Results for 'Reinhard Schulz'

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  1. Darstellen Und Rekonstruieren: Eine Hermeneutische Erwiderung Auf Ian Hacking. [REVIEW]Reinhard Schulz - 1999 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 30 (2):365-378.
    Representing and Reconstructing: A Hermeneutical Reply to Ian Hacking. Hacking published in 1983 Representing and Intervening which has provoked, particularly in the US, the so called realism/anti-realism debate which is still alive today. He lays claim to anti-realism for theory and to realism for the experiment. Following him, only that which can be used for manipulating something is realistic. H. Putnam is a severe critic of this dualism. In my paper I am going to take the Hacking -Putnam controversy as (...)
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  2.  8
    Karl Jaspers und Hans-Georg Gadamer. Ein Traditionsbruch?Reinhard Schulz - 2009 - In Gerhard Kraiker, Michael Daxner & Waltraud Meints (eds.), Raum der Freiheit: Reflexionen Über Idee Und Wirklichkeit. Transcript Verlag. pp. 71-82.
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  3. Naturphilosophie. Ein Lehr- Und Studienbuch.Thomas Kirchhoff, Nicole C. Karafyllis, Dirk Evers, Brigitte Falkenburg, Myriam Gerhard, Gerald Hartung, Jürgen Hübner, Kristian Köchy, Ulrich Krohs, Thomas Potthast, Otto Schäfer, Gregor Schiemann, Magnus Schlette, Reinhard Schulz & Frank Vogelsang (eds.) - 2017 - Tübingen, Germany: Mohr Siebeck / UTB.
    Was ist Natur oder was könnte sie sein? Diese und weitere Fragen sind grundlegend für Naturdenken und -handeln. Das Lehr- und Studienbuch bietet eine historisch-systematische und zugleich praxisbezogene Einführung in die Naturphilosophie mit ihren wichtigsten Begriffen. Es nimmt den pluralen Charakter der Wahrnehmung von Natur in den philosophischen Blick und ist auch zum Selbststudium bestens geeignet.
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  4. Gibt es für die Romantik eine spezifische naturwissenschaftliche Experimentierpraxis? Die Auffassungen von Goethe, Schelling, Ritter und Treviranus zur Naturforschung um 1800.Reinhard Schulz - 1993 - Philosophia Naturalis 30 (2).
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  5. Helmholtz und Gadamer: Provokation und solidarität. Über den Ursprung der philosophischen Hermeneutik im Geist der Naturwissenschaft.Reinhard Schulz - 1995 - Philosophia Naturalis 32 (1):141-154.
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  6. Philosophie in Literarischen Und Ästhetischen Gestalten.Reinhard Schulz (ed.) - 2005 - Bis, Bibliotheks- Und Informationssystem der Universität Oldenburg.
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  7. Karl Jaspers - Grundbegriffe seines Denkens.Hamid Reza Yousefi, Werner Schüßler, Reinhard Schulz & Ulrich Diehl (eds.) - 2011 - Lau.
    Karl Jaspers zählt zu den bedeutendsten Philosophen des 20. Jahrhunderts. Obwohl es bereits eine international etablierte Jaspersforschung gibt, haben die meisten seiner Werke jedoch noch keinen angemessenen Eingang in die historische und systematische Lehre der Philosophie gefunden. Diese Aufsatzsammlung gibt erstmals einen Einblick in die wichtigsten Begriffe seines philosophischen Denkens. Zu diesen Begriffen gehören Begriffe wie Grenzsituation, Freiheit, Menschenbild, Kommunikation, Philosophischer Glaube, Chiffre, Böses, Wahrheit, Vernunft, Gehäuse, Wissenschaft, Logik, Sprachphilosophie, Psychopathologie, Psychologie der Weltanschauung, Ethik, Einsamkeit, Erziehung, Politik, Universität, Achsenzeit, Philosophia (...)
