Results for 'Katie Steele'

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  1. Climate Models, Calibration, and Confirmation.Katie Steele & Charlotte Werndl - 2013 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 64 (3):609-635.
    We argue that concerns about double-counting—using the same evidence both to calibrate or tune climate models and also to confirm or verify that the models are adequate—deserve more careful scrutiny in climate modelling circles. It is widely held that double-counting is bad and that separate data must be used for calibration and confirmation. We show that this is far from obviously true, and that climate scientists may be confusing their targets. Our analysis turns on a Bayesian/relative-likelihood approach to incremental confirmation. (...)
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  2.  58
    The Scientist Qua Policy Advisor Makes Value Judgments.Katie Siobhan Steele - 2012 - Philosophy of Science 79 (5):893-904.
    Richard Rudner famously argues that the communication of scientific advice to policy makers involves ethical value judgments. His argument has, however, been rightly criticized. This article revives Rudner’s conclusion, by strengthening both his lines of argument: we generalize his initial assumption regarding the form in which scientists must communicate their results and complete his ‘backup’ argument by appealing to the difference between private and public decisions. Our conclusion that science advisors must, for deep-seated pragmatic reasons, make value judgments is further (...)
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  3. Should Subjective Probabilities Be Sharp?Seamus Bradley & Katie Siobhan Steele - unknown
    There has been much recent interest in imprecise probabilities, models of belief that allow unsharp or fuzzy credence. There have also been some influential criticisms of this position. Here we argue, chiefly against Elga, that subjective probabilities need not be sharp. The key question is whether the imprecise probabilist can make reasonable sequences of decisions. We argue that she can. We outline Elga's argument and clarify the assumptions he makes and the principles of rationality he is implicitly committed to. We (...)
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  4. Can Free Evidence Be Bad? Value of Information for the Imprecise Probabilist.Seamus Bradley & Katie Steele - unknown
    This paper considers a puzzling conflict between two positions that are each compelling: it is irrational for an agent to pay to avoid `free' evidence before making a decision, and rational agents may have imprecise beliefs and/or desires. Indeed, we show that Good's theorem concerning the invariable choice-worthiness of free evidence does not generalise to the imprecise realm, given the plausible existing decision theories for handling imprecision. A key ingredient in the analysis, and a potential source of controversy, is the (...)
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  5. Modelling the Moral Dimension of Decisions.Mark Colyvan, Damian Cox & Katie Steele - 2010 - Noûs 44 (3):503-529.
    In this paper we explore the connections between ethics and decision theory. In particular, we consider the question of whether decision theory carries with it a bias towards consequentialist ethical theories. We argue that there are plausible versions of the other ethical theories that can be accommodated by “standard” decision theory, but there are also variations of these ethical theories that are less easily accommodated. So while “standard” decision theory is not exclusively consequentialist, it is not necessarily ethically neutral. Moreover, (...)
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  6. Environmental Ethics and Decision Theory: Fellow Travellers or Bitter Enemies?Mark Colyvan & Katie Steele - 2011 - In Kevin deLaplante, Bryson Brown & Kent Peacock (eds.), Philosophy of Ecology. Elsevier Science Publishers. pp. 285--300.
    On the face of it, ethics and decision theory give quite different advice about what the best course of action is in a given situation. In this paper we examine this alleged conflict in the realm of environmental decision-making. We focus on a couple of places where ethics and decision theory might be thought to be offering conflicting advice: environmental triage and carbon trading. We argue that the conflict can be seen as conflicts about other things (like appropriate temporal scales (...)
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  7.  74
    The Problem of Evaluating Automated Large-Scale Evidence Aggregators.Nicolas Wüthrich & Katie Steele - forthcoming - Synthese:1-28.
    In the biomedical context, policy makers face a large amount of potentially discordant evidence from different sources. This prompts the question of how this evidence should be aggregated in the interests of best-informed policy recommendations. The starting point of our discussion is Hunter and Williams’ recent work on an automated aggregation method for medical evidence. Our negative claim is that it is far from clear what the relevant criteria for evaluating an evidence aggregator of this sort are. What is the (...)
