Results for 'Eberhard Günter Schulz'

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  1. Durch Selbstdenken Zur Freiheit: Beiträge Zur Geschichte der Philosophie Im Zeitalter der Aufklärung.Eberhard Günter Schulz - 2005 - G. Olms.
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  2. Kant in Seiner Zeit.Eberhard Günter Schulz (ed.) - 2005 - G. Olms.
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  3. Knowing That P Without Believing That P.Blake Myers-Schulz & Eric Schwitzgebel - 2013 - Noûs 47 (2):371-384.
    Most epistemologists hold that knowledge entails belief. However, proponents of this claim rarely offer a positive argument in support of it. Rather, they tend to treat the view as obvious and assert that there are no convincing counterexamples. We find this strategy to be problematic. We do not find the standard view obvious, and moreover, we think there are cases in which it is intuitively plausible that a subject knows some proposition P without—or at least without determinately—believing that P. Accordingly, (...)
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  4.  46
    Ethical Considerations in International HIV Vaccine Trials: Summary of a Consultative Process Conducted by the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS).D. Guenter - 2000 - Journal of Medical Ethics 26 (1):37-43.
    Research that is initiated, designed or funded by sponsor agencies based in countries with relatively high social and economic development, and conducted in countries that are relatively less developed, gives rise to many important ethical challenges. Although clinical trials of HIV vaccines began ten years ago in the US and Europe, an increasing number of trials are now being conducted or planned in other countries, including several that are considered “developing” countries. Safeguarding the rights and welfare of individuals participating as (...)
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  5. Wirklichkeit Und Reflexion Walter Schulz Z. 60. Geburtstag.Walter Schulz & Helmut Fahrenbach - 1973
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  6.  11
    Heidegger and Laozi: Wu (Nothing)—on Chapter 11 of the Daodejing.Guenter Wohlfart & Marty Heitz - 2003 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 30 (1):39-59.
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  7. Persistent Bias in Expert Judgments About Free Will and Moral Responsibility: A Test of the Expertise Defense.Eric Schulz, Edward T. Cokely & Adam Feltz - 2011 - Consciousness and Cognition 20 (4):1722-1731.
    Many philosophers appeal to intuitions to support some philosophical views. However, there is reason to be concerned about this practice as scientific evidence has documented systematic bias in philosophically relevant intuitions as a function of seemingly irrelevant features (e.g., personality). One popular defense used to insulate philosophers from these concerns holds that philosophical expertise eliminates the influence of these extraneous factors. Here, we test this assumption. We present data suggesting that verifiable philosophical expertise in the free will debate-as measured by (...)
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  8.  50
    Heidegger and Laozi: Wu (Nothing)—on Chapter 11 of the Daodejing.Guenter Wohlfart & Translated by Marty Heitz - 2003 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 30 (1):39–59.
  9.  55
    Pragmatic Meaning and Non-Monotonic Reasoning: The Case of Exhaustive Interpretation.Katrin Schulz & Robert van Rooij - 2006 - Linguistics and Philosophy 29 (2):205 - 250.
    In this paper an approach to the exhaustive interpretation of answers is developed. It builds on a proposal brought forward by Groenendijk and Stokhof (1984). We will use the close connection between their approach and McCarthy's (1980, 1986) predicate circumscription and describe exhaustive interpretation as an instance of interpretation in minimal models, well-known from work on counterfactuals (see for instance Lewis (1973)). It is shown that by combining this approach with independent developments in semantics/pragmatics one can overcome certain limitations of (...)
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  10.  1
    M. Puetz,(Hg.), Nietzsche in American Literature and Thought D. SCHULZ.Dieter Schulz - 1997 - Nietzsche-Studien 26 (1):588-592.
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  11.  10
    A Model of Loudness Summation.Eberhard Zwicker & Bertram Scharf - 1965 - Psychological Review 72 (1):3-26.
  12.  13
    Pragmatic Meaning and Non-Monotonic Reasoning: The Case of Exhaustive Interpretation.Katrin Schulz & Robert Rooij - 2006 - Linguistics and Philosophy 29 (2):205-250.
    In this paper an approach to the exhaustive interpretation of answers is developed. It builds on a proposal brought forward by Groenendijk and Stokhof. We will use the close connection between their approach and McCarthy’s predicate circumscription and describe exhaustive interpretation as an instance of interpretation in minimal models, well-known from work on counterfactuals ). It is shown that by combining this approach with independent developments in semantics/pragmatics one can overcome certain limitations of Groenenedijk and Stokhof’s proposal. In the last (...)
