El presente artículo discute la obra pseudónima de Kierkegaard “El reflejo de lo trágico antiguo en lo trágico moderno”. El joven esteta A traza una distinción entre la “culpa antigua” y la “culpa moderna”. A utiliza esta distinción para formular una potente crítica a la ética moderna. No obstante, dicha polémica contra los conceptos éticos de la Modernidad no implican un retorno a la moralidad trágica antigua.
El presente artículo discute los conceptos de «autoconservación» y «trabajo» en Lo que aprendemos de los lirios del campo y las aves del cielo. El análisis del discurso edificante escrito por Kierkegaard en 1847 permite definir la perspectiva que el danés asume ante el proyecto filosófico de la Modernidad. A partir de una crítica a las concepciones estéticas y éticas de la vida, el autor edificante propone un modelo de existencia religiosa que combina la autoconservación y la dependencia.
Actualmente, Las obras del amor es uno de los libros más leídos por los especialistas en Kierkegaard. Desde que Theodor Adorno publicó sus críticas a la teoría kierkegaardiana del amor, la interpretación habitual se ha centrado en el sujeto del amor (amante cristiano) y ha olvidado el objeto del amor (prójimo). Considero que es importante pensar una nueva cuestión: ¿cómo experimenta el prójimo el amor cristiano? Para responder esta pregunta, este artículo retoma conceptos centrales de la teoría del reconocimiento de (...) Honneth. Intentaré demostrar dos hipótesis: i) desde el punto de vista humano, la concepción kierkegaardiana del amor cristiano no es una forma superior de reconocimiento, y ii) el Singular solo necesita a Dios para desarrollar su sí mismo. Nowadays, Works of Love is one of the most read books by Kierkegaard´s scholars. Since Theodor Adorno published his critics to Kierkegaard´s theory of love, the usual readings has focused on the subject of love (Christian lover) and has forgotten the object of love (neighbor). I consider that is important to think a new question: how does the neighbor experiment Christian love? To answer this question, this paper revisits mains concepts of Honneth´s theory of recognition. I will try to show two hypothesis: i) from human point of view, Kierkegaard`s conception of Christian love is not a superior form of recognition, and ii) the Singular only needs God to develop his self. (shrink)
El presente artículo explora la noción de “trabajo” en O lo uno o lo otro de Kierkegaard. Este libro contiene una discusión entre dos concepciones o modos de vida: la ética y la estética. El concepto de trabajo recibe una atención explícita en la primera y la segunda parte del libro. El propósito principal del discurso ético es superar la desesperación, que es concebida como una comprensión incorrecta del yo y su relación con los otros y el mundo. En este (...) sentido, el trabajo se piensa como un modo de elegirse a sí mismo y evitar la alienación. (shrink)
O lo uno o lo otro, la primera obra pseudónima de Kierkegaard, comienza con una exposición de la visión estética de la vida, seguida por la crítica ética de la concepción estética de la existencia. La categoría de «desesperación» es el concepto central en el rechazo de la estética: la afirmación básica de O lo uno o lo otro II es que la vida estética es desesperación, y la vida ética ofrece un escape de la desesperación. Este artículo se propone (...) presentar la primera conceptualización kierkegaardeana de la desesperación como una teoría de la alienación. (shrink)
The relationship between the first and second parts of The Deadly Disease is problematic. The standard reading says that the first part develops an anthropological interpretation of the self and the second a theological interpretation of the self. But this interpretation collides with the initial definition of the self as a derivative relationship that relates to the power that has placed it. This article aims to provide an answer to this question. Our thesis is that the solution to this difficulty (...) is the notion of "Religiosity A." Kierkegaard distinguishes two types of religiosity: one of them falls within the sphere of immanence, the other within the sphere of transcendence. "Religiosity A" maintains the ethical assumption that the eternal is humanly accessible, except that, while in the case of ethics, self-choice and fulfillment of duties provide access to it. In the case of "Religiosity A," the relationship with the eternal is established through self-denial and is expressed in categories of interiority. "Religiosity A" is the universal necessary condition for any particular religion and, as such, does not depend on the revelation present in the sacred scriptures of any particular religion. First, we will summarize the three central concepts of "Religiosity A": renunciation, suffering, and guilt awareness. Secondly, we will try to show that the development of the desperate consciousness of The Deadly Disease corresponds to the existential movement of "Religiosity A.". (shrink)
A filosofia de Kierkegaard e a psicologia de Freud entendem ao homem como um ser que dialoga consigo mesmo. Neste artigo desenvolvemos esta ideia. Kierkegaard e Freud pensam que o sujeito moderno é incapaz de compreender corretamente a si mesmo. O homem é uma auto-relação e esta está rompida. O psicólogo kierkegaardiano e o psicólogo freudiano tentam recompor esta auto-relação.
