This article is the second translation of the preface and first chapter of HatanoSeiichi's Time and Eternity. A full translation of the text, published by Suzuki Ichiro 鈴木一郎 in 1963, is not easily accessible to most readers, while an excellent partial translation by Joseph O'Leary has recently been made accessible to a wider audience through the monumental work, Japanese Philosophy: A Sourcebook. By providing a short historical introduction to both Hatano's life and works as a great (...) thinker and teacher, this article intends to supplement O'Leary's contribution and therefore enable more readers to gain access to the opening sections of Hatano's Time and Eternity. (shrink)
Der Lehrstuhl für Christentumswissenschaft an der Kaiserlichen Universität Kyoto wurde 1922 als Stiftungslehrstuhl gegründet. Die Gründung der Christentumswissenschaft in Kyoto erfolgte in einer spezifischen bildungspolitischen Konstellation: Es ging um die spannungsreichen Beziehung zwischen staatlichen Hochschulen und den Religionsgemeinschaften sowie um die Ansprüche einer dezidiert nationalen Politik. Der erste Inhaber des Lehrstuhls war einer der prominentesten japanischen Ideenhistoriker und Philosophen, SeiichiHatano. Für Hatano gab es keinen Unterschied zwischen Theologie und Christentumswissenschaft. Er wandte die historische Methode auf die (...) Forschung zum frühen Christentum an, die er von deutschen Theologen gelernt hatte. Besonders stark hatte ihn die Religionsgeschichtliche Schule beeinflusst. Als Philosoph entwickelte Hatano eine Religionsphilosophie, die auf der Idee der Persönlichkeit basierte. Das starke Interesse am Thema “Persönlichkeit” hatte er auch mit den deutschen Theologen gemeinsam. Andererseits kritisierte Hatano den liberalen Protestantismus in Deutschland scharf. Dennoch wurde seine Haltung, mit der er die Vorgänger und Zeitgenossen “voraussetzungslos” kritisiert hatte, von führenden Vertretern des liberalen Protestantismus in Deutschland angenommen. (shrink)
Although humans are endowed with domain-specific constraints for acquiring informal biology, its construction requires considerable experience with living things and their cultural representations. Less experienced adults may not know what constitutes generic species, and young children may rely on personification rather than category-based inference. Atran's postulate of the living-kind module that promptly produces universal folk taxonomy does not seem tenable.
We agree that motivation to share emotions and other mental states is crucial for communicative development, but human infants are highly selective in sharing mental states, and this is well taken evolutionarily. Young chimpanzees may also have motivation to imitate mothers. Thus, uniquely human cognition and culture may not be reduced to a few basic abilities and/or inclinations.
Although Howe et al.'s survey shows little evidence for the talent account, it is premature to conclude that individual differences in achievement can be attributed largely to training and early experience. Moreover, such an empiricist account has problematic social implications, especially in cultures in which effort is emphasized. The aptitude account is thus proposed as a third alternative.
The present contribution shows that a Hilbert-style axiomatization for dynamic logic of relation changers is complete for the standard Kripke semantics not by a well-known rewriting technique but by the idea of an auxiliary semantics studied by van Benthem and Wang et al. A key insight of our auxiliary semantics for dynamic logic of relation changers can be described as: “relation changers are bounded morphisms.” Moreover, we demonstrate that this semantic insight can be used to provide a modular cut-free labelled (...) sequent calculus for the logic in the sense that our calculus can be regarded as a natural expansion of a labelled sequent calculus of iteration-free propositional dynamic logic. (shrink)
This study addresses the existing gap in literature that ethnographically examines the experiences of Spanish-speaking patients with limited English proficiency in clinical spaces. All of the participants in this study presented to the emergency department for evaluation of non-urgent health conditions. Patient shadowing was employed to explore the challenges that this population face in unique clinical settings like the ED. This relatively new methodology facilitates obtaining nuanced understandings of clinical contexts under study in ways that quantitative approaches and survey research (...) do not. Drawing from the field of medical anthropology and approach of narrative medicine, the collected data are presented through the use of clinical ethnographic vignettes and thick description. The conceptual framework of health-related deservingness guided the analysis undertaken in this study. Structural stigma was used as a complementary framework in analysing the emergent themes in the data collected. The results and analysis from this study were used to develop an argument for the consideration of language as a distinct social determinant of health. (shrink)
Platforms for sharing genomic and phenotype data have been developed to promote genomic research, while maximizing the utility of existing datasets and minimizing the burden on participants. The value of genomic analysis of trios or family members has increased, especially in rare diseases and cancers. This article aims to argue the necessity of protection when sharing data from both patients and family members. Sharing patients’ and family members’ data collectively raises an ethical tension between the value of datasets and the (...) rights of participants, and increases the risk of re-identification. However, current data-sharing policies have no specific safeguards or provisions for familial data sharing. A quantitative survey conducted on 10,881 general adults in Japan indicated that they expected stronger protection mechanisms when their family members’ clinical and/or genomic data were shared together, as compared to when only their data were shared. A framework that respects decision-making and the right of withdrawal of participants, including family members, along with ensuring usefulness and security of data is needed. To enable this, we propose recommendations on ancillary safeguards for familial data sharing according to the stakeholders, namely, initial researchers, genomic researchers, data submitters, database operators, institutional review boards, and the public and participants. Families have played significant roles in genetic research, and its value is re-illuminated in the era of genomic medicine. It is important to make progress in data sharing while simultaneously protecting the privacy and interests of patients and families, and return its benefits to them. (shrink)