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  13.  62
    Making Sense Out of Inner Sense: The Kantian Doctrine as Illuminated by the Leningrad Reflexion.Guenter Zoeller - 1989 - International Philosophical Quarterly 29 (3):263-270.
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  14.  84
    A Theory of Causal Learning in Children: Causal Maps and Bayes Nets.Alison Gopnik, Clark Glymour, Laura Schulz, Tamar Kushnir & David Danks - 2004 - Psychological Review 111 (1):3-32.
    We propose that children employ specialized cognitive systems that allow them to recover an accurate “causal map” of the world: an abstract, coherent, learned representation of the causal relations among events. This kind of knowledge can be perspicuously understood in terms of the formalism of directed graphical causal models, or “Bayes nets”. Children’s causal learning and inference may involve computations similar to those for learning causal Bayes nets and for predicting with them. Experimental results suggest that 2- to 4-year-old children (...)
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  15.  78
    Must Rhodes Fall? The Significance of Commemoration in the Struggle for Relations of Respect.Johannes Schulz - 2019 - Journal of Political Philosophy 27 (2):166-186.
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  16.  57
    Decisions and Higher‐Order Knowledge.Moritz Schulz - 2017 - Noûs 51 (3):463-483.
    A knowledge-based decision theory faces what has been called the prodigality problem : given that many propositions are assigned probability 1, agents will be inclined to risk everything when betting on propositions which are known. In order to undo probability 1 assignments in high risk situations, the paper develops a theory which systematically connects higher level goods with higher-order knowledge.
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  17. The Origins of Inquiry: Inductive Inference and Exploration in Early Childhood.Laura Schulz - 2012 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 16 (7):382-389.
  18.  88
    Modus Ponens Under the Restrictor View.Moritz Schulz - 2018 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 47 (6):1001-1028.
    There is a renewed debate about modus ponens. Strikingly, the recent counterexamples in Cantwell, Dreier and MacFarlane and Kolodny are generated by restricted readings of the ‘if’-clause. Moreover, it can be argued on general grounds that the restrictor view of conditionals developed in Kratzer and Lewis leads to counterexamples to modus ponens. This paper provides a careful analysis of modus ponens within the framework of the restrictor view. Despite appearances to the contrary, there is a robust sense in which modus (...)
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  19.  11
    Comments on Professor Kitcher’s “Connecting Intuitions and Concepts at B 160n”.Guenter Zoeller - 1987 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 25 (S1):151-155.
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  20.  26
    Comments on Professor Kitcher’s “Connecting Intuitions and Concepts at B 160n”.Guenter Zoeller - 1987 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 25 (S1):151-155.
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  21.  14
    Conditionals, Causality and Conditional Probability.Katrin Schulz & Robert Rooij - 2019 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 28 (1):55-71.
    The appropriateness, or acceptability, of a conditional does not just ‘go with’ the corresponding conditional probability. A condition of dependence is required as well. In this paper a particular notion of dependence is proposed. It is shown that under both a forward causal and a backward evidential reading of the conditional, this appropriateness condition reduces to conditional probability under some natural circumstances. Because this is in particular the case for the so-called diagnostic reading of the conditional, this analysis might help (...)
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  22.  12
    A Network-Based Dynamic Analysis in an Equity Stock Market.Juan Eberhard, Jaime F. Lavin & Alejandro Montecinos-Pearce - 2017 - Complexity:1-16.
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  23.  68
    Counterfactuals and Arbitrariness.Moritz Schulz - 2014 - Mind 123 (492):1021-1055.
    The pattern of credences we are inclined to assign to counterfactuals challenges standard accounts of counterfactuals. In response to this problem, the paper develops a semantics of counterfactuals in terms of the epsilon-operator. The proposed semantics stays close to the standard account: the epsilon-operator substitutes the universal quantifier present in standard semantics by arbitrarily binding the open world-variable. Various applications of the suggested semantics are explored including, in particular, an explanation of how the puzzling credences in counterfactuals come about.
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  24. Molecular Interactions. On the Ambiguity of Ordinary Statements in Biomedical Literature.Stefan Schulz & Ludger Jansen - 2009 - Applied Ontology (4):21-34.
    Statements about the behavior of biochemical entities (e.g., about the interaction between two proteins) abound in the literature on molecular biology and are increasingly becoming the targets of information extraction and text mining techniques. We show that an accurate analysis of the semantics of such statements reveals a number of ambiguities that have to be taken into account in the practice of biomedical ontology engineering: Such statements can not only be understood as event reporting statements, but also as ascriptions of (...)