A considerable number of books and papers have analyzed normative concepts using new techniques developed by logicians; however, few have bridged the gap between the English legal culture and the Continental tradition in legal philosophy. This book addresses this issue by offering an introductory study on the many possibilities that logical analysis offers the study of legal systems. The volume is divided into two sections: the first covers the basic aspects of classical and deontic logic and its connections, advancing an (...) explanation of the most important topics of the discipline by comparing different systems of deontic logic and exploring some of the most important paradoxes in its domain. The second section deals with the role of logic in the analysis of legal systems by discussing in what sense deontic logic and the logic of norm-propositions are useful tools for a proper understanding of the systematic structure of law. (shrink)
En 1968 Raquel Carson comenzaba una revolución en el pensamiento, quizá una de las de mayor peso en la actualidad. En su libro "La primavera silenciosa" acusaba del deterioro ambiental al poder ilimitado del ser humano. La creencia surgida en la modernidad de que todo lo que el hombre decidía era en sí mismo lo mejor por haber sido fruto de una voluntad libérrima, daba primacía y legitimidad absoluta a su acción sobre la naturaleza. Surgieron con gran fuerza numerosos grupos (...) ecologistas que adoptaron un pensamiento que responde al nombre de "ecología profunda" o "Deep Ecology" descrito por primera vez por Arme Naess en un artículo publicado por la revista Inquiry y titulado "The Shallow and the Deep, Long Range Ecology Movement". Los principios que proponía este movimiento (Naess 1984) pueden ser resumidos en ocho grandes puntos: 1) la vida de los seres no humanos es un valor en sí: 2) la riqueza y la diversidad de estas formas de vida son también valores en sí; 3) los seres humanos no pueden intervenir de manera destructiva en la vida; 4) a este respecto, la intervención humana actual es eminentemente excesiva; 5) por consiguiente, las reglas de juego deben ser radicalmente modificadas; 6) esta modificación radical debe hacerse tanto a nivel de las estructuras económicas como de las estructuras ideológicas y culturales; 7) a nivel ideológico, el cambio principal consiste en apreciar más la calidad de la vida que el goce de los bienes materiales; 8) las personas que acepten estos principios tienen la obligación de contribuir, directa o indirectamente a la realización de los cambios fundamentales que aquellos implican. (shrink)
The Purpose in Life Test is a measure of purpose in life widely used in many cultures and countries; however, cross-cultural assessments are scarce. The present study aimed to evaluate the cross-cultural measurement invariance of the PIL in the general population of seven Latin American countries. A total of 4306 people participated, selected by non-probabilistic convenience sampling, where Uruguay has the highest mean age ; while Ecuador has the lowest mean age. Furthermore, in each country, there is a higher proportion (...) of women than men. Using Multi-Group Confirmatory Factor Analysis, the factorial structure does not show evidence of invariance among the included countries. However, based on the Multi-Group Factor Analysis Alignment, there is evidence that a three-dimensional structure of the PIL is the same in the participating countries. Results based on item response theory indicate that most PIL items can significantly differentiate responses according to the level of life purpose. In addition, people with low life purpose will tend to choose the lower response alternatives on the PIL; while people with higher life purpose will choose higher response alternatives. The findings indicate that the PIL has the potential to increase knowledge about how people conceive and experience their purpose in life in different countries. (shrink)
En las siguientes páginas se traduce a una Iemigua moderna el texto astrológico Selenodromia dc David y Salomón. Este texto constituye un ejemplo de tín género astrológico llamado Lunorium y de su adopción dentro de un ambiente judío de lengua griega. La traducción del texto está precedida por una breve introducción en la que se estudiam cuestiones referentes a la cronología, origen y lengua del texto, así como la estructura del mismo.
