Results for 'S. Atran'

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  1.  26
    A Bird's Eye View: Biological Categorization and Reasoning Within and Across Cultures.Jeremy N. Bailenson, Michael S. Shum, Scott Atran, Douglas L. Medin & John D. Coley - 2002 - Cognition 84 (1):1-53.
    Many psychological studies of categorization and reasoning use undergraduates to make claims about human conceptualization. Generalizability of findings to other populations is often assumed but rarely tested. Even when comparative studies are conducted, it may be challenging to interpret differences. As a partial remedy, in the present studies we adopt a 'triangulation strategy' to evaluate the ways expertise and culturally different belief systems can lead to different ways of conceptualizing the biological world. We use three groups (US bird experts, US (...)
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  2. Combating Al Qaeda's Splinters: Mishandling Suicide Terrorism.Scott Atran - unknown
    The past three years saw more suicide attacks than the last quarter century. Most of these were religiously motivated. While most Westerners have imagined a tightly coordinated transnational terrorist organization headed by Al Qaeda, it seems more likely that nations under attack face a set of largely autonomous groups and cells pursuing their own regional aims. Repeated suicide actions show that massive counterforce alone does not diminish the frequency or intensity of suicide attack. Like pounding mercury with a hammer, this (...)
     
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  3.  83
    Religion's Evolutionary Landscape: Counterintuition, Commitment, Compassion, Communion.Scott Atran & Ara Norenzayan - 2004 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (6):713-730.
    Religion is not an evolutionary adaptation per se, but a recurring cultural by-product of the complex evolutionary landscape that sets cognitive, emotional, and material conditions for ordinary human interactions. Religion exploits only ordinary cognitive processes to passionately display costly devotion to counterintuitive worlds governed by supernatural agents. The conceptual foundations of religion are intuitively given by task-specific panhuman cognitive domains, including folkmechanics, folkbiology, and folkpsychology. Core religious beliefs minimally violate ordinary notions about how the world is, with all of its (...)
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  4.  2
    Religion's Evolutionary Landscape: Counterintuition, Commitment, Compassion, Communion.Scott Atran & Ara Norenzayan - 2004 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (6):713-730.
    Religion is not an evolutionary adaptation per se, but a recurring by-product of the complex evolutionary landscape that sets cognitive, emotional and material conditions for ordinary human interactions. Religion involves extraordinary use of ordinary cognitive processes to passionately display costly devotion to counterintuitive worlds governed by supernatural agents. The conceptual foundations of religion are intuitively given by task-specific panhuman cognitive domains, including folkmechanics, folkbiology, folkpsychology. Core religious beliefs minimally violate ordinary notions about how the world is, with all of its (...)
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  5.  22
    Children's Attributions of Beliefs to Humans and God: Cross‐Cultural Evidence.Nicola Knight, Paulo Sousa, Justin L. Barrett & Scott Atran - 2004 - Cognitive Science 28 (1):117-126.
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  6.  12
    Martyrdom's Would-Be Myth Buster.Scott Atran - 2014 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 37 (4):362-363.
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  7. Tuning Out Hell's Harpists.Scott Atran - unknown
     
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  8.  16
    The Emir: An Interview with Abu Bakar Ba'asyir, Alleged Leader of the Southeast Asian Jemaah Islamiyah Organization.Scott Atran - unknown
    Press Release: Terrorism in Southeast Asia: An Interview with Abu Bakar Ba'asyir 10/03/2005 - In August, Dr. Scott Atran travelled to Southeast Asia and conducted extensive research on terrorist groups operating in the region. This interview with Abu Bakar Ba'asyir, alleged leader of the Jemaah Islamiyah organization, was conducted on August 13 and 15, 2005 from Cipinang Prison in Jakarta. Questions were formulated by Dr. Atran and posed for him in Behasa Indonesian by Taufiq Andrie. The interview took (...)
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  9.  29
    Folkbiology.D. Medin & S. Atran (eds.) - 1999 - MIT Press.
    This book takes an interdisciplinary approach, bringing together the work of researchers in anthropology, cognitive and developmental psychology, biology, and ...
