from longitudinal, experimental, correlational, educational and life experience studies are used to evaluate the plausibility of each interpretation. The last three interpretations are favoured over the first three.
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  6.  15
    First Annual Lawrence Kohlberg Memorial Lecture.James R. Rest - 1989 - Journal of Moral Education 18 (2):85-96.
    At the 1987 meeting, the governing board of the Association for Moral Education considered various ways of honouring Larry Kohlberg. Larry Kohlberg has been the guiding light and chief impetus for this organization and the board wanted to recognize this. There was a quick consensus that an on?going lecture series in Larry Kohlberg's name would be a fitting tribute. The annual lecture will be a device for breathing fresh life into the work of moral education; it will be a way (...)
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  7. Background: Theory and Research.James R. Rest - 1994 - In James R. Rest & Darcia Narváez (eds.), Moral Development in the Professions: Psychology and Applied Ethics. L. Erlbaum Associates. pp. 1--26.
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  8.  25
    Affect in Ethical Decision Making: Mood Matters.James R. Guzak - 2015 - Ethics and Behavior 25 (5):386-399.
    Ethical decision-making research has centered on Rest’s framework that represents a rational, nonaffective model for ethical decision making. However, research in human cognition suggesting a “dual-processing” framework, composed of both rational and affective components, has been relatively ignored in the ethical decision-making literature. Examining dual-processing literature, it seems affect might be an important factor in decision making when a person’s mood is congruent with the task or situational context frame. Given that ethical decisions are serious and complex tasks, it (...)
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  9.  28
    Co-Evolution of Language-Size and the Critical Period.James R. Hurford & Simon Kirby - 1998 - In [Book Chapter] (Unpublished).
    Species evolve, very slowly, through selection of genes which give rise to phenotypes well adapted to their environments. The cultures, including the languages, of human communities evolve, much faster, maintaining at least a minimum level of adaptedness to the external, non- cultural environment. In the phylogenetic evolution of species, the transmission of information across generations is via copying of molecules, and innovation is by mutation and sexual recombination. In cultural evolution, the transmission of information across generations is by learning, and (...)
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  10.  27
    Taxonomy and the Personal Equation: The Historical Fates of Charles Girard and Louis Agassiz. [REVIEW]James R. Jackson & William C. Kimler - 1999 - Journal of the History of Biology 32 (3):509 - 555.
    The reputations of scientists among their contemporaries depend not only on accomplishment, but also on interactions affected by influence and personality. The historical lore of most fields of scientific endeavor preserve these reputations, often through the identification of founders, innovators, and prolific workers whose contributions are considered fundamental to progress in the field. Historians frequently rely on the historical lore of scientists to guide their studies of the development of ideas, exhibiting justifiable caution in reassessing reputations in the light of (...)
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  11.  88
    Adam Smith and the Great Mind Fallacy: James R. Otteson.James R. Otteson - 2010 - Social Philosophy and Policy 27 (1):276-304.
    Adam Smith raised a series of obstacles to effective large-scale social planning. In this paper, I draw these Smithian obstacles together to construct what I call the “Great Mind Fallacy,” or the belief that there exists some person or persons who can overcome the obstacles Smith raises. The putative scope of the Great Mind Fallacy is larger than one might initially suppose, which I demonstrate by reviewing several contemporary thinkers who would seem to commit it. I then address two ways (...)
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  12.  56
    Reconstructing the Past: Parsimony, Evolution, and Inference. [REVIEW]James R. Griesemer & H. Bradley Shaffer - 1992 - Philosophical Review 101 (3):725-729.
  13.  23
    The Empirical Performance of Cognitive Moral Development in Predicting Behavioral Intent.R. Eric Reidenbach - 1996 - Business Ethics Quarterly 6 (4):493-516.
    The substantial work on cognitive moral development (CMD) by Lawrence Kohlberg and James Rest popularized the use of this construct in the literature on business ethics. This construct has been prominently used in models attempting to explain ethical/unethical behavior in management, marketing, and accounting, even though Kohlberg did not intend for the construct to be used in that manner. As a predictor of behavior, CMD has been attacked on the theoretical level, and its empirical performance has been weak. (...)