The article develops the different meanings of the Simondonian idea of the transindividual, reconstructs the different interpretations that have been made about it, and considers its potentiality to think contemporary phenomena. For this, first, it points out the uses of the term transindividual before Simondon’s conceptualization of it. Second, it analyzes the definitions of the concept that appear in his doctoral theses of 1958 and distinguishes his different senses. Third, it reconstructs the contemporary debate about the transindividual and defines three (...) moments. Finally, it concludes by reflecting on the philosophical and epistemological potentiality of the idea of the transindividual to think about complex processes marked by the association of technological, psychosocial, and ethical-political dimensions. (shrink)
This article questions Balibar’s claim that Simondon’s concept of the transindividual does not fulfil all the requirements for a materialist ‘philosophical anthropology’. In fact, we demonstrate that Simondon’s philosophy of individuation, and notably his concept of the transindividual, can be, as it were, included in a genealogy of aleatory materialism. Simondon’s philosophy of individuation is indeed a philosophy of the transindividual insofar as it involves the constant revision of the different historical forms taken by social relations in the coevolution of (...) human beings and their techno-social and natural milieu. Simondon’s way of conceiving anthropogenesis as an open and ‘metastable’ field in which individuals and processes relate to each other maintaining their own knowledge in motion, marks, in our view, a materialist style of thinking. Against this background we analyse Simondon’s overcoming of the dichotomy between the individual and society through a ‘double rejection’, we sketch his theory of a ‘double source’ for social relations, and we explain in what sense, from his perspective, the transindividual ‘can be said in many ways’. (shrink)
Informed consent is a perennial topic in bioethics. It has given the field a place in clinical practice and the law and is often the starting point for introductory instruction in medical ethics. One would think that nearly everything has been said and done on this well-worn topic.
As physicians encounter an increasingly diverse patient population, socioeconomic circumstances, religious values and cultural practices may present barriers to the delivery of quality care. Increasing cultural competence is often cited as a way to reduce healthcare disparities arising from value and cultural differences between patients and providers. Cultural competence entails not only a knowledge base of cultural practices of disparate patient populations, but also an attitude of adapting one's practice style to meet patient needs and values. Gender roles, relationship dynamics (...) and boundaries are culture specific, and are frequently shaped by religious teachings. Consequently, religion may be conceptualised as a cultural repertoire, or dynamic tool-kit, by which members of a faith adapt and negotiate their identity in multicultural societies. The manner in which Islamic beliefs and values inform Muslim healthcare behaviours is relatively under-investigated. In an effort to explore the impact of Islam on the relationship between patients and providers, we present an Islamic bioethical perspective on cross-gender relations in the patient-doctor relationship. We will begin with a clinical scenario highlighting three areas of gender interaction that bear clinical relevance: dress code, seclusion of members of the opposite sex and physical contact. Next, we provide a brief overview of the foundations of Islamic law and ethical deliberation and then proceed to develop ethicolegal guidelines pertaining to gender relations within the medical context. At the end of this reflection, we offer some practice recommendations that are attuned to the cultural sensitivities of Muslim patient populations. (shrink)
Which is the best icon of philosophical activity? The Spanish philosopher Garcia Morente analyses three sculptures: Le penseur by Rodin, Il pensieroso by Michelangelo and a sculpture known as El Doncel de Siguenza, in the cathedral of this Castilian town. Morente asserts that the latest reflects better than anyone else the nature of philosophy. In this paper the Morente’s view is rejected and another two ways of representing the philosophical activity are suggested: two ancient paintings that represent more properly the (...) philosophical labour, understood as an unending Socratic dialogue. (shrink)
Background The globalization of medical science carries for doctors worldwide a correlative duty to deepen their understanding of patients' cultural contexts and religious backgrounds, in order to satisfy each as a unique individual. To become better informed, practitioners may turn to MedLine, but it is unclear whether the information found there is an accurate representation of culture and religion. To test MedLine's representation of this field, we chose the topic of death and dying in the three major monotheistic religions. Methods (...) We searched MedLine using PubMed in order to retrieve and thematically analyze full-length scholarly journal papers or case reports dealing with religious traditions and end-of-life care. Our search consisted of a string of words that included the most common denominations of the three religions, the standard heading terms used by the National Reference Center for Bioethics Literature (NRCBL), and the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) used by the National Library of Medicine. Eligible articles were limited to English-language papers with an abstract. Results We found that while a bibliographic search in MedLine on this topic produced instant results and some valuable literature, the aggregate reflected a selection bias. American writers were over-represented given the global prevalence of these religious traditions. Denominationally affiliated authors predominated in representing the Christian traditions. The Islamic tradition was under-represented. Conclusion MedLine's capability to identify the most current, reliable and accurate information about purely scientific topics should not be assumed to be the same case when considering the interface of religion, culture and end-of-life care. (shrink)
Euler's contributions to differential equations are so comprehensive and rigorous that any contemporary textbook on the subject can be regarded as a copy of Euler's Institutionum Calculi Integralis. Of course, Euler's work is an improvement of that of Leibniz, the Bernoullis, Newton and so many others before them, but still it's so outstanding that will be used in this paper as a reference to account for every previous or subsequent development in ODEs. Maybe Euler did not discovered differential equations, but (...) he did not discovered less differential equations than Newton and Leibniz had discovered differential calculus a few decades before. (shrink)