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  8. Wirklichkeit Und Reflexion Walter Schulz Z. 60. Geburtstag.Walter Schulz & Helmut Fahrenbach - 1973
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  9.  1
    M. Puetz,(Hg.), Nietzsche in American Literature and Thought D. SCHULZ.Dieter Schulz - 1997 - Nietzsche-Studien 26 (1):588-592.
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  10. System des Transzendentalen Idealismus, herausgegeben von Ruth-Eva Schulz.F. W. J. Schelling & Walter Schulz - 1959 - Les Etudes Philosophiques 14 (2):243-243.
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  11.  55
    Pragmatic Meaning and Non-Monotonic Reasoning: The Case of Exhaustive Interpretation.Katrin Schulz & Robert van Rooij - 2006 - Linguistics and Philosophy 29 (2):205 - 250.
    In this paper an approach to the exhaustive interpretation of answers is developed. It builds on a proposal brought forward by Groenendijk and Stokhof (1984). We will use the close connection between their approach and McCarthy's (1980, 1986) predicate circumscription and describe exhaustive interpretation as an instance of interpretation in minimal models, well-known from work on counterfactuals (see for instance Lewis (1973)). It is shown that by combining this approach with independent developments in semantics/pragmatics one can overcome certain limitations of (...)
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  12.  12
    Pragmatic Meaning and Non-Monotonic Reasoning: The Case of Exhaustive Interpretation.Katrin Schulz & Robert Rooij - 2006 - Linguistics and Philosophy 29 (2):205-250.
    In this paper an approach to the exhaustive interpretation of answers is developed. It builds on a proposal brought forward by Groenendijk and Stokhof. We will use the close connection between their approach and McCarthy’s predicate circumscription and describe exhaustive interpretation as an instance of interpretation in minimal models, well-known from work on counterfactuals ). It is shown that by combining this approach with independent developments in semantics/pragmatics one can overcome certain limitations of Groenenedijk and Stokhof’s proposal. In the last (...)
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  13. The Neighbor: Three Inquiries in Political Theology.Slavoj Zizek, Eric L. Santner & Kenneth Reinhard - 2006 - University of Chicago Press.
    In _Civilization and Its Discontents_, Freud made abundantly clear what he thought about the biblical injunction, first articulated in Leviticus 19:18 and then elaborated in Christian teachings, to love one's neighbor as oneself. "Let us adopt a naive attitude towards it," he proposed, "as though we were hearing it for the first time; we shall be unable then to suppress a feeling of surprise and bewilderment." After the horrors of World War II, the Holocaust, Stalinism, and Yugoslavia, Leviticus 19:18 seems (...)
     
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  14.  59
    Modalised Conditionals: A Response to Willer.Moritz Schulz - 2013 - Philosophical Studies 163 (3):673-682.
    A paper by Schulz (Philos Stud 149:367–386, 2010) describes how the suppositional view of indicative conditionals can be supplemented with a derived view of epistemic modals. In a recent criticism of this paper, Willer (Philos Stud 153:365–375, 2011) argues that the resulting account of conditionals and epistemic modals cannot do justice to the validity of certain inference patterns involving modalised conditionals. In the present response, I analyse Willer’s argument, identify an implicit presupposition which can plausibly be denied and show (...)
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  15.  33
    Jewish Messianism and the History of Philosophy (Review).Kenneth Reinhard - 2005 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 43 (3):370-371.
    Kenneth Reinhard - Jewish Messianism and the History of Philosophy - Journal of the History of Philosophy 43:3 Journal of the History of Philosophy 43.3 370-371 Martin Kavka. Jewish Messianism and the History of Philosophy. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004. Pp. xiii + 241. Cloth, $65.00. In Jewish Messianism and the History of Philosophy, Martin Kavka traces a subterranean history of what he calls "the Jewish meontological tradition," a recurrent encounter with questions of non-being both indigenous to Jewish (...)
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  16.  3
    Einleitung: Condorcet und die Theorie der repräsentativen Demokratie.Daniel Schulz - 2010 - In Marquis de Condorcet (ed.), Freiheit, Revolution, Verfassung. Kleine Politische Schriften: Herausgegeben von Daniel Schulz. Akademie Verlag. pp. 11-50.