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  10. Appearance in This List Does Not Preclude a Future Review of the Book. Where They Are Known Prices Are Either Given in $ US or in£ UK. Alcoff, Linda and Potter, Elizabeth (Eds.), Feminist Epistemologies, London, UK, Rout-Ledge, 1993, Pp. 312,£ 35.00,£ 12.99. [REVIEW]Ian Angus, Lenore Langsdorf, S. Atran, Robert M. Baird, Stuart E. Rosembaum, C. Bonelli Munegato, Scott M. Christensen, Dale R. Turner, Bohdan Dziemidok & Peter Engelmann - 1993 - Mind 102:406.
  11. Allan, LG, 207.S. Atran, F. L. Bedford, I. Berent, A. Caramazza, E. V. Clark, J. D. Coley, G. R. Fink, R. S. J. Frackowiak, P. W. Halligan & M. D. Hauser - 1997 - Cognition 64:355.
     
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  12. Modest Adaptationism (Reply to Andrews Et Al.).S. Atran - 2003 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25:504-506.
     
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  13.  2
    Natural Classification.S. Atran - 1981 - Social Science Information 20 (1):37-91.
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  14. Angrilli, A., B1.S. Atran, J. N. Bailenson, I. Boutet, A. Chaudhuri, H. H. Clark, J. D. Coley & J. E. Fox Tree - 2002 - Cognition 84:363.
     
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  15.  7
    Copyright© 2006 Cognitive Science Society, Inc. All Rights Reserved.K. Abbot-Smith, S. Atran, M. Aveyard, H. Behrens, S. Benus, L. Blomert, T. Bosse, J. Cagan, A. Cangelosi & L. Connell - 2006 - Cognitive Science 30:1127.
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  16.  2
    Managing Arab Kinship and Marriage.S. Atran - 1985 - Social Science Information 24 (4):659-696.
  17. Des pierres contre la Main de Fer: l'alternance des structures de violence dans le conflit israelo-palestinien.S. Atran - 1990 - Social Science Information 29 (1):107-165.
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  18.  14
    Atran's Biodiversity Parser: Doubts About Hierarchy and Autonomy.Eugene S. Hunn - 1998 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (4):576-577.
    Atran argues that an autonomous ethnobiological information-processing module exists. This module imputes a “deep causal essence” to folk-biological taxa and uses a hierarchy of taxonomic ranks. I argue that Atran's own data suggest that rank is not an essential feature of the ethnobiological module, and that ethnobiological causal essences may be generalized to other domains and vice versa, limiting its autonomy.
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  19.  15
    What is Empirical About Atran's Taxonomies?Barbara Saunders - 1998 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (4):587-588.
    Atran reifies Fodor's metaphor of modularity to create a truth-producing apparatus to generate a priori taxonomies or natural kinds that lock a tautology in place.
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  20.  10
    Alibali, MW, 451 Anderson, JR, 1 Atran, S., 117 Aveyard, ME, 611.K. G. D. Bailey, A. S. Bangert, D. J. Barr, J. L. Barrett, P. J. Bennett, I. Biederman, N. Bonini, J. F. Bonnefon, R. Budiu & J. C. Buisson - 2004 - Cognitive Science 28:1033-1034.
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  21.  20
    Atran's Evolutionary Psychology: “Say It Ain't Just-so, Joe”.James Maffie - 1998 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (4):583-584.
    Atran advances three theses: our folk-biological taxonomy is (1) universal, (2) innate, and (3) the product of natural selection. I argue that Atran offers insufficient support for theses (2) and (3) and that his evolutionary psychology thus amounts to nothing more than a just-so story.
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  22.  12
    Atran's Unnatural Kinds.David Davies - 2005 - Croatian Journal of Philosophy 5 (2):345-357.
    Scott Atran has argued that scientific thinking about living things necessarily emerges out of a common-sense structure of ideas which reflects the ways in which humans are constitutionally disposed to think about ‘manifestly perceivable empirical fact’. He maintains that the uniformity in folk-biological taxonomy under diverse socio-cultural learning conditions established by recent ethnobiological research undermines the predominant view that folk classifications of living things are a function of local interests and culture, and he further maintains that such uniformity must (...)