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  25.  62
    A Pragmatic Solution for the Paradox of Free Choice Permission.Katrin Schulz - 2005 - Synthese 147 (2):343-377.
    In this paper, a pragmatic approach to the phenomenon of free choice permission is proposed. Free choice permission is explained as due to taking the speaker (i) to obey certain Gricean maxims of conversation and (ii) to be competent on the deontic options, i.e. to know the valid obligations and permissions. The approach differs from other pragmatic approaches to free choice permission in giving a formally precise description of the class of inferences that can be derived based on these two (...)
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  26.  18
    Going Beyond the Evidence: Abstract Laws and Preschoolers’ Responses to Anomalous Data.Laura E. Schulz, Noah D. Goodman, Joshua B. Tenenbaum & Adrianna C. Jenkins - 2008 - Cognition 109 (2):211-223.
  27.  96
    Dancing with DNA and Flirting with the Ghost of Lamarck.Mary Jane West-Eberhard - 2007 - Biology and Philosophy 22 (3):439-451.
  28. “If You’D Wiggled A, Then B Would’Ve Changed”: Causality and Counterfactual Conditionals.Katrin Schulz - 2011 - Synthese 179 (2):239-251.
    This paper deals with the truth conditions of conditional sentences. It focuses on a particular class of problematic examples for semantic theories for these sentences. I will argue that the examples show the need to refer to dynamic, in particular causal laws in an approach to their truth conditions. More particularly, I will claim that we need a causal notion of consequence. The proposal subsequently made uses a representation of causal dependencies as proposed in Pearl (2000) to formalize a causal (...)
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  29. System des Transzendentalen Idealismus, herausgegeben von Ruth-Eva Schulz.F. W. J. Schelling & Walter Schulz - 1959 - Les Etudes Philosophiques 14 (2):243-243.
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  30.  26
    Making Syntax of Sense: Number Agreement in Sentence Production.Kathleen M. Eberhard, J. Cooper Cutting & Kathryn Bock - 2005 - Psychological Review 112 (3):531-559.
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  31. Learning From Doing: Intervention and Causal Inference.Laura Schulz, Tamar Kushnir & Alison Gopnik - 2007 - In Alison Gopnik & Laura Schulz (eds.), Causal Learning: Psychology, Philosophy, and Computation. Oxford University Press. pp. 67--85.
  32. Sober & Wilson’s Evolutionary Arguments for Psychological Altruism: A Reassessment.Armin Schulz - 2011 - Biology and Philosophy 26 (2):251-260.
    In their book Unto Others, Sober and Wilson argue that various evolutionary considerations (based on the logic of natural selection) lend support to the truth of psychological altruism. However, recently, Stephen Stich has raised a number of challenges to their reasoning: in particular, he claims that three out of the four evolutionary arguments they give are internally unconvincing, and that the one that is initially plausible fails to take into account recent findings from cognitive science and thus leaves open a (...)
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  33.  36
    Fake Tense in Conditional Sentences: A Modal Approach.K. Schulz - 2014 - Natural Language Semantics 22 (2):117-144.
    Many languages allow for “fake” uses of their past tense marker: the marker: can occur in certain contexts without conveying temporal pastness. Instead it appears to bear a modal meaning. Iatridou :231–270, 2000) has dubbed this phenomenon Fake Tense. Fake Tense is particularly common to conditional constructions. This paper analyzes Fake Tense in English conditional sentences as a certain kind of ambiguity: the past tense morphology can mark the presence of a temporal operator, but it can also signal a specific (...)
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  34. Grounding Mental Causation.Thomas Kroedel & Moritz Schulz - 2016 - Synthese 193 (6):1909-1923.
    This paper argues that the exclusion problem for mental causation can be solved by a variant of non-reductive physicalism that takes the mental not merely to supervene on, but to be grounded in, the physical. A grounding relation between events can be used to establish a principle that links the causal relations of grounded events to those of grounding events. Given this principle, mental events and their physical grounds either do not count as overdetermining physical effects, or they do so (...)
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  35.  42
    Implementing Ethics in Business Organizations.Eberhard Schnebel & Margo A. Bienert - 2004 - Journal of Business Ethics 53 (1-2):203-211.
    In view of the scope and scale of the latest scandals, e.g. Enron's maximum breaking bankruptcy, the re-discovery of ethics in business has received an impressive boost. By now even car salesmen have written ethics, a Code of Conduct, e.g. in the USA or Poland. But there is no clear aim of the role ethics obtains in organizational settings as we may show in some small cases of practical approaches to deal with ethics in organizations. We discuss how ethics is (...)