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  17. The Neighbor: Three Inquiries in Political Theology, with a New Preface.Slavoj Zizek, Eric L. Santner & Kenneth Reinhard - 2013 - University of Chicago Press.
    In _Civilization and Its Discontents_, Freud made abundantly clear what he thought about the biblical injunction, first articulated in Leviticus 19:18 and then elaborated in Christian teachings, to love one's neighbor as oneself. “Let us adopt a naive attitude towards it,” he proposed, “as though we were hearing it for the first time; we shall be unable then to suppress a feeling of surprise and bewilderment.” After the horrors of World War II, the Holocaust, and Stalinism, Leviticus 19:18 seems even (...)
     
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  18. Persistent Bias in Expert Judgments About Free Will and Moral Responsibility: A Test of the Expertise Defense.Eric Schulz, Edward T. Cokely & Adam Feltz - 2011 - Consciousness and Cognition 20 (4):1722-1731.
    Many philosophers appeal to intuitions to support some philosophical views. However, there is reason to be concerned about this practice as scientific evidence has documented systematic bias in philosophically relevant intuitions as a function of seemingly irrelevant features (e.g., personality). One popular defense used to insulate philosophers from these concerns holds that philosophical expertise eliminates the influence of these extraneous factors. Here, we test this assumption. We present data suggesting that verifiable philosophical expertise in the free will debate-as measured by (...)
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  19.  63
    Causal Learning: Psychology, Philosophy, and Computation.Alison Gopnik & Laura Schulz (eds.) - 2007 - Oxford University Press.
    Understanding causal structure is a central task of human cognition. Causal learning underpins the development of our concepts and categories, our intuitive theories, and our capacities for planning, imagination and inference. During the last few years, there has been an interdisciplinary revolution in our understanding of learning and reasoning: Researchers in philosophy, psychology, and computation have discovered new mechanisms for learning the causal structure of the world. This new work provides a rigorous, formal basis for theory theories of concepts and (...)
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  20.  27
    The Double-Edged Sword of Pedagogy: Instruction Limits Spontaneous Exploration and Discovery.Elizabeth Bonawitz, Patrick Shafto, Hyowon Gweon, Noah D. Goodman, Elizabeth Spelke & Laura Schulz - 2011 - Cognition 120 (3):322-330.
  21.  56
    Exhaustive Interpretation of Complex Sentences.Robert van Rooij & Katrin Schulz - 2004 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 13 (4):491-519.
    In terms of Groenendijk and Stokhofs (1984) formalization of exhaustive interpretation, many conversational implicatures can be accounted for. In this paper we justify and generalize this approach. Our justification proceeds by relating their account via Halpern and Moses (1984) non-monotonic theory of only knowing to the Gricean maxims of Quality and the first sub-maxim of Quantity. The approach of Groenendijk and Stokhof (1984) is generalized such that it can also account for implicatures that are triggered in subclauses not entailed by (...)
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  22.  18
    Causal Learning Mechanisms in Very Young Children: Two-, Three-, and Four-Year-Olds Infer Causal Relations From Patterns of Variation and Covariation.Clark Glymour, Alison Gopnik, David M. Sobel & Laura E. Schulz - unknown
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  23.  89
    The Origins of Inquiry: Inductive Inference and Exploration in Early Childhood.Laura Schulz - 2012 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 16 (7):382-389.
  24.  16
    Where Science Starts: Spontaneous Experiments in Preschoolers’ Exploratory Play.Claire Cook, Noah D. Goodman & Laura E. Schulz - 2011 - Cognition 120 (3):341-349.
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  25.  18
    Going Beyond the Evidence: Abstract Laws and Preschoolers’ Responses to Anomalous Data.Laura E. Schulz, Noah D. Goodman, Joshua B. Tenenbaum & Adrianna C. Jenkins - 2008 - Cognition 109 (2):211-223.
