Results for 'Todd Grantham'

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  1.  88
    Conceptualizing the (Dis)Unity of Science.Todd A. Grantham - 2004 - Philosophy of Science 71 (2):133-155.
    This paper argues that conceptualizing unity as "interconnection" (rather than reduction) provides a more fruitful and versatile framework for the philosophical study of scientific unification. Building on the work of Darden and Maull, Kitcher, and Kincaid, I treat unity as a relationship between fields: two fields become more integrated as the number and/or significance of interfield connections grow. Even when reduction fails, two theories or fields can be unified (integrated) in significant ways. I highlight two largely independent dimensions of unification. (...)
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  2.  7
    Scientific Integrity Principles and Best Practices: Recommendations From a Scientific Integrity Consortium.Alison Kretser, Delia Murphy, Stefano Bertuzzi, Todd Abraham, David B. Allison, Kathryn J. Boor, Johanna Dwyer, Andrea Grantham, Linda J. Harris, Rachelle Hollander, Chavonda Jacobs-Young, Sarah Rovito, Dorothea Vafiadis, Catherine Woteki, Jessica Wyndham & Rickey Yada - 2019 - Science and Engineering Ethics 25 (2):327-355.
    A Scientific Integrity Consortium developed a set of recommended principles and best practices that can be used broadly across scientific disciplines as a mechanism for consensus on scientific integrity standards and to better equip scientists to operate in a rapidly changing research environment. The two principles that represent the umbrella under which scientific processes should operate are as follows: Foster a culture of integrity in the scientific process. Evidence-based policy interests may have legitimate roles to play in influencing aspects of (...)
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  3. Adaptive Complexity and Phenomenal Consciousness.Shaun Nichols & Todd Grantham - 2000 - Philosophy of Science 67 (4):648-670.
    Arguments about the evolutionary function of phenomenal consciousness are beset by the problem of epiphenomenalism. For if it is not clear whether phenomenal consciousness has a causal role, then it is difficult to begin an argument for the evolutionary role of phenomenal consciousness. We argue that complexity arguments offer a way around this problem. According to evolutionary biology, the structural complexity of a given organ can provide evidence that the organ is an adaptation, even if nothing is known about the (...)
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  4. Constraints and Spandrels in Gould's Structure of Evolutionary Theory.Todd A. Grantham - 2004 - Biology and Philosophy 19 (1):29-43.
    Gould's Structure ofEvolutionary Theory argues that Darwinism hasundergone significant revision. Although Gouldsucceeds in showing that hierarchicalapproaches have expanded Darwinism, hiscritique of adaptationism is less successful. Gould claims that the ubiquity of developmentalconstraints and spandrels has forced biologiststo soften their commitment to adaptationism. Iargue that Gould overstates his conclusion; hisprincipal claims are compatible with at leastsome versions of adaptationism. Despite thisweakness, Gould's discussion of adaptationism –particularly his discussions of the exaptivepool and cross-level spandrels – shouldprovoke new work in evolutionary theory and (...)
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  5.  98
    Evolutionary Epistemology, Social Epistemology, and the Demic Structure of Science.Todd A. Grantham - 2000 - Biology and Philosophy 15 (3):443-463.
    One of the principal difficulties in assessing Science as aProcess (Hull 1988) is determining the relationship between the various elements of Hull's theory. In particular, it is hard to understand precisely how conceptual selection is related to Hull's account of the social dynamics of science. This essay aims to clarify the relation between these aspects of his theory by examining his discussion of the``demic structure'' of science. I conclude that the social account cando significant explanatory work independently of the selectionistaccount. (...)
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  6.  47
    The Role of Fossils in Phylogeny Reconstruction: Why is It so Difficult to Integrate Paleobiological and Neontological Evolutionary Biology? [REVIEW]Todd Grantham - 2004 - Biology and Philosophy 19 (5):687-720.