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  8. Making Climate Decisions.Richard Bradley & Katie Steele - unknown
    Many fine-grained decisions concerning climate change involve significant, even severe, uncertainty. Here, we focus on modelling the decisions of single agents, whether individual persons or groups perceived as corporate entities. We offer a taxonomy of the sources and kinds of uncertainty that arise in framing these decision problems, as well as strategies for making a choice in spite of uncertainty. The aim is to facilitate a more transparent and structured treatment of uncertainty in climate decision making.
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  9.  34
    Right Decisions or Happy Decision-Makers?Katie Steele, Helen M. Regan, Mark Colyvan & Mark A. Burgman - 2007 - Social Epistemology 21 (4):349 – 368.
    Group decisions raise a number of substantial philosophical and methodological issues. We focus on the goal of the group decision exercise itself. We ask: What should be counted as a good group decision-making result? The right decision might not be accessible to, or please, any of the group members. Conversely, a popular decision can fail to be the correct decision. In this paper we discuss what it means for a decision to be "right" and what components are required in a (...)
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  10.  39
    Uncertainty, Learning, and the “Problem” of Dilation.Seamus Bradley & Katie Siobhan Steele - 2013 - Erkenntnis 79 (6):1287-1303.
    Imprecise probabilism—which holds that rational belief/credence is permissibly represented by a set of probability functions—apparently suffers from a problem known as dilation. We explore whether this problem can be avoided or mitigated by one of the following strategies: (a) modifying the rule by which the credal state is updated, (b) restricting the domain of reasonable credal states to those that preclude dilation.
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  11. Decision Theory.Katie Steele & H. Orri Stefánsson - 2015 - In Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  12.  60
    What Are the Minimal Requirements of Rational Choice? Arguments From the Sequential-Decision Setting.Katie Siobhan Steele - 2010 - Theory and Decision 68 (4):463-487.
    There are at least two plausible generalisations of subjective expected utility (SEU) theory: cumulative prospect theory (which relaxes the independence axiom) and Levi’s decision theory (which relaxes at least ordering). These theories call for a re-assessment of the minimal requirements of rational choice. Here, I consider how an analysis of sequential decision making contributes to this assessment. I criticise Hammond’s (Economica 44(176):337–350, 1977; Econ Philos 4:292–297, 1988a; Risk, decision and rationality, 1988b; Theory Decis 25:25–78, 1988c) ‘consequentialist’ argument for the SEU (...)
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  13.  39
    Testimony as Evidence: More Problems for Linear Pooling. [REVIEW]Katie Steele - 2012 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 41 (6):983-999.
    This paper considers a special case of belief updating—when an agent learns testimonial data, or in other words, the beliefs of others on some issue. The interest in this case is twofold: (1) the linear averaging method for updating on testimony is somewhat popular in epistemology circles, and it is important to assess its normative acceptability, and (2) this facilitates a more general investigation of what it means/requires for an updating method to have a suitable Bayesian representation (taken here as (...)
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  14. Model-Selection Theory: The Need for a More Nuanced Picture of Use-Novelty and Double-Counting.Katie Steele & Charlotte Werndl - 2016 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science:axw024.
    This article argues that common intuitions regarding (a) the specialness of ‘use-novel’ data for confirmation and (b) that this specialness implies the ‘no-double-counting rule’, which says that data used in ‘constructing’ (calibrating) a model cannot also play a role in confirming the model’s predictions, are too crude. The intuitions in question are pertinent in all the sciences, but we appeal to a climate science case study to illustrate what is at stake. Our strategy is to analyse the intuitive claims in (...)
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  15.  49
    Climate Models, Confirmation and Calibration.Charlotte Werndl & Katie Siobhan Steele - 2013 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 64 (3).
    We argue that concerns about double-counting -- using the same evidence both to calibrate or tune climate models and also to confirm or verify that the models are adequate --deserve more careful scrutiny in climate modelling circles. It is widely held that double-counting is bad and that separate data must be used for calibration and confirmation. We show that this is far from obviously true, and that climate scientists may be confusing their targets. Our analysis turns on a Bayesian/relative-likelihood approach (...)