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  14. The Generality Problem, Statistical Relevance and the Tri-Level Hypothesis.James R. Beebe - 2004 - Noûs 38 (1):177 - 195.
    In this paper I critically examine the Generality Problem and argue that it does not succeed as an objection to reliabilism. Although those who urge the Generality Problem are correct in claiming that any process token can be given indefinitely many descriptions that pick out indefinitely many process types, they are mistaken in thinking that reliabilists have no principled way to distinguish between relevant and irrelevant process types.
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  15.  17
    A Text-Book of Psychology.James R. Angell - 1910 - Philosophical Review 19 (3):319-323.
  16.  25
    The Economics of Science: Methodology and Epistemology as If Economics Really Mattered.James R. Wible - 1998 - Routledge.
    This book explores aspects of science from an economic point of view. The author begins with economic models of misconduct in science, moving on to discuss other important issues, including market failure and the market place of ideas.
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  17.  14
    The Origins of Grammar: Language in the Light of Evolution Ii.James R. Hurford - 2011 - Oxford University Press.
    The second in James Hurford's acclaimed two-volume exploration of the biological evolution of language explores the evolutionary and cultural preconditions and consequences of humanity's great leap into language.
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  18.  65
    Visually Timed Action: Time-Out for Tau?James R. Tresilian - 1999 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 3 (8):301-310.
    Bringing about desirable collisions (making interceptions) and avoiding unwanted collisions are critically important sensorimotor skills, which appear to require us to estimate the time remaining before collision occurs (time-to-collision). Until recently the theoretical approach to understanding time-to-collision estimation has been dominated by the tau-hypothesis, which has its origins in J.J. Gibson’s ecological approach to perception. The hypothesis proposes that a quantity (tau), present in the visual stimulus, provides the necessary time-to-collision information. Empirical results and formal analyses have now accumulated to (...)
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  19.  14
    Business Students' and Practitioners' Ethical Decisions Over Time.James R. Glenn & M. Frances Van Loo - 1993 - Journal of Business Ethics 12 (11):835-847.
    This paper compares the ethical decisions and attitudes of business students and practitioners. Recent unpublished data from a national study of over 1600 students are contrasted with information reported previously. Students are found consistently to make less ethical choices than practitioners, and there is some indication that students are making less ethical choices in the 1980s than in the 1960s. In addition, both students and practitioners agree that buyers should beware, view the role of business more narrowly, and find fewer (...)
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  20.  17
    Do Mystics Perceive Themselves?: JAMES R. HORNE.James R. Horne - 1977 - Religious Studies 13 (3):327-333.
    Mystics have always claimed that a very significant kind of self-perception is possible, at the end of certain spiritual disciplines. The self that is then supposed to be known is a unity, identical from one experience to the next, and not to be identified with any particular experiences, such as impressions or ideas, which the self has. In short, mystical testimony supports something like a theory of the essential self as simple and unchanging.
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  21.  5
    Engelhardt as Sectarian: An Evangelical Protestant Consideration of After God.James R. Thobaben - 2017 - Christian Bioethics 23 (2):200-218.
    In this article, I argue that while Christians should share Engelhardt’s disappointment in how bioethics functions in the world, they should not share his exasperation. I begin by outlining the general argument in After God, its understanding of secularism, and of how such secularism has impacted bioethics. Next, I suggest that Englehardt appears to lean toward disengagement or at least an extremely suspicious sectarianism. Rather, I claim that it is possible for Christians to morally engage in a useful way with (...)
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  22.  8
    Beauty in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: Is Every Child a Pearl?James R. Thobaben & Anna Rebecca Young - 2019 - Christian Bioethics 25 (2):227-254.
    All forms of beauty create appeal or enticement with moral significance. Sublime beauty draws one into a deep relationship that properly promotes the good and true. Parents tend to experience such beauty in their children, as eloquently described in works such as the 14th-century poem ‘The Pearl’, and they see this even when their children are desperately ill or dying. The experience of beauty in one’s child creates or reinforces the morality of caring. Unfortunately, at the end of modernity, the (...)
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  23.  28
    Charles Sanders Peirce's Economy of Research.James R. Wible - 1994 - Journal of Economic Methodology 1 (1):135-160.