    Why has it been so difficult to integrate paleontology and mainstream evolutionary biology? Two common answers are: (1) the two fields have fundamentally different aims, and (2) the tensions arise out of disciplinary squabbles for funding and prestige. This paper examines the role of fossil data in phylogeny reconstruction in order to assess these two explanations. I argue that while cladistics has provided a framework within which to integrate fossil character data, the stratigraphic (temporal) component of fossil data has been (...)
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  7.  42
    Explanatory Pluralism in Paleobiology.Todd A. Grantham - 1999 - Philosophy of Science 66 (3):236.
    This paper is a defense of "explanatory pluralism" (i.e., the view that some events can be correctly explained in two distinct ways). To defend pluralism, I identify two distinct (but compatible) styles of explanation in paleobiology. The first approach ("actual sequence explanation") traces out the particular forces that affect each species. The second approach treats the trend as "passive" or "random" diffusion away from a boundary in morphological space. I argue that while these strategies are distinct, some trends are correctly (...)
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  8.  27
    Evolutionary Psychology: Ultimate Explanations and Panglossian Predictions.Todd A. Grantham & Shaun Nichols - 1999 - In Valerie Gray Hardcastle (ed.), Where Biology Meets Psychology. MIT Press. pp. 47--66.
  9.  44
    Does Science Have a “Global Goal?”: A Critique of Hull's View of Conceptual Progress. [REVIEW]Todd Grantham - 1994 - Biology and Philosophy 9 (1):85-97.
    Hull's recent work in evolutionary epistemology is marred by a deep tension. While he maintains that conceptual and biological evolution are both driven by selection processes, he also claims that only the former is globally progressive. In this paper I formulate this tension and present four possible responses (including Hull's). I argue that Hull's position rests on the assumption that there is a goal which is sufficiently general to describe most scientific activity yet precise enough to guide research. Working from (...)
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  10.  24
    Philosophical Perspectives on the Mass Extinction Debates?Todd A. Grantham - 1999 - Biology and Philosophy 14 (1):143-150.
  11.  59
    K. Sterelny and P. E. Griffiths Sex and Death: An Introduction to Philosophy of Biology.Todd A. Grantham - 2001 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 52 (1):175-179.
  12.  26
    Do Operant Behaviors Replicate?Todd Grantham - 2001 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (3):538-539.
    Operant conditioning is not a selection process. According to Hull et al., selection processes require entities that reproduce to form lineages. However, since operant behaviors do not reproduce, operant conditioning is not a selection process.
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  13.  43
    Philosophy of Biology • by Brian Garvey.Todd Grantham - 2009 - Analysis 69 (1):197-199.
    A healthy, growing field such as the philosophy of biology deserves to have a variety of different points of entry for students, instructors, and non-specialist academics who want to learn about the field. Among the many new books that introduce this dynamic area of research , Garvey's Philosophy of Biology may provide the most compact and accessible survey of the field. After explaining Darwin's theory of evolution, he offers four chapters about contemporary issues in evolutionary theory . The middle chapters (...)
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  14.  17
    Putting the Cart Back Behind the Horse: Group Selection Does Not Require That Groups Be “Organisms”.Todd A. Grantham - 1994 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (4):622-623.
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  15.  18
    Beyond “Individuality” and “Pluralism”: A Review of Ereshefsky'sunits of Evolution: Essays on the Nature of Species. [REVIEW]Todd A. Grantham - 1993 - Biology and Philosophy 8 (4):457-468.
  16. Self-Improvement [Abridged From 'the Student's Guide', by J. Todd].John Todd - 1848
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  17. Philosophy of Education and the Gigantic Affront of Universalism.Penny Enslin, Mary Tjiattas & Sharon Todd - 2009 - Journal of Philosophy of Education 43 (1):1-2.