  26.  22
    Just Do It? Investigating the Gap Between Prediction and Action in Toddlers’ Causal Inferences.Elizabeth Baraff Bonawitz, Darlene Ferranti, Rebecca Saxe, Alison Gopnik, Andrew N. Meltzoff, James Woodward & Laura E. Schulz - 2010 - Cognition 115 (1):104-117.
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  27. Data-Mining Probabilists or Experimental Determinists.Thomas Richardson, Laura Schulz & Alison Gopnik - 2007 - In Alison Gopnik & Laura Schulz (eds.), Causal Learning: Psychology, Philosophy, and Computation. Oxford University Press. pp. 208--230.
  28.  62
    Counterfactuals and Arbitrariness.Moritz Schulz - 2014 - Mind 123 (492):1021-1055.
    The pattern of credences we are inclined to assign to counterfactuals challenges standard accounts of counterfactuals. In response to this problem, the paper develops a semantics of counterfactuals in terms of the epsilon-operator. The proposed semantics stays close to the standard account: the epsilon-operator substitutes the universal quantifier present in standard semantics by arbitrarily binding the open world-variable. Various applications of the suggested semantics are explored including, in particular, an explanation of how the puzzling credences in counterfactuals come about.
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  29. “If You’D Wiggled A, Then B Would’Ve Changed”: Causality and Counterfactual Conditionals.Katrin Schulz - 2011 - Synthese 179 (2):239-251.
    This paper deals with the truth conditions of conditional sentences. It focuses on a particular class of problematic examples for semantic theories for these sentences. I will argue that the examples show the need to refer to dynamic, in particular causal laws in an approach to their truth conditions. More particularly, I will claim that we need a causal notion of consequence. The proposal subsequently made uses a representation of causal dependencies as proposed in Pearl (2000) to formalize a causal (...)
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  30.  35
    Fake Tense in Conditional Sentences: A Modal Approach.K. Schulz - 2014 - Natural Language Semantics 22 (2):117-144.
    Many languages allow for “fake” uses of their past tense marker: the marker: can occur in certain contexts without conveying temporal pastness. Instead it appears to bear a modal meaning. Iatridou :231–270, 2000) has dubbed this phenomenon Fake Tense. Fake Tense is particularly common to conditional constructions. This paper analyzes Fake Tense in English conditional sentences as a certain kind of ambiguity: the past tense morphology can mark the presence of a temporal operator, but it can also signal a specific (...)
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  31. Learning From Doing: Intervention and Causal Inference.Laura Schulz, Tamar Kushnir & Alison Gopnik - 2007 - In Alison Gopnik & Laura Schulz (eds.), Causal Learning: Psychology, Philosophy, and Computation. Oxford University Press. pp. 67--85.
  32.  16
    Sins of Omission: Children Selectively Explore When Teachers Are Under-Informative.Hyowon Gweon, Hannah Pelton, Jaclyn A. Konopka & Laura E. Schulz - 2014 - Cognition 132 (3):335-341.
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  33.  22
    “If You’D Wiggled A, Then B Would’Ve Changed”: Causality and Counterfactual Conditionals.Katrin Schulz - 2011 - Synthese 179 (2):239-251.
    This paper deals with the truth conditions of conditional sentences. It focuses on a particular class of problematic examples for semantic theories for these sentences. I will argue that the examples show the need to refer to dynamic, in particular causal laws in an approach to their truth conditions. More particularly, I will claim that we need a causal notion of consequence. The proposal subsequently made uses a representation of causal dependencies as proposed in Pearl to formalize a causal notion (...)
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  34. Sober & Wilson’s Evolutionary Arguments for Psychological Altruism: A Reassessment.Armin Schulz - 2011 - Biology and Philosophy 26 (2):251-260.
    In their book Unto Others, Sober and Wilson argue that various evolutionary considerations (based on the logic of natural selection) lend support to the truth of psychological altruism. However, recently, Stephen Stich has raised a number of challenges to their reasoning: in particular, he claims that three out of the four evolutionary arguments they give are internally unconvincing, and that the one that is initially plausible fails to take into account recent findings from cognitive science and thus leaves open a (...)