    Charles Sanders Peirce has authored an extraordinary ?Note on the Theory of the Economy of Research? (1879). The Note presents an economic model of research project selection in science. A case can be made that the Note was the first piece of modern scientific research in all of economics. This claim is based on the novelty of the method of argument, the graphical techniques, and the ratio of the marginal utilities found in the Note. The Note is also significant for (...)
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  24. Evaluative Effects on Knowledge Attributions.James R. Beebe - 2016 - In Justin Sytsma & Wesley Buckwalter (eds.), A Companion to Experimental Philosophy. Blackwell. pp. 359-367.
    Experimental philosophers have investigated various ways in which non‐epistemic evaluations can affect knowledge attributions. For example, several teams of researchers (Beebe and Buckwalter 2010; Beebe and Jensen 2012; Schaffer and Knobe 2012; Beebe and Shea 2013; Buckwalter 2014b; Turri 2014) report that the goodness or badness of an agent’s action can affect whether the agent is taken to have certain kinds of knowledge. These findings raise important questions about how patterns of folk knowledge attributions should influence philosophical theorizing about knowledge.
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  25. The Epistemic Side-Effect Effect.James R. Beebe & Wesley Buckwalter - 2010 - Mind and Language 25 (4):474-498.
    Knobe (2003a, 2003b, 2004b) and others have demonstrated the surprising fact that the valence of a side-effect action can affect intuitions about whether that action was performed intentionally. Here we report the results of an experiment that extends these findings by testing for an analogous effect regarding knowledge attributions. Our results suggest that subjects are less likely to find that an agent knows an action will bring about a side-effect when the effect is good than when it is bad. It (...)
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  26.  68
    Consumer Ethics: An Investigation of the Ethical Beliefs of Elderly Consumers. [REVIEW]Scott J. Vitell, James R. Lumpkin & Mohammed Y. A. Rawwas - 1991 - Journal of Business Ethics 10 (5):365 - 375.
    Business and especially marketing ethics have come to the forefront in recent years. While consumers have been surveyed regarding their perceptions of ethical business and marketing practices, research has been minimal with regard to their perceptions of ethical consumer practices. In addition, few studies have examined the ethical beliefs of elderly consumers even though they are an important and rapidly growing segment. This research investigates the relationship between Machiavellianism, ethical ideology and ethical beliefs for elderly consumers. The results indicate that (...)
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  27.  18
    Fraud in Science an Economic Approach.James R. Wible - 1992 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 22 (1):5-27.
    In recent years, there have been multiple instances of misconduct in science, yet no coherent framework exists for characterizing this phenomenon. The thesis of this article is that economic analysis can provide such a framework. Economic analysis leads to two categories of misconduct: replication failure and fraud. Replication failure can be understood as the scientist making optimal use of time in a professional environment where innovation is emphasized rather than replication. Fraud can be depicted as a deliberate gamble under conditions (...)
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  28.  30
    The Origins of Meaning: Language in the Light of Evolution.James R. Hurford - 2007 - Oxford University Press.
    In this, the first of two ground-breaking volumes on the nature of language in the light of the way it evolved, James Hurford looks at how the world first came ...
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  29.  6
    Health-Care Ethics: A Comprehensive Christian Resource.James R. Thobaben - 2009 - Ivp Academic.
    Founded on in-depth biblical studies and perceptive theological perspective, James Thobaben's book has given us a comprehensive treatment of the myriad ethical ...
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  30.  10
    Which Mystic has the Revelation?: JAMES R. HORNE.James R. Horne - 1975 - Religious Studies 11 (3):283-291.
    Since the late nineteenth century, studies of mysticism have presented us with two contrasting conclusions. The first is that mystics all over the world report basically the same experience, and the second is that there are great differences among the reports, and possibly among the experiences. On the positive side there are such works as Huxley's The Perennial Philosophy , with its claim that all mystics say that all beings are manifestations of a Divine Ground, that men learn of this (...)
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  31.  66
    Moral Objectivism Across the Lifespan.James R. Beebe & David Sackris - 2016 - Philosophical Psychology 29 (6):912-929.