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  16.  33
    Persistent Experimenters, Stopping Rules, and Statistical Inference.Katie Steele - 2013 - Erkenntnis 78 (4):937-961.
    This paper considers a key point of contention between classical and Bayesian statistics that is brought to the fore when examining so-called ‘persistent experimenters’—the issue of stopping rules, or more accurately, outcome spaces, and their influence on statistical analysis. First, a working definition of classical and Bayesian statistical tests is given, which makes clear that (1) once an experimental outcome is recorded, other possible outcomes matter only for classical inference, and (2) full outcome spaces are nevertheless relevant to both the (...)
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  17. Choice Models.Katie Siobhan Steele - unknown
  18.  74
    Distinguishing Indeterminate Belief From “Risk-Averse” Preferences.Katie Steele - 2007 - Synthese 158 (2):189-205.
    I focus my discussion on the well-known Ellsberg paradox. I find good normative reasons for incorporating non-precise belief, as represented by sets of probabilities, in an Ellsberg decision model. This amounts to forgoing the completeness axiom of expected utility theory. Provided that probability sets are interpreted as genuinely indeterminate belief, such a model can moreover make the “Ellsberg choices” rationally permissible. Without some further element to the story, however, the model does not explain how an agent may come to have (...)
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  19.  28
    Assessing Ethical Trade-Offs in Ecological Field Studies.Kirsten M. Parris, Sarah C. McCall, Michael A. McCarthy, Ben A. Minteer, Katie Steele, Sarah Bekessy & Fabien Medvecky - 2010 - Journal of Applied Ecology 47 (1):227-234.
    Summary 1. Ecologists and conservation biologists consider many issues when designing a field study, such as the expected value of the data, the interests of the study species, the welfare of individual organisms and the cost of the project. These different issues or values often conflict; however, neither animal ethics nor environmental ethics provides practical guidance on how to assess trade-offs between them. -/- 2. We developed a decision framework for considering trade-offs between values in ecological research, drawing on the (...)
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  20.  41
    Daniel Steel Philosophy and the Precautionary Principle: Science, Evidence, and Environmental Policy.Camilla Colombo & Katie Steele - 2016 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 67 (4):1195-1200.
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  21.  34
    The Diversity of Model Tuning Practices in Climate Science.Charlotte Werndl & Katie Steele - 2016 - Philosophy of Science 83 (5):113-114.
    Many examples of calibration in climate science raise no alarms regarding model reliability. We examine one example and show that, in employing Classical Hypothesis-testing, it involves calibrating a base model against data that is also used to confirm the model. This is counter to the "intuitive position". We argue, however, that aspects of the intuitive position are upheld by some methods, in particular, the general Cross-validation method. How Cross-validation relates to other prominent Classical methods such as the Akaike Information Criterion (...)
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  22.  28
    Model Tuning in Engineering: Uncovering the Logic.Katie Steele & Charlotte Werndl - 2015 - Journal of Strain Analysis for Engineering Design 51 (1):63-71.
    In engineering, as in other scientific fields, researchers seek to confirm their models with real-world data. It is common practice to assess models in terms of the distance between the model outputs and the corresponding experimental observations. An important question that arises is whether the model should then be ‘tuned’, in the sense of estimating the values of free parameters to get a better fit with the data, and furthermore whether the tuned model can be confirmed with the same data (...)
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  23.  19
    Challenges to Decision Theory.Katie Steele - 2010 - Metascience 19 (3):449-451.
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  24.  35
    Preference and Information , Dan Egonsson. Ashgate, 2007, XI+163 Pp. [REVIEW]Katie Steele - 2009 - Economics and Philosophy 25 (2):236-242.