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  23.  8
    Review of Atran's 'Cognitive Foundations of Natural History: Towards an Anthropology of Science'. [REVIEW]Robert J. O'Hara - 1993 - Forest and Conservation History 37 (1): 43.
  24. Can Be Undermined by Showing It Does Not Reflect the Religion's “Truth” or “Essence” Are Likewise Vacuous, for There is No “Essence” or Fixed Content to Any Religion: Scott Atran and Ara Norenzayan,“Religion's Evolutionary Landscape: Counterintuition, Commitment, Compassion, Communion,”.Arguments Outsiders That Militant Islam - 2004 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27:713.
     
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  25.  22
    Religion's Evolutionary Landscape Needs Pruning with Ockham's Razor.William A. Rottschaefer - 2004 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (6):747-748.
    Atran & Norenzayan (A&N) have not adequately supported the epistemic component of their proposal, namely, that God does not exist. A weaker, more probable hypothesis, not requiring that component – that the benefits of religious belief outweigh those of disbelief, even though we do not know whether or not God exists – is available. I counsel them to use Ockham's razor, eliminate their negative epistemic thesis, and accept the weaker hypothesis.
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  26.  9
    Cognition and Communication in Culture's Evolutionary Landscape.Mark Schaller - 2004 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (6):748-749.
    Atran & Norenzayan's (A&N's) analysis fits with other perspectives on evoked culture: Cultural beliefs might emerge simply from the fact that people share a common cognitive architecture. But no perspective on culture can be complete without incorporating the unstoppable role of communication. The evolutionary landscape of culture will be most completely mapped by theories that describe specifically how communication translates evolved cognitive canals into cultural beliefs.
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  27.  4
    Cognitive Foundations of Natural History: Towards an Anthropology of Science. Scott Atran.M. J. S. Hodge - 1992 - Isis 83 (2):372-373.
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  28.  28
    Females in Aristotle’s Embryology.Jessica Gelber - 2017 - In Andrea Falcon and David Lefebvre (ed.), Aristotle’s Generation of Animals: A Critical Guide. pp. 171-187.
    How does Aristotle view the production of females? The prevailing view is that Aristotle thinks female births are teleological failures of a process aiming to produce males. However, as I argue, that is not a view Aristotle ever expresses, and it blatantly contradicts what he does explicitly say about female births: Aristotle believes that females are and come to be for the sake of something, namely, reproduction. I argue that an alternative to that prevailing view, according to which the embryo’s (...)
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  29. Kant on Moral Agency and Women's Nature.Mari Mikkola - 2011 - Kantian Review 16 (1):89-111.
    Some commentators have condemned Kant’s moral project from a feminist perspective based on Kant’s apparently dim view of women as being innately morally deficient. Here I will argue that although his remarks concerning women are unsettling at first glance, a more detailed and closer examination shows that Kant’s view of women is actually far more complex and less unsettling than that attributed to him by various feminist critics. My argument, then, undercuts the justification for the severe feminist critique of Kant’s (...)
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  30. Prisoner's Dilemma Doesn't Explain Much.Robert Northcott & Anna Alexandrova - 2015 - In Martin Peterson (ed.), The Prisoner’s Dilemma. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 64-84.
    We make the case that the Prisoner’s Dilemma, notwithstanding its fame and the quantity of intellectual resources devoted to it, has largely failed to explain any phenomena of social scientific or biological interest. In the heart of the paper we examine in detail a famous purported example of Prisoner’s Dilemma empirical success, namely Axelrod’s analysis of WWI trench warfare, and argue that this success is greatly overstated. Further, we explain why this negative verdict is likely true generally and not just (...)
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  31.  33
    Pascal’s Wager and the Origins of Decision Theory: Decision-Making by Real Decision-Makers.James Franklin - 2018 - In Paul Bartha & Lawrence Pasternack (eds.), Pascal's Wager. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 27-44.
    Pascal’s Wager does not exist in a Platonic world of possible gods, abstract probabilities and arbitrary payoffs. Real decision-makers, such as Pascal’s “man of the world” of 1660, face a range of religious options they take to be serious, with fixed probabilities grounded in their evidence, and with utilities that are fixed quantities in actual minds. The many ingenious objections to the Wager dreamed up by philosophers do not apply in such a real decision matrix. In the situation Pascal addresses, (...)