    We report the results of two studies that examine folk metaethical judgments about the objectivity of morality. We found that participants attributed almost as much objectivity to ethical statements as they did to statements of physical fact and significantly more objectivity to ethical statements than to statements about preferences or tastes. In both studies, younger participants attributed less objectivity to ethical statements than older participants. Females were observed to attribute slightly less objectivity to ethical statements than males, and we found (...)
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  32. Scientific Realism in the Wild: An Empirical Study of Seven Sciences and History and Philosophy of Science.James R. Beebe & Finnur Dellsén - 2020 - Philosophy of Science 87 (2):336-364.
    We report the results of a study that investigated the views of researchers working in seven scientific disciplines and in history and philosophy of science in regard to four hypothesized dimensions of scientific realism. Among other things, we found that natural scientists tended to express more strongly realist views than social scientists, that history and philosophy of science scholars tended to express more antirealist views than natural scientists, that van Fraassen’s characterization of scientific realism failed to cluster with more standard (...)
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  33.  24
    The Economic Mind of Charles Sanders Peirce.James R. Wible - 2008 - Contemporary Pragmatism 5 (2):39-67.
    Charles Peirce had significant interests in economics. He reworked the mathematical economic models of Cournot and Jevons in the 1870s. He conceived of the transitive axiom of consumer preferences in 1874. Peirce also developed a thesis of the cognitive efficiency of the human mind, abduction. He criticized Newcomb's economic writings. These forays into economics affected the six essays on pragmatism. These interests in economics are integrated with the meaning of the pragmatic maxim in Peirce's 1903 Harvard Lectures.
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  34.  16
    Jensen's Support for Spearman's Hypothesis is Support for a Circular Argument.James R. Wilson - 1985 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 8 (2):246-246.
  35.  13
    Natural Law: A Good Idea That Does Not Work Very Well.James R. Thobaben - 2016 - Christian Bioethics 22 (2):213-237.
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  36.  26
    The Phenomenological Status of the Ego.James R. Mensch - 2009 - Idealistic Studies 39 (1-3):1-9.
    For phenomenology, the study of appearances and the ways they come together to present a world, the question of the ego presents special difficulties. The ego, itself, is not an appearance; it is the subject to whom appearances appear. As such, it cannot appear. As the neo-Kantian, Paul Natorp expresses this:“The ego is the subjective center of relation for all contents in my consciousness. . . . It cannot itself be a content and resembles nothing that could be a content (...)
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  37.  17
    Bioethics After Christendom Is Gone: A Methodist Evangelical Perspective.James R. Thobaben - 2015 - Christian Bioethics 21 (3):282-302.
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  38.  4
    Role Playing and Identity: The Limits of Theatre as Metaphor.James Hamilton - 1982 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 42 (3):337-339.
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  39. The Abductivist Reply to Skepticism.James R. Beebe - 2009 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 79 (3):605-636.
    Abductivists claim that explanatory considerations (e.g., simplicity, parsimony, explanatory breadth, etc.) favor belief in the external world over skeptical hypotheses involving evil demons and brains in vats. After showing how most versions of abductivism succumb fairly easily to obvious and fatal objections, I explain how rationalist versions of abductivism can avoid these difficulties. I then discuss the most pressing challenges facing abductivist appeals to the a priori and offer suggestions on how to overcome them.
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  40. How Different Kinds of Disagreement Impact Folk Metaethical Judgments.James R. Beebe - 2014 - In Jennifer Cole Wright & Hagop Sarkissian (eds.), Advances in Experimental Moral Psychology. Bloomsbury Academic. pp. 167-187.
    Th e present article reports a series of experiments designed to extend the empirical investigation of folk metaethical intuitions by examining how different kinds of ethical disagreement can impact attributions of objectivity to ethical claims.
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  41. Surprising Connections Between Knowledge and Action: The Robustness of the Epistemic Side-Effect Effect.James R. Beebe & Mark Jensen - 2012 - Philosophical Psychology 25 (5):689 - 715.
    A number of researchers have begun to demonstrate that the widely discussed ?Knobe effect? (wherein participants are more likely to think that actions with bad side-effects are brought about intentionally than actions with good or neutral side-effects) can be found in theory of mind judgments that do not involve the concept of intentional action. In this article we report experimental results that show that attributions of knowledge can be influenced by the kinds of (non-epistemic) concerns that drive the Knobe effect. (...)