  25.  13
    Uses and Misuses of Multicriteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) in Environmental Decision Making.Katie Siobhan Steele, Yohay Carmel, Jean Cross & Chris Wilcox - unknown
    We focus on a class of multicriteria methods that are commonly used in environmental decision making--those that employ the weighted linear average algorithm (and this includes the popular analytic hierarchy process (AHP)). While we do not doubt the potential benefits of using formal decision methods of this type, we draw attention to the consequences of not using them well. In particular, we highlight a property of these methods that should not be overlooked when they are applied in environmental and wider (...)
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  26.  17
    Review of Husain Sarkar, Group Rationality in Scientific Research[REVIEW]Katie Steele - 2007 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2007 (10).
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  27.  3
    Review of Preference and Information. [REVIEW]Katie Steele - 2009 - Economics and Philosophy 25 (2):236-242.
  28.  2
    No Title Available: Reviews.Katie Steele - 2009 - Economics and Philosophy 25 (2):236-242.
  29. Bayesians Care About Stopping Rules Too.Katie Siobhan Steele - unknown
     
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  30.  22
    Elemental Man: Contours of Christ.Peter Steele - 2011 - The Australasian Catholic Record 88 (3):337.
    Steele, Peter I do not know anybody who believes that human beings are made, literally, of air, fire, earth and water. But that, say, either poets or theologians should frame their understanding of Christ by invoking these or similar terms is not necessarily due either to nostalgia or to sloth. When, for example, Aquinas speaks of the Incarnation as the Word's arriving among us 'like an aqueduct from Paradise', this is not because he was having a slow day among (...)
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  31.  12
    Beyond Waco: Reflections and Guidelines.Jay Black & Bob Steele - 1993 - Journal of Mass Media Ethics 8 (4):239 – 245.
    Following the Texas standoff in 1993 between Federal agents and the Branch Davidians, the Society of Professional Journalists appointed a Task Force, chaired by Bob Steele and Jay Black to examine media conduct during that period and to draw lessons for such situations in the future. The following is the final section of a 27-page report that the Task Force submitted to the Society. It addressed a dozen issues arising from the event and contains reflections and guidelines from the (...)
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  32. Hayek's Theory of Cultural Group Selection.David Ramsay Steele - 1987 - Journal of Libertarian Studies 8 (2):171-95.
     
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  33.  8
    Are Ethics Training Programs Improving? A Meta-Analytic Review of Past and Present Ethics Instruction in the Sciences.Logan L. Watts, Kelsey E. Medeiros, Tyler J. Mulhearn, Logan M. Steele, Shane Connelly & Michael D. Mumford - 2017 - Ethics and Behavior 27 (5):351-384.
    Given the growing public concern and attention placed on cases of research misconduct, government agencies and research institutions have increased their efforts to develop and improve ethics education programs for scientists. The present study sought to assess the impact of these increased efforts by sampling empirical studies published since the year 2000. Studies published prior to 2000 examined in other meta-analytic work were also included to provide a baseline for assessing gains in ethics training effectiveness over time. In total, this (...)
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  34.  5
    Are Ethics Training Programs Improving? A Meta-Analytic Review of Past and Present Ethics Instruction in the Sciences.Logan L. Watts, Kelsey E. Medeiros, Tyler J. Mulhearn, Logan M. Steele, Shane Connelly & Michael D. Mumford - 2017 - Ethics and Behavior 27 (5):351-384.
    Given the growing public concern and attention placed on cases of research misconduct, government agencies and research institutions have increased their efforts to develop and improve ethics education programs for scientists. The present study sought to assess the impact of these increased efforts by sampling empirical studies published since the year 2000. Studies published prior to 2000 examined in other meta-analytic work were also included to provide a baseline for assessing gains in ethics training effectiveness over time. In total, this (...)
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  35. Pathogen Prevalence, Group Bias, and Collectivism in the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample.Elizabeth Cashdan & Matthew Steele - 2013 - Human Nature 24 (1):59-75.
    It has been argued that people in areas with high pathogen loads will be more likely to avoid outsiders, to be biased in favor of in-groups, and to hold collectivist and conformist values. Cross-national studies have supported these predictions. In this paper we provide new pathogen codes for the 186 cultures of the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample and use them, together with existing pathogen and ethnographic data, to try to replicate these cross-national findings. In support of the theory, we found that (...)