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  36. Epistemic Modals and Informational Consequence.Moritz Schulz - 2010 - Synthese 174 (3):385 - 395.
    Recently, Yalcin (Epistemic modals. Mind, 116 , 983–1026, 2007) put forward a novel account of epistemic modals. It is based on the observation that sentences of the form ‘ & Might ’ do not embed under ‘suppose’ and ‘if’. Yalcin concludes that such sentences must be contradictory and develops a notion of informational consequence which validates this idea. I will show that informational consequence is inadequate as an account of the logic of epistemic modals: it cannot deal with reasoning from (...)
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  37.  23
    “If You’D Wiggled A, Then B Would’Ve Changed”: Causality and Counterfactual Conditionals.Katrin Schulz - 2011 - Synthese 179 (2):239-251.
    This paper deals with the truth conditions of conditional sentences. It focuses on a particular class of problematic examples for semantic theories for these sentences. I will argue that the examples show the need to refer to dynamic, in particular causal laws in an approach to their truth conditions. More particularly, I will claim that we need a causal notion of consequence. The proposal subsequently made uses a representation of causal dependencies as proposed in Pearl to formalize a causal notion (...)
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  38.  97
    The Dynamics of Indexical Belief.Moritz Schulz - 2010 - Erkenntnis 72 (3):337 - 351.
    Indexical beliefs pose a special problem for standard theories of Bayesian updating. Sometimes we are uncertain about our location in time and space. How are we to update our beliefs in situations like these? In a stepwise fashion, I develop a constraint on the dynamics of indexical belief. As an application, the suggested constraint is brought to bear on the Sleeping Beauty problem.
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  39. Inherent Emotional Quality of Human Speech Sounds.Blake Myers-Schulz, Maia Pujara, Richard C. Wolf & Michael Koenigs - 2013 - Cognition and Emotion 27 (6):1105-1113.
    During much of the past century, it was widely believed that phonemes--the human speech sounds that constitute words--have no inherent semantic meaning, and that the relationship between a combination of phonemes (a word) and its referent is simply arbitrary. Although recent work has challenged this picture by revealing psychological associations between certain phonemes and particular semantic contents, the precise mechanisms underlying these associations have not been fully elucidated. Here we provide novel evidence that certain phonemes have an inherent, non-arbitrary emotional (...)
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  40.  40
    Gigerenzer’s Evolutionary Arguments Against Rational Choice Theory: An Assessment.Armin Schulz - 2011 - Philosophy of Science 78 (5):1272-1282.
    I critically discuss a recent innovation in the debate surrounding the plausibility of rational choice theory : the appeal to evolutionary theory. Specifically, I assess Gigerenzer and colleagues’ claim that considerations based on natural selection show that, instead of making decisions in a RCT-like way, we rely on ‘simple heuristics’. As I try to make clearer here, though, Gigerenzer and colleagues’ arguments are unconvincing: we lack the needed information about our past to determine whether the premises on which they are (...)
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  41.  33
    The Adaptive Importance of Cognitive Efficiency: An Alternative Theory of Why We Have Beliefs and Desires.Armin W. Schulz - 2011 - Biology and Philosophy 26 (1):31-50.
    Finding out why we have beliefs and desires is important for a thorough understanding of the nature of our minds (and those of other animals). It is therefore unsurprising that several accounts have been presented that are meant to answer this question. At least in the philosophical literature, the most widely accepted of these are due to Kim Sterelny and Peter Godfrey-Smith, who argue that beliefs and desires evolved due to their enabling us to be behaviourally flexible in a way (...)
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  42.  20
    Values in Decision-Making Processes: Systematic Structures of J. Habermas and N. Luhmann for the Appreciation of Responsibility in Leadership. [REVIEW]Eberhard Schnebel - 2000 - Journal of Business Ethics 27 (1-2):79 - 88.
    "Ethical Leadership" in modern multicultural corporations is first the consideration of different personal and cultural value systems in decision-making processes. Second, it is the assignment of responsibility either to individual or organisational causalities. The task of this study is to set the stage for a distinction between rational entities and the arbitrary preferences of individuals in economic decision making processes.Defining rational aspects of behaviour in economics will lead to the formal structures of organisational systems, which are independent of concrete but (...)
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  43.  90
    Beyond the Hype: The Value of Evolutionary Theorizing in Economics.Armin W. Schulz - 2013 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 43 (1):46-72.