    Universalism in philosophy, argue Penny Enslin and Mary Tjiattas, tends to be regarded as an affront to particular affiliations, an act of injustice by misrecognition. While agreeing with criticisms of some expressions of universalism, they take the view that anti-universalism has become an orthodoxy that deflects attention from pressing issues of global injustice in education. In different ways, recent reformulations of universalism accommodate particularity and claims for recognition. Defending a qualified universalism, they argue, through a discussion of the Education for (...)
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  18.  18
    Philosophy of Education and the Gigantic Affront of Universalism.Penny Enslin, Mary Tjiattas & Sharon Todd - 2009 - Philosophy of Education 43 (1):1-2.
    Universalism in philosophy, argue Penny Enslin and Mary Tjiattas, tends to be regarded as an affront to particular affiliations, an act of injustice by misrecognition. While agreeing with criticisms of some expressions of universalism, they take the view that anti-universalism has become an orthodoxy that deflects attention from pressing issues of global injustice in education. In different ways, recent reformulations of universalism accommodate particularity and claims for recognition. Defending a qualified universalism, they argue, through a discussion of the Education for (...)
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  19.  37
    Phylloxera, 'Big Science' and the Nature of Scientific Debate.Cain Todd - 2012 - Metascience 21 (3):759-761.
    Phylloxera, ‘big science’ and the nature of scientific debate Content Type Journal Article Category Book Review Pages 1-3 DOI 10.1007/s11016-012-9668-z Authors Cain Todd, Department of Politics, Philosophy and Religion, County South, Lancaster University, Lancaster, LA1 4YL UK Journal Metascience Online ISSN 1467-9981 Print ISSN 0815-0796.
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  20. The Individuation of God:Integrating Science and Religion.Peter B. Todd (ed.) - 2012 - Chiron Publications.
    Todd argues for the integration of science and religion to form a new paradigm for the third millennium. He counters both the arguments made by fundamentalist Christians against science and the rejection of religion by the New Atheists, in particular Richard Dawkins and his followers. Drawing on the work of scientists, psychologists, philosophers, and theologians, Todd challenges the materialistic reductionism of our age and offers an alternative grounded in the visionary work taking place in a wide array of (...)
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  21. The Sufi Doctrine of Man: Ṣadr Al-Dīn Al-Qūnawī's Metaphysical Anthropology.Richard Todd - 2014 - Brill.
    In The Sufi Doctrine of Man , Richard Todd examines the life and thought of Ṣadr al-Dīn al-Qūnawī , Ibn 'Arabī's chief disciple and a key figure in the development of Sufi metaphysics.
     
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  22.  65
    Affect-Biased Attention as Emotion Regulation.Rebecca M. Todd, William A. Cunningham, Adam K. Anderson & Evan Thompson - 2012 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 16 (7):365-372.
  23. The Development of Consciousness.Philip David Zelazo, Helena Hong Gao & Rebecca Todd - 2007 - In Philip David Zelazo, Morris Moscovitch & Evan Thompson (eds.), Cambridge Handbook of Consciousness. Cambridge University Press. pp. 405-432.
  24.  89
    Précis of Simple Heuristics That Make Us Smart.Peter M. Todd & Gerd Gigerenzer - 2000 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (5):727-741.
    How can anyone be rational in a world where knowledge is limited, time is pressing, and deep thought is often an unattainable luxury? Traditional models of unbounded rationality and optimization in cognitive science, economics, and animal behavior have tended to view decision-makers as possessing supernatural powers of reason, limitless knowledge, and endless time. But understanding decisions in the real world requires a more psychologically plausible notion of bounded rationality. In Simple heuristics that make us smart (Gigerenzer et al. 1999), we (...)
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  25. Soft Facts and Ontological Dependence.Patrick Todd - 2013 - Philosophical Studies 164 (3):829-844.