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  36.  6
    Concluding Commentary: Schadenfreude, Gluckschmerz, Jealousy, and Hate—What Are the Emotions?Ira J. Roseman & Amanda K. Steele - 2018 - Emotion Review 10 (4):327-340.
    Schadenfreude, gluckschmerz, jealousy, and hate are distinctive emotional phenomena, understudied and deserving of increased attention. The authors of this special section have admirably synthesized large literatures, describing major characteristics, eliciting conditions, and functions. We discuss the contributions of each article as well as the issues they raise for theories of emotions and some remaining questions, and suggest ways in which these might be profitably addressed.
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  37.  3
    Modeling the Instructional Effectiveness of Responsible Conduct of Research Education: A Meta-Analytic Path-Analysis.Logan L. Watts, Tyler J. Mulhearn, Kelsey E. Medeiros, Logan M. Steele, Shane Connelly & Michael D. Mumford - 2017 - Ethics and Behavior 27 (8):632-650.
    Predictive modeling in education draws on data from past courses to forecast the effectiveness of future courses. The present effort sought to identify such a model of instructional effectiveness in scientific ethics. Drawing on data from 235 courses in the responsible conduct of research, structural equation modeling techniques were used to test a predictive model of RCR course effectiveness. Fit statistics indicated the model fit the data well, with the instructional characteristics included in the model explaining approximately 85% of the (...)
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  38.  15
    Evaluating Ethics Education Programs: A Multilevel Approach.Michael D. Mumford, Logan Steele & Logan L. Watts - 2015 - Ethics and Behavior 25 (1):37-60.
    Although education in the responsible conduct of research is considered necessary, evidence bearing on the effectiveness of these programs in improving research ethics has indicated that, although some programs are successful, many fail. Accordingly, there is a need for systematic evaluation of ethics education programs. In the present effort, we examine procedures for evaluation of ethics education programs from a multilevel perspective: examining both within-program evaluation and cross-program evaluation. With regard to within-program evaluation, we note requisite designs and measures for (...)
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  39.  10
    Review of Instructional Approaches in Ethics Education. [REVIEW]Tyler J. Mulhearn, Logan M. Steele, Logan L. Watts, Kelsey E. Medeiros, Michael D. Mumford & Shane Connelly - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (3):883-912.
    Increased investment in ethics education has prompted a variety of instructional objectives and frameworks. Yet, no systematic procedure to classify these varying instructional approaches has been attempted. In the present study, a quantitative clustering procedure was conducted to derive a typology of instruction in ethics education. In total, 330 ethics training programs were included in the cluster analysis. The training programs were appraised with respect to four instructional categories including instructional content, processes, delivery methods, and activities. Eight instructional approaches were (...)
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  40.  16
    Mental Models and Ethical Decision Making: The Mediating Role of Sensemaking.Zhanna Bagdasarov, James F. Johnson, Alexandra E. MacDougall, Logan M. Steele, Shane Connelly & Michael D. Mumford - 2016 - Journal of Business Ethics 138 (1):133-144.
    The relationship between mental models and ethical decision making, along with the mechanisms through which mental models affect EDM, are not well understood. Using the sensemaking approach to EDM, we empirically tested the relationship of mental models to EDM. Participants were asked to depict their mental models in response to an ethics case to reveal their understanding of the ethical dilemma, and then provide a response, along with a rationale, to a different ethical problem. Findings indicated that complexity of respondents’ (...)
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  41.  3
    Sex Differences in Using Spatial and Verbal Abilities Influence Route Learning Performance in a Virtual Environment: A Comparison of 6- to 12-Year Old Boys and Girls. [REVIEW]Edward C. Merrill, Yingying Yang, Beverly Roskos & Sara Steele - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
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  42.  7
    To Whistleblow or Not to Whistleblow: Affective and Cognitive Differences in Reporting Peers and Advisors.Tristan McIntosh, Cory Higgs, Megan Turner, Paul Partlow, Logan Steele, Alexandra E. MacDougall, Shane Connelly & Michael D. Mumford - 2019 - Science and Engineering Ethics 25 (1):171-210.