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  35. Epistemic Modals and Informational Consequence.Moritz Schulz - 2010 - Synthese 174 (3):385 - 395.
    Recently, Yalcin (Epistemic modals. Mind, 116 , 983–1026, 2007) put forward a novel account of epistemic modals. It is based on the observation that sentences of the form ‘ & Might ’ do not embed under ‘suppose’ and ‘if’. Yalcin concludes that such sentences must be contradictory and develops a notion of informational consequence which validates this idea. I will show that informational consequence is inadequate as an account of the logic of epistemic modals: it cannot deal with reasoning from (...)
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  36.  94
    The Dynamics of Indexical Belief.Moritz Schulz - 2010 - Erkenntnis 72 (3):337 - 351.
    Indexical beliefs pose a special problem for standard theories of Bayesian updating. Sometimes we are uncertain about our location in time and space. How are we to update our beliefs in situations like these? In a stepwise fashion, I develop a constraint on the dynamics of indexical belief. As an application, the suggested constraint is brought to bear on the Sleeping Beauty problem.
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  37.  38
    Gigerenzer’s Evolutionary Arguments Against Rational Choice Theory: An Assessment.Armin Schulz - 2011 - Philosophy of Science 78 (5):1272-1282.
    I critically discuss a recent innovation in the debate surrounding the plausibility of rational choice theory : the appeal to evolutionary theory. Specifically, I assess Gigerenzer and colleagues’ claim that considerations based on natural selection show that, instead of making decisions in a RCT-like way, we rely on ‘simple heuristics’. As I try to make clearer here, though, Gigerenzer and colleagues’ arguments are unconvincing: we lack the needed information about our past to determine whether the premises on which they are (...)
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  38.  33
    The Adaptive Importance of Cognitive Efficiency: An Alternative Theory of Why We Have Beliefs and Desires.Armin W. Schulz - 2011 - Biology and Philosophy 26 (1):31-50.
    Finding out why we have beliefs and desires is important for a thorough understanding of the nature of our minds (and those of other animals). It is therefore unsurprising that several accounts have been presented that are meant to answer this question. At least in the philosophical literature, the most widely accepted of these are due to Kim Sterelny and Peter Godfrey-Smith, who argue that beliefs and desires evolved due to their enabling us to be behaviourally flexible in a way (...)
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  39.  96
    Prime Number Selection of Cycles in a Predator‐Prey Model.Eric Goles, Oliver Schulz & Mario Markus - 2001 - Complexity 6 (4):33-38.
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  40.  30
    Inferring Hidden Causal Structure.Tamar Kushnir, Alison Gopnik, Chris Lucas & Laura Schulz - 2010 - Cognitive Science 34 (1):148-160.
    We used a new method to assess how people can infer unobserved causal structure from patterns of observed events. Participants were taught to draw causal graphs, and then shown a pattern of associations and interventions on a novel causal system. Given minimal training and no feedback, participants in Experiment 1 used causal graph notation to spontaneously draw structures containing one observed cause, one unobserved common cause, and two unobserved independent causes, depending on the pattern of associations and interventions they saw. (...)
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  41. Adapting Clinical Ontologies in Real-World Environments.Holger Stenzhorn, Stefan Schulz, Martin Boeker & Barry Smith - 2008 - Journal of Universal Computer Science 14 (22):3767-3780.
    The desideratum of semantic interoperability has been intensively discussed in medical informatics circles in recent years. Originally, experts assumed that this issue could be sufficiently addressed by insisting simply on the application of shared clinical terminologies or clinical information models. However, the use of the term ‘ontology’ has been steadily increasing more recently. We discuss criteria for distinguishing clinical ontologies from clinical terminologies and information models. Then, we briefly present the role clinical ontologies play in two multicentric research projects. Finally, (...)
