Results for 'Ralf Mayrhofer'

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  1.  23
    Agents and Causes: Dispositional Intuitions As a Guide to Causal Structure.Ralf Mayrhofer & Michael R. Waldmann - 2015 - Cognitive Science 39 (1):65-95.
    Currently, two frameworks of causal reasoning compete: Whereas dependency theories focus on dependencies between causes and effects, dispositional theories model causation as an interaction between agents and patients endowed with intrinsic dispositions. One important finding providing a bridge between these two frameworks is that failures of causes to generate their effects tend to be differentially attributed to agents and patients regardless of their location on either the cause or the effect side. To model different types of error attribution, we augmented (...)
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  2.  6
    Successful Structure Learning From Observational Data.Anselm Rothe, Ben Deverett, Ralf Mayrhofer & Charles Kemp - 2018 - Cognition 179:266-297.
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  3.  10
    Indicators of Causal Agency in Physical Interactions: The Role of the Prior Context.Ralf Mayrhofer & Michael R. Waldmann - 2014 - Cognition 132 (3):485-490.
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  4.  21
    Sufficiency and Necessity Assumptions in Causal Structure Induction.Ralf Mayrhofer & Michael R. Waldmann - 2016 - Cognitive Science 40 (8):2137-2150.
    Research on human causal induction has shown that people have general prior assumptions about causal strength and about how causes interact with the background. We propose that these prior assumptions about the parameters of causal systems do not only manifest themselves in estimations of causal strength or the selection of causes but also when deciding between alternative causal structures. In three experiments, we requested subjects to choose which of two observable variables was the cause and which the effect. We found (...)
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  5.  4
    Structure Induction in Diagnostic Causal Reasoning.Björn Meder, Ralf Mayrhofer & Michael R. Waldmann - 2014 - Psychological Review 121 (3):277-301.
  6.  44
    Hierarchical Bayesian Models as Formal Models of Causal Reasoning.York Hagmayer & Ralf Mayrhofer - 2013 - Argument and Computation 4 (1):36 - 45.
    (2013). Hierarchical Bayesian models as formal models of causal reasoning. Argument & Computation: Vol. 4, Formal Models of Reasoning in Cognitive Psychology, pp. 36-45. doi: 10.1080/19462166.2012.700321.
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  7. Developmental Trajectories in the Understanding of Everyday Uncertainty Terms.Björn Meder, Ralf Mayrhofer & Azzurra Ruggeri - forthcoming - Topics in Cognitive Science.
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  8.  8
    Time and Singular Causation—A Computational Model.Simon Stephan, Ralf Mayrhofer & Michael R. Waldmann - 2020 - Cognitive Science 44 (7).
    Causal queries about singular cases, which inquire whether specific events were causally connected, are prevalent in daily life and important in professional disciplines such as the law, medicine, or engineering. Because causal links cannot be directly observed, singular causation judgments require an assessment of whether a co‐occurrence of two events c and e was causal or simply coincidental. How can this decision be made? Building on previous work by Cheng and Novick (2005) and Stephan and Waldmann (2018), we propose a (...)
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  9. The Grounding Argument Against Non-Reductive Moral Realism.Ralf M. Bader - 2017 - Oxford Studies in Metaethics 12.
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  10. Moralità, Istituzioni E Società Civile Testo Presentato da Sir Ralf Dahrendorf in Occasione Del Conferimento Del Premio Internazionale Senatore Giovanni Agnelli, Terza Edizione : Torino, Teatro Regio, 30 Marzo 1992.Ralf Dahrendorf & Premio Internazionale Senatore Giovanni Agnelli - 1992 - [S.N.].
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  11.  15
    A Sanskrit Grammar by Manfred Mayrhofer.Ernest Bender, Gordon B. Ford & Manfred Mayrhofer - 1975 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 95 (1):170.
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  12.  72
    The Fundamental and the Brute.Ralf Bader - 2021 - Philosophical Studies 178 (4):1121-1142.
    This paper distinguishes bruteness from fundamentality by developing a theory of stochastic grounding that makes room for non-fundamental bruteness. Stochastic grounding relations, which only underwrite incomplete explanations, arise when the fundamental level underdetermines derivative levels. The framework is applied to fission cases, showing how one can break symmetries and mitigate bruteness whilst avoiding arbitrariness and hypersensitivity.
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  13. Towards a Hyperintensional Theory of Intrinsicality.Ralf M. Bader - 2013 - Journal of Philosophy 110 (10):525-563.