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  32.  97
    Kant's Theory of Motivation: A Hybrid Approach.Benjamin S. Yost - 2017 - Review of Metaphysics 71 (2):293-319.
    To vindicate morality against skeptical doubts, Kant must show that agents can be moved to act independently of their sensible desires. Kant must therefore answer a motivational question: how does an agent get from the cognition that she ought to act morally to acting morally? Affectivist interpretations of Kant hold that agents are moved to act by feelings, while intellectualists appeal to cognition alone. To overcome the significant shortcomings of each view, I develop a hybrid theory of motivation. My central (...)
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  33.  19
    Perpetuation of Retracted Publications Using the Example of the Scott S. Reuben Case: Incidences, Reasons and Possible Improvements.Helmar Bornemann-Cimenti, Istvan S. Szilagyi & Andreas Sandner-Kiesling - 2016 - Science and Engineering Ethics 22 (4):1063-1072.
    In 2009, Scott S. Reuben was convicted of fabricating data, which lead to 25 of his publications being retracted. Although it is clear that the perpetuation of retracted articles negatively effects the appraisal of evidence, the extent to which retracted literature is cited had not previously been investigated. In this study, to better understand the perpetuation of discredited research, we examine the number of citations of Reuben’s articles within 5 years of their retraction. Citations of Reuben’s retracted articles were assessed (...)
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  34.  86
    The Good, the Bad, and the Badass: On the Descriptive Adequacy of Kant's Conception of Moral Evil.Mark Timmons - 2017 - In Significance and System: Essays on Kant's Ethics. New York, USA: pp. 293-330.
    This chapter argues for an interpretation of Kant's psychology of moral evil that accommodates the so-called excluded middle cases and allows for variations in the magnitude of evil. The strategy involves distinguishing Kant's transcendental psychology from his empirical psychology and arguing that Kant's character rigorism is restricted to the transcendental level. The chapter also explains how Kant's theory of moral evil accommodates 'the badass'; someone who does evil for evil's sake.
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  35.  24
    What Is the Validity Domain of Einstein’s Equations? Distributional Solutions Over Singularities and Topological Links in Geometrodynamics.Elias Zafiris - 2016 - 100 Years of Chronogeometrodynamics: The Status of the Einstein's Theory of Gravitation in Its Centennial Year.
    The existence of singularities alerts that one of the highest priorities of a centennial perspective on general relativity should be a careful re-thinking of the validity domain of Einstein’s field equations. We address the problem of constructing distinguishable extensions of the smooth spacetime manifold model, which can incorporate singularities, while retaining the form of the field equations. The sheaf-theoretic formulation of this problem is tantamount to extending the algebra sheaf of smooth functions to a distribution-like algebra sheaf in which the (...)
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  36. Simpson's Paradox and Causality.Prasanta S. Bandyopadhyay, Mark Greenwood, Don Dcruz & Venkata Raghavan - 2015 - American Philosophical Quarterly 52 (1):13-25.
    There are three questions associated with Simpson’s Paradox (SP): (i) Why is SP paradoxical? (ii) What conditions generate SP?, and (iii) What should be done about SP? By developing a logic-based account of SP, it is argued that (i) and (ii) must be divorced from (iii). This account shows that (i) and (ii) have nothing to do with causality, which plays a role only in addressing (iii). A counterexample is also presented against the causal account. Finally, the causal and logic-based (...)
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  37.  19
    Charles Peirce's Pragmatic Pluralism.Sandra B. Rosenthal - 1994 - State University of New York Press.
    This work runs counter to the traditional interpretations of Peirce's philosophy by eliciting an inherent strand of pragmatic pluralism that is embedded in the very core of his thought and that weaves his various doctrines into a systematic ...
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  38. C. S. Peirce and the Hispanic Philosophy of the Twentieth Century.Jaime Nubiola - 1998 - Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society 24 (1):31-49.
    A surprising fact in the historiography of the Hispanic philosophy of this century is its almost total opacity towards the American philosophy, in spite of the real affinity between the central questions of American pragmatism and the topics addressed by the most relevant Hispanic thinkers of the century: Unamuno, Ortega y Gasset, d'Ors, Vaz Ferreira. In this paper that situation is studied, paying special attention to Charles S. Peirce, his personal connections with the Hispanic world, the reception of his texts (...)