The article puts G. Simondon’s work in perspective on three axes: its place within what A. Badiou called the“French philosophical moment”, the relationship between Simondonian concepts and some currents ofthought today and, finally, the way in which these notions are intertwined within the framework of the general theoryof individuation and the technics of the French philosopher. These three axes refer to the need to elaborate a philosophythat is contemporary with the questions posed by its time. According to our hypothesis, Simondon (...) unfolded problemsforeign to his time, but very close to ours.Hence his importance for contemporary philosophy.Key‐words: politics; technics; science; humanism; individuation; transindividual. (shrink)
From an evolutionary perspective, phenotypic, social, and environmental factors help to shape the different costs and benefits of pursuing different reproductive strategies from one individual to another. Since men’s reproductive success is mainly constrained to women’s availability, their mating orientations should be partially calibrated by features that women prefer in a potential partner. For long-term relationships, women prefer traits that signal access to resources, protection skills, and the willingness to share them. Using generalized linear models with laboratory data taken from (...) a Chilean population, this study aimed to test whether real and potential resources, protection skills, and the willingness to provide resources and protection are related to mating orientation in men. Our predictions were: socioeconomic status would be positively associated with long-term and short-term mating orientation but for long-term-oriented individuals, this would be enhanced by having a more favorable parenthood disposition and strength would be positively related to long-term mating orientation in men with higher socioeconomic status and a favorable disposition toward parenthood and it would have a positive and direct association with short-term mating orientation. Our results partially supported the first hypothesis, since men with higher socioeconomic status were more long-term oriented, but parenting disposition did not moderate this effect. Contrary to our expectations, socioeconomic status was not related to short-term mating orientation. Strength appeared not to be significant for long-term mating orientation, even interacting with other traits. However, strength by itself was powerfully linked with a short-term mating orientation. Our results suggest that only some individuals that are attractive for long-term relationships are indeed long-term oriented and may reflect the overall conflict of interests between mating strategies among sexes. (shrink)
The so-called uncontrolled donation after circulatory determination of death (uDCDD) have been implemented in several countries, including Spain and France, to increase the availability of organs for transplantation. These protocols allow obtaining kidneys, livers and lungs of patients who do not survive cardio-pulmonary resuscitation performed in out-of-hospital settings. Simultaneously with the development and recent proliferation of these protocols, some emergency teams have begun to employ unconventional methods of CPR, with still uncertain but promising results. The coexistence of these two possibilities (...) raises some questions: At what point should attempts to save a patient with circulatory arrest be abandoned so that this individual can begin to be considered as a potential organ donor? How to manage potential conflicts of loyalties that may arise within emergency and procurement teams? How should the information to the families of those patients and potential organ donors be managed? This article gathers the conclusions of a workshop in which an interdisciplinary working group addressed these and other questions related to DCDD and non-conventional CPR. (shrink)
Introduction: Resilience is a multidimensional and dynamic construct associated with positive growth and the capacity to transform stressful and negative factors into opportunities of personal development and self-improvement when faced with difficult experiences. The resilience process of each individual integrates multiple analysis levels, which range from genetic-environmental interactions to a complex process of adaptation between the individual and his/her family, friends, co-workers, society, and culture.Objective: To determine whether resilience improves in students of occupational therapy when exposed for the first time (...) to practice placement education.Methodology: Quasi-experimental, prospective, observational, multi-center study with a sample composed of students from the Degree of Occupational Therapy of the public universities of Málaga and Castilla-La Mancha. Two weeks prior to the beginning of the practice education period, the participants completed a questionnaire that included sociodemographic data and the area of their internships. They were also given the Spanish version of the Connor-Davidson's resilience scale. All these instruments were also completed 1 week after the end of the clinical practice.Results: There were statistically significant differences between the variables that make up resilience and the different internship areas. On the other hand, there was a significant improvement of global resilience after the clinical practice period, in both women and men, when the internship area was not considered.Conclusions: The results show that resilient students are more optimistic and work to improve a situation beyond doing simply what is expected of them, knowing how to control their feelings. This is beneficial for students in practice education, since, during these, they face difficult situations that require a resilient pattern, which helps reduce stress and the burnout syndrome. (shrink)
The article criticises Reale's esoteric interpretation of Plato from a hermeneutical point of view. Reale speaks of doctrines, written and unwritten, where we only have two traditions: direct and indirect. Plato's own works build a corpus and a collection of testimonies from different authors cannot be considered as interpretatively superior. To be written down is essential to interpretation and the text cannot be fixed on a concrete reading, because textuality means openness to new understandings. In this way, the attempt to (...) reread Plato's dialogs in the light of this indirect tradition is to reduce the Platonic corpus to a mere pretext. (shrink)