  14.  72
    Reflecting Davidson: Donald Davidson Responding to an International Forum of Philosophers.Ralf Stoecker (ed.) - 1993 - W. De Gruyter.
  15.  16
    SWIFT: A Dynamical Model of Saccade Generation During Reading.Ralf Engbert, Antje Nuthmann, Eike M. Richter & Reinhold Kliegl - 2005 - Psychological Review 112 (4):777-813.
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  16.  12
    How We Forgot Who Discovered DNA: Why It Matters How You Communicate Your Results.Ralf Dahm & Mita Banerjee - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (4):1900029.
    One hundred and fifty years ago, a hopeful young researcher reported a recent discovery he had made. Working in the bowels of a medieval castle in the German city of Tübingen, he had isolated a then entirely new type of molecule. This was the birth of a field that would fundamentally change the course of biology, medicine, and beyond. His discovery: DNA. His name: Friedrich Miescher. In this article, the authors try to find answers to the question why—despite the fact (...)
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  17.  11
    Kant and the Claims of Knowledge.Ralf Meerbote - 1987 - Noûs 26 (3):391-396.
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  18. The Non-Transitivity of the Contingent and Occasional Identity Relations.Ralf M. Bader - 2012 - Philosophical Studies 157 (1):141-152.
    This paper establishes that the occasional identity relation and the contingent identity relation are both non-transitive and as such are not properly classified as identity relations. This is achieved by appealing to cases where multiple fissions and fusions occur simultaneously. These cases show that the contingent and occasional identity relations do not even satisfy the time-indexed and world-indexed versions of the transitivity requirement and hence are non-transitive relations.
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  19.  11
    When Pandemic Hits: Exercise Frequency and Subjective Well-Being During COVID-19 Pandemic.Ralf Brand, Sinika Timme & Sanaz Nosrat - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
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  20.  27
    Essays in the Theory of Society.Ralf Dahrendorf - 1968 - Ethics 78 (4):323-324.
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  21. Self-Efficacy: Thought Control of Action.Ralf Schwarzer (ed.) - 2015 - Routledge.
    First published in 1992. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
     
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  22.  94
    Humean Supervenience, Vectorial Fields, and the Spinning Sphere.Ralf Busse - 2009 - Dialectica 63 (4):449-489.
  23.  73
    The Adequacy of Resemblance Nominalism About Perfect Naturalness.Ralf Busse - 2018 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research (2):443-469.
    Resemblance Nominalism About Perfect Naturalness is the view that perfect naturalness of classes is best defined by a conceptual primitive of resemblance between particulars. The adequacy of RNPN is defended by outlining nominalism as the strictly anti-constitutive view that the particulars’ being the fundamental ways they are is not constituted by anything further, supplying a doubly plural contrastive and graded resemblance predicate that allows for a definition of perfect naturalness on an actualist basis, and proving a representation and a uniqueness (...)
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  24.  65
    Contingent Identity and Counterpart Theory.Ralf M. Bader - 2016 - Philosophical Perspectives 30 (1):7-20.
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  25.  20
    Against Metaphysical Structuralism.Ralf Busse - 2020 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 98 (1):90-122.
    Inductive Metaphysics combines an anti-aprioristic emphasis on an empirical and scientific basis for metaphysics with an insistence on a specifically philosophical abductive theory-building. Since the latter specifically philosophical work is not empirical itself, it may in a liberal sense be called apriori. This paper highlights this apriori dimension within IM by a case study on Structuralism, the view that fundamental reality consists of a network of relations, which a number of philosophers consider to be suggested by modern physics. Focussing on (...)
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  26.  52
    Substitute Decision Making in Medicine: Comparative Analysis of the Ethico-Legal Discourse in England and Germany. [REVIEW]Ralf J. Jox, Sabine Michalowski, Jorn Lorenz & Jan Schildmann - 2008 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 11 (2):153-163.
    Health care decision making for patients without decisional capacity is ethically and legally challenging. Advance directives (living wills) have proved to be of limited usefulness in clinical practice. Therefore, academic attention should focus more on substitute decision making by the next of kin. In this article, we comparatively analyse the legal approaches to substitute medical decision making in England and Germany. Based on the current ethico-legal discourse in both countries, three aspects of substitute decision making will be highlighted: (1) Should (...)
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  27.  64
    Stochastic Dominance and Opaque Sweetening.Ralf M. Bader - 2018 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 96 (3):498-507.
    ABSTRACTThis paper addresses the problem of opaque sweetening and argues that one should use stochastic dominance in comparing lotteries even when dealing with incomplete orderings that allow for non-comparable outcomes.
