Par Undo do princípio de que a crítica feita em Wahrheit und Methode à Aufklärung tern sobretudo a ver com a hostilidade do iluminismo nos seus confrontos com o preconceito religioso enquanto fundado na revelação cristã, o presente artigo pretende demonstrar de que modo Gadamer, por exemplo já num ensaio de 1941 acerca da critica kantiana da religião, alcançou a partir da sua familiaridade de longa data com os Gregos e os seus deuses uma concepção do religioso que, ao fundar--se (...) sobre a experiência "humanística" do Divino, aspira a manter uma solidariedade intima com a "Religion nach der Aufklärung" ("Religiao segundo a Auflärung"), cujo Deus, apcsar de ser o Deus dos filósofos, nem por isso é menos versado em revelaqçõs e em formas extra-potentes de realidade ". O artigo mostra ainda como no contexto de uma concepção como esta o Divino acabapor assumir sobretudo a figura da "amizade" e da "transcendencia do belo." /// It can be said that Gadamer's critique of the Aufklärung in Wahrheit und Methode has to do with the hostility of the Enlightenment towards religious prejudice derived from Christian revelation. This article aims to demonstrate that, already in an essay dating from 1941 about the Kantian critique of religion, Gadamer possessed a conception of God, largely due to his familiarity with the Greek notions of divinity, that sought nevertheless to maintain close ties with "Religion nach der Aufklärung". Whilst this God is the God of philosophers, it is a God inclined towards revelations and extra-ordinary expressions of power. In addition, the article shows that in this philosophical context the Divine acquires a figure suggesting "friendship" and a transcendent sense of the beautiful. (shrink)
The experience of agency refers to the feeling that we control our own actions, and through them the outside world. In many contexts, sense of agency has strong implications for moral responsibility. For example, a sense of agency may allow people to choose between right and wrong actions, either immediately, or on subsequent occasions through learning about the moral consequences of their actions. In this study we investigate the relation between the experience of operant action, and responsibility for action outcomes (...) using the intentional binding effect as an implicit, quantitative measure related to sense of agency. We studied the time at which people perceived simple manual actions and their effects, when these actions were embedded in scenarios where their actions had unpredictable consequences that could be either moral or merely economic. We found an enhanced binding of effects back towards the actions that caused them, implying an enhanced sense of agency, in moral compared to non-moral contexts. We also found stronger binding for effects with severely negative, compared to moderately negative, values. A tight temporal association between action and effect may be a low-level phenomenal marker of the sense of responsibility. (shrink)
Although trust and reciprocity are ubiquitous in social exchange, their neurobiological substrate remains largely unknown. Here, we investigated the effect of damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC)—a brain region critical for valuing social information—on individuals’ decisions in a trust game and in a risk game. In the trust game, one player, the investor, is endowed with a sum of money, which she can keep or invest. The amount she decides to invest is tripled and sent to the other player, (...) the trustee, who then decides what fraction to return to the investor. In separate runs, ten patients with focal bilateral damage to the vmPFC and control participants made decision while playing in the role of either investor or trustee with different anonymous counterparts in each run. A risk game was also included in which the investor faced exactly the same decisions as in the trust game, but a random device (i.e., a computer), not another player, determined the final payoffs. Results showed that vmPFC patients’ investments were not modulated by the type of opponent player (e.g., human vs. computer) present in the environment. Thus, vmPFC patients showed comparable risk-taking preferences both in social (trust game) and nonsocial (risk game) contexts. In stark contrast, control participants were less willing to take risk and invest when they believed that they were interacting with people than a computer. Furthermore, when acted as trustee, vmPFC patients made lower back transfers toward investors, thereby showing less reciprocity behavior. Taken together, these results indicate that social valuation and emotion subserved by vmPFC have a critical role in trusting and reciprocity decisions. The present findings support the hypothesis that vmPFC damage may impair affective systems specifically designed for mediating social transaction with other individuals. (shrink)
How can we better understand and treat those suffering from schizophrenia and manic-depressive illnesses? This important new book takes us into the world of those suffering from such disorders. Using self descriptions, its emphasis is not on how mental health professionals view sufferers, but on how the patients themselves experience their disorder. A new volume in the International Perspectives in Philosophy and Psychiatry series, this book will be of great interest to all those working with sufferers from such disorders - (...) helping them to better understand their mental lives, and providing important insights into how best to treat them. (shrink)
Emotions and personhood are important notions within the field of mental health care. How they are related is less evident. This book provides a framework for understanding the important and complex relationship between our emotional wellbeing and our sense of self, drawing on psychopathology, philosophy, and phenomenology.
Neste estudo procuramos avaliar a dimensão humana presente na Palavra de Deus. O autor sagrado está dentro de um contexto de vida cultural, e recebe os condicionamentos do seu tempo. A Bíblia deve ser lida com o espírito que foi escrita e não simplesmente vista como uma palavra literal de Deus para os homens.