    In this paper, I consider the recent resurgence of “evolutionary economics”—the idea that evolutionary theory can be very useful to push forward key debates in economics—and assess the extent to which it rests on a plausible foundation. To do this, I first distinguish two ways in which evolutionary theory can, in principle, be brought to bear on an economic problem—namely, evidentially and heuristically—and then apply this distinction to the three major hypotheses that evolutionary economists have come to defend: the implausibility (...)
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  44.  81
    Leibniz's Rigorous Foundation of Infinitesimal Geometry by Means of Riemannian Sums.Eberhard Knobloch - 2002 - Synthese 133 (1-2):59 - 73.
    In 1675, Leibniz elaborated his longest mathematical treatise he everwrote, the treatise ``On the arithmetical quadrature of the circle, theellipse, and the hyperbola. A corollary is a trigonometry withouttables''. It was unpublished until 1993, and represents a comprehensive discussion of infinitesimalgeometry. In this treatise, Leibniz laid the rigorous foundation of thetheory of infinitely small and infinite quantities or, in other words,of the theory of quantified indivisibles. In modern terms Leibnizintroduced `Riemannian sums' in order to demonstrate the integrabilityof continuous functions. The (...)
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  45.  28
    Arguing 'For' the Patient: Informed Consent and Strategic Maneuvering in Doctor–Patient Interaction. [REVIEW]Peter J. Schulz & Sara Rubinelli - 2008 - Argumentation 22 (3):423-432.
    As a way to advance integration between traditional readings of the medical encounter and argumentation theory, this article conceptualizes the doctor–patient interaction as a form of info-suasive dialogue. Firstly, the article explores the relevance of argumentation in the medical encounter in connection with the process of informed consent. Secondly, it discloses the risks inherent to a lack of reconciliation of the dialectical and rhetorical components in the delivery of the doctor’s advice, as especially resulting from the less than ideal conditions (...)
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  46.  53
    The Benefits of Rule Following: A New Account of the Evolution of Desires.Armin Schulz - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 44 (4 A):595-603.
    A key component of much current research in behavioral ecology, cognitive science, and economics is a model of the mind at least partly based on beliefs and desires. However, despite this prevalence, there are still many open questions concerning both the structure and the applicability of this model. This is especially so when it comes to its ‘desire’ part: in particular, it is not yet entirely clear when and why we should expect organisms to be desire-based—understood so as to imply (...)
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  47. The Theological Virtue of Charity.Eberhard Schockenhoff - 2002 - In Stephen J. Pope (ed.), The Ethics of Aquinas. pp. 244--258.
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  48.  95
    Structural Flaws: Massive Modularity and the Argument From Design.Armin Schulz - 2008 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 59 (4):733-743.
    recent defence of the massive modularity thesis. However, as this paper seeks to show, there are major flaws in its structure. If construed deductively, it is unsound: modular mental architecture is not necessarily the best architecture, and even if it were, this alone would not show that this architecture evolved. If construed inductively, it is not much more convincing, as it then appears to be too weak to support the kind of modularity Carruthers is concerned with. The upshot of this (...)
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  49.  84
    Simulation, Simplicity, and Selection: An Evolutionary Perspective on High-Level Mindreading. [REVIEW]Armin Schulz - 2011 - Philosophical Studies 152 (2):271 - 285.
    In this paper, I argue that a natural selection-based perspective gives reasons for thinking that the core of the ability to mindread cognitively complex mental states is subserved by a simulationist process—that is, that it relies on nonspecialised mechanisms in the attributer's cognitive architecture whose primary function is the generation of her own decisions and inferences. In more detail, I try to establish three conclusions. First, I try to make clearer what the dispute between simulationist and non-simulationist theories of mindreading (...)
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  50.  47
    Graham Priest's Mathematical Analysis of the Concept of Emptiness.Eberhard Guhe - 2017 - History and Philosophy of Logic 38 (3):282-290.
    In his article ‘The Structure of Emptiness’, 467–80. doi: 10.1353/pew.0.0069[Crossref], [Web of Science ®] [Google Scholar]) Graham Priest examines the concept of emptiness in the Mādhyamaka school of Nāgārjuna and his commentators Candrakīırti and Tsongkhapa from a mathematical point of view. The approach attempted in this article does not involve any commitment to Priest's more controversial dialethic Mādhyamaka interpretation. The purpose of the present paper is to explain Priest's sketchy but very insightful interpretation of objects as non-well-founded sets in greater (...)
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