    In the literature on free will, fatalism, and determinism, a distinction is commonly made between temporally intrinsic (‘hard’) and temporally relational (‘soft’) facts at times; determinism, for instance, is the thesis that the temporally intrinsic state of the world at some given past time, together with the laws, entails a unique future (relative to that time). Further, it is commonly supposed by incompatibilists that only the ‘hard facts’ about the past are fixed and beyond our control, whereas the ‘soft facts’ (...)
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  26. Defending (a Modified Version of) the Zygote Argument.Patrick Todd - 2013 - Philosophical Studies 164 (1):189-203.
    Think of the last thing someone did to you to seriously harm or offend you. And now imagine, so far as you can, becoming fully aware of the fact that his or her action was the causally inevitable result of a plan set into motion before he or she was ever even born, a plan that had no chance of failing. Should you continue to regard him or her as being morally responsible—blameworthy, in this case—for what he or she did? (...)
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  27. Geachianism.Patrick Todd - 2011 - Oxford Studies in Philosophy of Religion 3:222-251.
    The plane was going to crash, but it didn't. Johnny was going to bleed to death, but he didn't. Geach sees here a changing future. In this paper, I develop Geach's primary argument for the (almost universally rejected) thesis that the future is mutable (an argument from the nature of prevention), respond to the most serious objections such a view faces, and consider how Geach's view bears on traditional debates concerning divine foreknowledge and human freedom. As I hope to show, (...)
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  28. A New Approach to Manipulation Arguments.Patrick Todd - 2011 - Philosophical Studies 152 (1):127-133.
    There are several argumentative strategies for advancing the thesis that moral responsibility is incompatible with causal determinism. One prominent such strategy is to argue that agents who meet compatibilist conditions for moral responsibility can nevertheless be subject to responsibility-undermining manipulation. In this paper, I argue that incompatibilists advancing manipulation arguments against compatibilism have been shouldering an unnecessarily heavy dialectical burden. Traditional manipulation arguments present cases in which manipulated agents meet all compatibilist conditions for moral responsibility, but are (allegedly) not responsible (...)
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  29. Teilhard and Other Modern Thinkers on Evolution, Mind, and Matter.Peter B. Todd - 2013 - Teilhard Studies (66):1-22.
    In his The Phenomenon of Man, Pierre Teilhard de Chardin develops concepts of consciousness, the noosphere, and psychosocial evolution. This paper explores Teilhard’s evolutionary concepts as resonant with thinking in psychology and physics. It explores contributions from archetypal depth psychology, quantum physics, and neuroscience to elucidate relationships between mind and matter. Teilhard’s work can be seen as advancing this psychological lineage or psychogenesis. That is, the evolutionary emergence of matter in increasing complexity from sub-atomic particles to the human brain and (...)
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  30. Prepunishment and Explanatory Dependence: A New Argument for Incompatibilism About Foreknowledge and Freedom.Patrick Todd - 2013 - Philosophical Review 122 (4):619-639.
    The most promising way of responding to arguments for the incompatibility of divine foreknowledge and human freedom (in one way or another) invokes a claim about the order of explanation: God knew (or believed) that you would perform a given action because you would, in fact, perform it, and not the other way around. Once we see this result, many suppose, we'll see that divine foreknowledge ultimately poses no threat to human freedom. This essay argues that matters are not so (...)
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  31. Imaginability, Morality, and Fictional Truth: Dissolving the Puzzle of 'Imaginative Resistance'.Cain Samuel Todd - 2009 - Philosophical Studies 143 (2):187-211.
    This paper argues that there is no genuine puzzle of ‘imaginative resistance’. In part 1 of the paper I argue that the imaginability of fictional propositions is relative to a range of different factors including the ‘thickness’ of certain concepts, and certain pre-theoretical and theoretical commitments. I suggest that those holding realist moral commitments may be more susceptible to resistance and inability than those holding non-realist commitments, and that it is such realist commitments that ultimately motivate the problem. However, I (...)