    Traditional whistleblowing theories have purported that whistleblowers engage in a rational process in determining whether or not to blow the whistle on misconduct. However, stressors inherent to whistleblowing often impede rational thinking and act as a barrier to effective whistleblowing. The negative impact of these stressors on whistleblowing may be made worse depending on who engages in the misconduct: a peer or advisor. In the present study, participants are presented with an ethical scenario where either a peer or advisor engages (...)
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  43.  45
    Predictivism and Old Evidence: A Critical Look at Climate Model Tuning.Mathias Frisch - 2015 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 5 (2):171-190.
    Many climate scientists have made claims that may suggest that evidence used in tuning or calibrating a climate model cannot be used to evaluate the model. By contrast, the philosophers Katie Steele and Charlotte Werndl have argued that, at least within the context of Bayesian confirmation theory, tuning is simply an instance of hypothesis testing. In this paper I argue for a weak predictivism and in support of a nuanced reading of climate scientists’ concerns about tuning: there are (...)
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  44.  8
    Kinyras: The Divine Lyre by John C. Franklin.Philippa M. Steele - 2018 - American Journal of Philology 139 (4):711-715.
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  45. From Marx to Mises Post-Capitalist Society and the Challenge of Economic Calculation.David Ramsay Steele - 1992
     
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  46.  4
    What is Working, What is Not, and What We Need to Know: A Meta-Analytic Review of Business Ethics Instruction.Shane Connelly, Michael Mumford, Logan Steele, Tyler Mulhearn, Logan Watts & Kelsey Medeiros - 2017 - Journal of Academic Ethics 15 (3):245-275.
    Requirements for business ethics education and organizational ethics trainings mark an important step in encouraging ethical behavior among business students and professionals. However, the lack of specificity in these guidelines as to how, what, and where business ethics should be taught has led to stark differences in approaches and content. The present effort uses meta-analytic procedures to examine the effectiveness of current approaches across organizational ethics trainings and business school courses. to provide practical suggestions for business ethics interventions and research. (...)
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  47.  18
    A Comparison of the Effects of Ethics Training on International and US Students.Logan M. Steele, James F. Johnson, Logan L. Watts, Alexandra E. MacDougall, Michael D. Mumford, Shane Connelly & T. H. Lee Williams - 2016 - Science and Engineering Ethics 22 (4):1217-1244.
    As scientific and engineering efforts become increasingly global in nature, the need to understand differences in perceptions of research ethics issues across countries and cultures is imperative. However, investigations into the connection between nationality and ethical decision-making in the sciences have largely generated mixed results. In Study 1 of this paper, a measure of biases and compensatory strategies that could influence ethical decisions was administered. Results from this study indicated that graduate students from the United States and international graduate students (...)
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  48. For a Radical Higher Education: After Postmodernism.Richard Taylor, Jean Barr & Tom Steele - 2004 - British Journal of Educational Studies 52 (2):210-213.
     
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  49.  75
    Stereotypes and the Fragility of Academic Competence, Motivation, and Self-Concept.Joshua Aronson & Claude M. Steele - 2005 - In Andrew J. Elliot & Carol S. Dweck (eds.), Handbook of Competence and Motivation. The Guilford Press. pp. 436--456.
  50.  5
    Reflections on Ancestral Haplotypes: Medical Genomics, Evolution, and Human Individuality.Edward J. Steele - 2014 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 57 (2):179-197.
    Although I am a molecular immunologist from another area of that wide discipline, for many years I have had a deep fascination with the whole topic of ancestral haplotypes. After recently reading an interesting article in this journal, “Reflections on the History and Ethics of the Proper Attribution and Misappropriation of Merit” , I was impelled to act and submit this essay for publication. The title of Gans’s article points to some of my own motivations. Gans outlines how many important (...)
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