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  42. Molecular Interactions. On the Ambiguity of Ordinary Statements in Biomedical Literature.Stefan Schulz & Ludger Jansen - 2009 - Applied Ontology (4):21-34.
    Statements about the behavior of biochemical entities (e.g., about the interaction between two proteins) abound in the literature on molecular biology and are increasingly becoming the targets of information extraction and text mining techniques. We show that an accurate analysis of the semantics of such statements reveals a number of ambiguities that have to be taken into account in the practice of biomedical ontology engineering: Such statements can not only be understood as event reporting statements, but also as ascriptions of (...)
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  43.  87
    Beyond the Hype.A. W. Schulz - 2013 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 43 (1):46-72.
  44.  27
    “Let Me Tell You Why!”. When Argumentation in Doctor–Patient Interaction Makes a Difference.Sara Rubinelli & Peter J. Schulz - 2006 - Argumentation 20 (3):353-375.
    This paper throws some light on the nature of argumentation, its use and advantages, within the setting of doctor–patient interaction. It claims that argumentation can be used by doctors to offer patients reasons that work as ontological conditions for enhancing the decision making process, as well as to preserve the institutional nature of their relationship with patients. In support of these claims, selected arguments from real-life interactions are presented in the second part of the paper, and analysed by means of (...)
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  45.  49
    BioTop: An Upper Domain Ontology for the Life sciencesA Description of its Current Structure, Contents and Interfaces to OBO Ontologies.Elena Beisswanger, Stefan Schulz, Holger Stenzhorn & Udo Hahn - 2008 - Applied Ontology 3 (4):205-212.
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  46.  53
    The Benefits of Rule Following: A New Account of the Evolution of Desires.Armin Schulz - unknown
    A key component of much current research in behavioral ecology, cognitive science, and economics is a model of the mind at least partly based on beliefs and desires. However, despite this prevalence, there are still many open questions concerning both the structure and the applicability of this model. This is especially so when it comes to its ‘desire’ part: in particular, it is not yet entirely clear when and why we should expect organisms to be desire-based—understood so as to imply (...)
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  47.  24
    System des Transzendentalen Idealismus.Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling, Walter Schulz & Walter E. Ehrhardt - 2000 - Felix Meiner Verlag.
    In dieser Schrift begründet Schelling 1800 in methodischer Strenge das Programm seiner Philosophie, d. h. die Notwendigkeit der Zusammenführung von Natur- und Transzendentalphilosophie.
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  48.  30
    Enhanced Cardiac Perception Is Associated With Increased Susceptibility to Framing Effects.Stefan Sütterlin, Stefan M. Schulz, Theresa Stumpf, Paul Pauli & Claus Vögele - 2013 - Cognitive Science 37 (5):922-935.
    Previous studies suggest in line with dual process models that interoceptive skills affect controlled decisions via automatic or implicit processing. The “framing effect” is considered to capture implicit effects of task-irrelevant emotional stimuli on decision-making. We hypothesized that cardiac awareness, as a measure of interoceptive skills, is positively associated with susceptibility to the framing effect. Forty volunteers performed a risky-choice framing task in which the effect of loss versus gain frames on decisions based on identical information was assessed. The results (...)
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  49. Plato's Republic: A Dialogue in 16 Chapters.Alain Badiou & Kenneth Reinhard - 2013 - Columbia University Press.
     
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  50.  28
    Arguing 'For' the Patient: Informed Consent and Strategic Maneuvering in Doctor–Patient Interaction. [REVIEW]Peter J. Schulz & Sara Rubinelli - 2008 - Argumentation 22 (3):423-432.
    As a way to advance integration between traditional readings of the medical encounter and argumentation theory, this article conceptualizes the doctor–patient interaction as a form of info-suasive dialogue. Firstly, the article explores the relevance of argumentation in the medical encounter in connection with the process of informed consent. Secondly, it discloses the risks inherent to a lack of reconciliation of the dialectical and rhetorical components in the delivery of the doctor’s advice, as especially resulting from the less than ideal conditions (...)
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