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  32. Self-Awareness in Human and Chimpanzee Infants: What is Measured and What is Meant by the Mark and Mirror Test?Kim A. Bard, Brenda K. Todd, Chris Bernier, Jennifer Love & David A. Leavens - 2006 - Infancy 9 (2):191-219.
  33. Manipulation and Moral Standing: An Argument for Incompatibilism.Patrick Todd - 2012 - Philosophers' Imprint 12.
    A prominent recent strategy for advancing the thesis that moral responsibility is incompatible with causal determinism has been to argue that agents who meet compatibilist conditions for responsibility could nevertheless be subject to certain sorts of deterministic manipulation, so that an agent could meet the compatibilist’s conditions for responsibility, but also be living a life the precise details of which someone else determined that she should live. According to the incompatibilist, however, once we became aware that agents had been manipulated (...)
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  34.  85
    Unmasking the Truth Beneath the Beauty: Why the Supposed Aesthetic Judgements Made in Science May Not Be Aesthetic at All.Cain S. Todd - 2008 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 22 (1):61 – 79.
    In this article I examine the status of putative aesthetic judgements in science and mathematics. I argue that if the judgements at issue are taken to be genuinely aesthetic they can be divided into two types, positing either a disjunction or connection between aesthetic and epistemic criteria in theory/proof assessment. I show that both types of claim face serious difficulties in explaining the purported role of aesthetic judgements in these areas. I claim that the best current explanation of this role, (...)
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  35.  38
    The Visual Perception of 3D Shape.James T. Todd - 2004 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 8 (3):115-121.
  36.  42
    Living in a Dissonant World: Toward an Agonistic Cosmopolitics for Education.Sharon Todd - 2010 - Studies in Philosophy and Education 29 (2):213-228.
  37.  98
    Against Limited Foreknowledge.Patrick Todd - 2014 - Philosophia 42 (2):523-538.
    Theological fatalists contend that if God knows everything, then no human action is free, and that since God does know everything, no human action is free. One reply to such arguments that has become popular recently— a way favored by William Hasker and Peter van Inwagen—agrees that if God knows everything, no human action is free. The distinctive response of these philosophers is simply to say that therefore God does not know everything. On this view, what the fatalist arguments in (...)
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  38.  35
    Fishing for the Right Words: Decision Rules for Human Foraging Behavior in Internal Search Tasks.Andreas Wilke, John M. C. Hutchinson, Peter M. Todd & Uwe Czienskowski - 2009 - Cognitive Science 33 (3):497-529.
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  39. Engaging with Pike: God, Freedom, and Time.John Martin Fischer, Patrick Todd & Neal A. Tognazzini - 2009 - Philosophical Papers 38 (2):247-270.
    Nelson Pike’s article, “Divine Omniscience and Voluntary Action,” is one of the most influential pieces in contemporary Philosophy of Religion. Published over forty years ago, it has elicited many different kinds of replies. We shall set forth some of the main lines of reply to Pike’s article, starting with some of the “early” replies. We then explore some issues that arise from relatively recent work in the philosophy of time; it is fascinating to note that views suggested by recent work (...)
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  40.  28
    The Shape of Athenian Law.D. B. Walters & S. C. Todd - 1997 - Journal of Hellenic Studies 117:239.
    Unlike its predecessors, this systematic survey of the law of Athens is based on explicit discussion of how the subject might be studies, incorporating topics such as the democratic political system and social structure. Technical and legal terms are explained in a comprehensive glossary.
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  41.  48
    Educating Beyond Cultural Diversity: Redrawing the Boundaries of a Democratic Plurality.Sharon Todd - 2011 - Studies in Philosophy and Education 30 (2):101-111.
  42. The Numinous and the Archetypes as Timeless, Cosmic Ordering and Regulating Principles in Evolution.P. B. Todd - 2011 - C. G. Jung Society of Sydney Presentations.