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  42.  28
    [Book Review] Adam Smith and the Virtues of Enlightenment. [REVIEW]James R. Otteson - 1999 - Ethics 111 (3):634-636.
    Charles Griswold has written a comprehensive philosophical study of Smith's moral and political thought. Griswold sets Smith's work in the context of the Enlightenment and relates it to current discussions in moral and political philosophy. Smith's appropriation as well as criticism of ancient philosophy, and his carefully balanced defence of a liberal and humane moral and political outlook, are also explored. This 1999 book is a major philosophical and historical reassessment of a key figure in the Enlightenment that will be (...)
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  43.  53
    Individual and Cross-Cultural Differences in Semantic Intuitions: New Experimental Findings.James R. Beebe & Ryan Undercoffer - 2016 - Journal of Cognition and Culture 16 (3-4):322-357.
    In 2004 Edouard Machery, Ron Mallon, Shaun Nichols and Stephen Stich published what has become one of the most widely discussed papers in experimental philosophy, in which they reported that East Asian and Western participants had different intuitions about the semantic reference of proper names. A flurry of criticisms of their work has emerged, and although various replications have been performed, many critics remain unconvinced. We review the current debate over Machery et al.’s (2004) results and take note of which (...)
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  44.  13
    Coordinate Transformation and Limb Movements: There May Be More Complexity Than Meets the Eye.James R. Bloedel - 1992 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 15 (2):326-326.
  45.  26
    Patočka’s Conception of the Subject of Human Rights.James R. Mensch - 2011 - Idealistic Studies 41 (1-2):1-10.
    Jan Patočka appears as a paradoxical figure. A champion of human rights, he often presents his philosophy in quite traditional terms. He speaks of the “soul,” its “care,” and of “living in truth.” Yet, in his proposal for an “asubjective” phenomenology, he undermines the traditional notion of the self that has such rights. The question that thus confronts a reader of Patočka is how to reconcile the Patočka who was a spokesman of the Charter 77 movement with the proponent of (...)
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  46.  11
    The Economic Organization of Science, the Firm, and the Marketplace.James R. Wible - 1995 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 25 (1):35-68.
    Among the various institutional structures of an economy like the firm and the marketplace is one that is like no other. Science is unique. This uniqueness raises an important question: why does science exist? From an economic perspective, there are two potentially meaningful approaches to the existence of science. They both encompass institutional pluralism. A substitutes theory of comparative institutions presupposes the primacy of the commercial marketplace over firms—that firms substitute for the market when markets fail. This theory has not (...)
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  47.  39
    Responsible Authorship and Peer Review.James R. Wilson - 2002 - Science and Engineering Ethics 8 (2):155-174.
    In this article the basic principles of responsible authorship and peer review are surveyed, with special emphasis on (a) guidelines for refereeing archival journal articles and proposals; and (b) how these guidelines should be taken into account at all stages of writing.
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  48. A Knobe Effect for Belief Ascriptions.James R. Beebe - 2013 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 4 (2):235-258.
    Knobe (Analysis 63:190-193, 2003a, Philosophical Psychology 16:309-324, 2003b, Analysis 64:181-187, 2004b) found that people are more likely to attribute intentionality to agents whose actions resulted in negative side-effects that to agents whose actions resulted in positive ones. Subsequent investigation has extended this result to a variety of other folk psychological attributions. The present article reports experimental findings that demonstrate an analogous effect for belief ascriptions. Participants were found to be more likely to ascribe belief, higher degrees of belief, higher degrees (...)
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  49.  20
    The Case of Mr. Sims.James R. Thobaben - 1995 - HEC Forum 7 (2-3):94-109.
  50.  50
    Ethical Values of Individuals at Different Levels in the Organizational Hierarchy of a Single Firm.James R. Harris - 1990 - Journal of Business Ethics 9 (9):741 - 750.
    This study examines the ethical values of respondents by level in the organizational hierarchy of a single firm. It also explores the possible impacts of gender, education and years of experience on respondents' values as well as their perceptions of how the organization and professional associations influence their personal values. Results showed that, although there were differences in individuals' ethical values by hierarchical level, significantly more differences were observed by the length of tenure with the organization. While respondents, as a (...)
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