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  28.  4
    The Practice of Experimental Psychology: An Inevitably Postmodern Endeavor.Roland Mayrhofer, Christof Kuhbandner & Corinna Lindner - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
    The aim of psychology is to understand the human mind and behavior. In contemporary psychology, the method of choice to accomplish this incredibly complex endeavor is the experiment. This dominance has shaped the whole discipline from the self-concept as an empirical science and its very epistemological and theoretical foundations, via research practice and the scientific discourse to teaching. Experimental psychology is grounded in the scientific method and positivism, and these principles, which are characteristic for modern thinking, are still upheld. Despite (...)
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  29. Supervenience and Infinitary Property-Forming Operations.Ralf M. Bader - 2012 - Philosophical Studies 160 (3):415-423.
    This paper provides an account of the closure conditions that apply to sets of subvening and supervening properties, showing that the criterion that determines under which property-forming operations a particular family of properties is closed is applicable both to the finitary and to the infinitary case. In particular, it will be established that, contra Glanzberg, infinitary operations do not give rise to any additional difficulties beyond those that arise in the finitary case.
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  30. The Cambridge Companion to Nozick's Anarchy, State, and Utopia.Ralf M. Bader & John Meadowcroft (eds.) - 2011 - Cambridge University Press.
    Machine generated contents note: Introduction Ralf M. Bader and John Meadowcroft; Part I. Morality: 1. Side constraints, Lockean individual rights, and the moral basis of libertarianism Richard Arneson; 2. Are deontological constraints irrational? Michael Otsuka; 3. What we learn from the experience machine Fred Feldman; Part II. Anarchy: 4. Nozickian arguments for the more-than-minimal state Eric Mack; 5. Explanation, justification, and emergent properties - an essay on Nozickian metatheory Gerald Gaus; Part III. State: 6. The right to distribute David (...)
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  31.  17
    Kant's Transcendental Psychology.Ralf Meerbote & Patricia Kitcher - 1992 - Philosophical Review 101 (4):862.
  32.  12
    Class Nominalism, Wolterstorff's Objection, and Combinatorial Worlds.Ralf Busse - 2016 - Philosophical Quarterly 66 (265):680-700.
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  33.  6
    Ralf Dreier: In Memoriam.Robert Alexy - 2019 - Ratio Juris 32 (4):529-530.
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  34. Multiple-Domain Supervenience for Non-Classical Mereologies.Ralf M. Bader - forthcoming - In Ontological Dependence and Supervenience. Philosophia.
    This paper develops co-ordinated multiple-domain supervenience relations to model determination and dependence relations between complex entities and their constituents by appealing to R-related pairs and by making use of associated isomorphisms. Supervenience relations are devised for order-sensitive and repetition-sensitive mereologies, for mereological systems that make room for many-many composition relations, as well as for hierarchical mereologies that incorporate compositional and hylomorphic structure. Finally, mappings are provided for theories that consider wholes to be prior to their parts.
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  35.  77
    The Role of Deliberate Practice in the Acquisition of Expert Performance.K. Anders Ericsson, Ralf T. Krampe & Clemens Tesch-Römer - 1993 - Psychological Review 100 (3):363-406.
  36. The Role of Kant’s Refutation of Idealism.Ralf M. Bader - 2012 - Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 94 (1):53-73.
    This paper assesses the role of the Refutation of Idealism within the Critique of Pure Reason, as well as its relation to the treatment of idealism in the First Edition and to transcendental idealism more generally. It is argued that the Refutation is consistent with the Fourth Paralogism and that it can be considered as an extension of the Transcendental Deduction. While the Deduction, considered on its own, constitutes a 'regressive argument', the Refutation allows us to turn the Transcendental Analytic (...)
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  37. Markt, Plan, Freiheit Franz Kreuzer Im Gespräch Mit Friedrich von Hayek Und Ralf Dahrendorf. --.Franz Kreuzer, Friedrich A. von Hayek & Ralf Dahrendorf - 1983
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  38.  6
    Is Testing a More Effective Learning Strategy Than Note-Taking?Ralf Rummer, Judith Schweppe, Kathleen Gerst & Simon Wagner - 2017 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied 23 (3):293-300.
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  39.  3
    Qualitative Analysis of Emotions: Fear and Thrill.Ralf C. Buckley - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
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  40.  18
    Deconstructing Inner Model Theory.Ralf-Dieter Schindler, John Steel & Martin Zeman - 2002 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 67 (2):721-736.