    Psychoanalytic self-psychology as outlined by such depth psychologists as Jung, Fordham, Winnicott and Kohut provide a framework for conceptualizing a relationship of complementarity between psychic and immune defence as well as loss of bodily and self integration in disease. Physicist Erwin Schrödinger’s thesis that the so-called “arrow of time” does not necessarily deal a mortal blow to its creator is reminiscent of the concept of timeless dimensions of the unconscious mind and the Self in Analytical Psychology, manifest for instance, in (...)
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  43.  53
    Mate Choice Turns Cognitive.Geoffrey F. Miller & Peter M. Todd - 1998 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 2 (5):190-198.
  44.  31
    Promoting a Just Education: Dilemmas of Rights, Freedom and Justice.Sharon Todd - 2007 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 39 (6):592–603.
    This paper identifies and addresses some dilemmas to be faced in promoting educational projects concerned with human rights. Part of the difficulty that human rights education initiatives must cope with is the way in which value has been historically conferred upon particular notions such as freedom and justice. I argue here that a just education must grapple head‐on with the conceptual dilemmas that have been inherited and refuse to shy away from the implications of those dilemmas. To do this I (...)
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  45.  92
    Quasi-Realism, Acquaintance, and the Normative Claims of Aesthetic Judgement.Cain Samuel Todd - 2004 - British Journal of Aesthetics 44 (3):277-296.
    My primary aim in this paper is to outline a quasi-realist theory of aesthetic judgement. Robert Hopkins has recently argued against the plausibility of this project because he claims that quasi-realism cannot explain a central component of any expressivist understanding of aesthetic judgements, namely their supposed ‘autonomy’. I argue against Hopkins’s claims by contending that Roger Scruton’s aesthetic attitude theory, centred on his account of the imagination, provides us with the means to develop a plausible quasi-realist account of aesthetic judgement. (...)
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  46. A Problem for Guidance Control.Patrick Todd & Neal A. Tognazzini - 2008 - Philosophical Quarterly 58 (233):685-692.
    Central to Fischer and Ravizza's theory of moral responsibility is the concept of guidance control, which involves two conditions: (1) moderate reasons-responsiveness, and (2) mechanism ownership. We raise a worry for Fischer and Ravizza's account of (1). If an agent acts contrary to reasons which he could not recognize, this should lead us to conclude that he is not morally responsible for his behaviour; but according to Fischer and Ravizza's account, he satisfies the conditions for guidance control and is therefore (...)
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  47.  55
    The Truth About Foreknowledge.Patrick Todd & John Martin Fischer - 2013 - Faith and Philosophy 30 (3):286-301.
    In this paper we critically evaluate Trenton Merricks’s recent attempt to provide a “new” way of defending compatibilism about divine foreknowledge and human freedom. We take issue with Merricks’s claim that his approach is fundamentally different from Ockhamism. We also seek to highlight the implausibility of Merricks’s rejection of the assumption of the fixity of the past, and we also develop a critique of the Merricks’s crucial notion of “dependence.”.
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  48.  19
    Learning and Connectionist Representations.David E. Rumelhart & Peter M. Todd - 1993 - In David E. Meyer & Sylvan Kornblum (eds.), Attention and Performance Xiv. MIT Press. pp. 3--30.
  49.  49
    Public Relations Leadership in Corporate Social Responsibility.Suzanne Benn, Lindi Renier Todd & Jannet Pendleton - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 96 (3):403 - 423.
    Many of the negative connotations of corporate social responsibility (CSR) are linked to its perceived role as a public relations exercise. Following on calls for more positive engagement by public relations professionals in organisational strategic planning and given the rapidly increasing interest in CSR as a business strategy, this article addresses the question of how the theory and practice of public relations can provide direction and support for CSR. To this end, this article explores leadership styles and motivations of a (...)
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  50.  46
    Introduction: Levinas and Education: The Question of Implication.Sharon Todd - 2003 - Studies in Philosophy and Education 22 (1):1-4.
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