  41.  3
    Three Crucial Turns on the Road to an Adequate Understanding of Human Dignity.Ralf Stoecker - 2010 - In Paulus Kaufmann, Hannes Kuch, Christian Neuhäuser & Elaine Webster (eds.), Humiliation, Degradation, Dehumanization. Human Dignity Violated. Dordrecht, Niederlande: Springer. pp. 7-17.
    Human dignity is one of the key concepts of our ethical evaluations, in politics, in biomedicine, as well as in everyday life. In moral philosophy, however, human dignity is a source of intractable trouble. It has a number of characteristic features which apparently do not fit into one coherent ethical concept. Hence, philosophers tend to ignore or circumvent the concept. There is hope for a philosophically attractive conception of human dignity, however, given that one takes three crucial turns. The negative (...)
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  42.  3
    Aging Adventure Athletes Assess Achievements and Alter Aspirations to Maintain Self-Esteem.Ralf C. Buckley - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  43.  46
    The Desire to Obtain Money: A Culturally Ritualised Expression of the Aggressive Instinct.Ralf-Peter Behrendt - 2006 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (2):178-179.
    Social behaviour is but an expression of instinctive mechanisms whereby the aggressive instinct is of particular importance, having given rise to most of the complexity of social behaviour through processes of phylogenetic and cultural ritualisation. The role of the aggressive instinct is to dynamically maintain the ranking order in a group, and much of social interaction is concerned with this, including monetary exchange. What is certain, is that with the elimination of aggression, … the tackling of a task or problem, (...)
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  44.  15
    Explainable AI under contract and tort law: legal incentives and technical challenges.Philipp Hacker, Ralf Krestel, Stefan Grundmann & Felix Naumann - 2020 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 28 (4):415-439.
    This paper shows that the law, in subtle ways, may set hitherto unrecognized incentives for the adoption of explainable machine learning applications. In doing so, we make two novel contributions. First, on the legal side, we show that to avoid liability, professional actors, such as doctors and managers, may soon be legally compelled to use explainable ML models. We argue that the importance of explainability reaches far beyond data protection law, and crucially influences questions of contractual and tort liability for (...)
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  45.  84
    Medical Futility at the End of Life: The Perspectives of Intensive Care and Palliative Care Clinicians.Ralf J. Jox, Andreas Schaider, Georg Marckmann & Gian Domenico Borasio - 2012 - Journal of Medical Ethics 38 (9):540-545.
    Objectives Medical futility at the end of life is a growing challenge to medicine. The goals of the authors were to elucidate how clinicians define futility, when they perceive life-sustaining treatment (LST) to be futile, how they communicate this situation and why LST is sometimes continued despite being recognised as futile. Methods The authors reviewed ethics case consultation protocols and conducted semi-structured interviews with 18 physicians and 11 nurses from adult intensive and palliative care units at a tertiary hospital in (...)
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  46.  10
    Adventure Thrills Are Addictive.Ralf C. Buckley - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  47.  8
    Finding Their Voices Again: A Media Project Offers a Floor for Vulnerable Patients, Clients and the Socially Deprived. [REVIEW]Ralf Stutzki, Markus Weber & Stella Reiter-Theil - 2013 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 16 (4):739-750.
    ‘DU bist Radio’ (DBR) is an award winning [DBR has been awarded with the “Catholic Media Award of the German Bishops Conference, Prädikat WERTvoll” (2011), the Suisse “Media Prize Aargau/Solothurn” (2010), the German “Alternative Media Award” (2009) and was nominated for the “Prix Europa” (2009)] monthly radio format that goes on air on three Swiss radio stations. The purpose of this program which was first broadcast in 2009 is the development of a new media format which—without applying any journalistic (or (...)
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  48.  18
    Fundamentale Eigenschaften und die Grundlagen des Ähnlichkeitsnominalismus.Ralf Busse - 2008 - Philosophia Naturalis 45 (2):167-210.
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  49. Kant and the Categories of Freedom.Ralf M. Bader - 2009 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 17 (4):799-820.
    This paper provides an account of Kant's categories of freedom, explaining how they fit together and what role they are supposed to play. My interpretation places particular emphasis on the structural features that the table of the categories of freedom shares with the table of judgements and the table of categories laid out by Kant in the Critique of Pure Reason. In this way we can identify two interpretative constraints, namely (i) that the categories falling under each heading must form (...)
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  50.  5
    Beyond Compliance - Below Expectations? CSR in the Context of International Development.Ralf Barkemeyer - 2009 - Business Ethics: A European Review 18 (3):273-289.
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