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  39. Rethinking Plato’s Forms.Necip Fikri Alican & Holger Thesleff - 2013 - Arctos: Acta Philologica Fennica 47:11–47.
    This is a proposal for rethinking the main lines of Plato’s philosophy, including some of the conceptual tools he uses for building and maintaining it. Drawing on a new interpretive paradigm for Plato’s overall vision, the central focus is on the so-called Forms. Regarding the guiding paradigm, we propose replacing the dualism of a world of Forms separated from a world of particulars, with the monistic model of a hierarchically structured universe comprising interdependent levels of reality. Regarding the tools of (...)
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  40. Time's Arrow in a Quantum Universe: On the Status of Statistical Mechanical Probabilities.Eddy Keming Chen - forthcoming - In Valia Allori (ed.), Statistical Mechanics and Scientific Explanation: Determinism, Indeterminism and Laws of Nature. World Scientific.
    In a quantum universe with a strong arrow of time, it is standard to postulate that the initial wave function started in a particular macrostate---the special low-entropy macrostate selected by the Past Hypothesis. Moreover, there is an additional postulate about statistical mechanical probabilities according to which the initial wave function is a ''typical'' choice in the macrostate. Together, they support a probabilistic version of the Second Law of Thermodynamics: typical initial wave functions will increase in entropy. Hence, there are two (...)
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  41.  64
    Lessons of Bell's Theorem: Nonlocality, Yes; Action at a Distance, Not Necessarily.Wayne C. Myrvold - 2016 - In Shan Gao Mary Bell (ed.), Quantum Nonlocality and Reality: 50 Years of Bell's Theorem. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 238-260.
    Fifty years after the publication of Bell's theorem, there remains some controversy regarding what the theorem is telling us about quantum mechanics, and what the experimental violations of Bell inequalities are telling us about the world. This chapter represents my best attempt to be clear about what I think the lessons are. In brief: there is some sort of nonlocality inherent in any quantum theory, and, moreover, in any theory that reproduces, even approximately, the quantum probabilities for the outcomes of (...)
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  42.  24
    Biosemiotics and the Foundation of Cybersemiotics: Reconceptualizing the Insights of Ethology, Second-Order Cybernetics, and Peirce’s Semiotics in Biosemiotics to Create a Non-Cartesian Information Science.Søren Brier - 1999 - Semiotica 127 (1-4):169-198.
    Any great new theoretical framework has an epistemological and an ontological aspect to its philosophy as well as an axiological one, and one needs to understand all three aspects in order to grasp the deep aspiration and idea of the theoretical framework. Presently, there is a widespread effort to understand C. S. Peirce's (1837–1914) pragmaticistic semeiotics, and to develop it by integrating the results of modern science and evolutionary thinking; first, producing a biosemiotics and, second, by integrating it with the (...)
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  43. Zeno's Metrical Paradox of Extension and Descartes' Mind-Body Problem.Rafael Ferber - 2010 - In Stefania Giombini E. Flavia Marcacci (ed.), Estratto da/Excerpt from: Il quinto secolo. Studi di loso a antica in onore di Livio Rossetti a c. di Stefania Giombini e Flavia Marcacci. Aguaplano—Of cina del libro, Passignano s.T. 2010, pp. 295-310 [isbn/ean: 978-88-904213-4-1]. pp. 205-310.
    The article uses Zeno’s metrical paradox of extension, or Zeno’s fundamental paradox, as a thought-model for the mind-body problem. With the help of this model, the distinction contained between mental and physical phenomena can be formulated as sharply as possible. I formulate Zeno’s fundamental paradox and give a sketch of four different solutions to it. Then I construct a mind-body paradox corresponding to the fundamental paradox. Through that, it becomes possible to copy the solutions to the fundamental paradox on the (...)
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  44.  17
    Autonomy and Moral Rationalism: Kant’s Criticisms of ‘Rationalist’ Moral Principles (1762-1785).Stefano Bacin - 2019 - In Stefano Bacin & Oliver Sensen (eds.), The Emergence of Autonomy in Kant's Moral Philosophy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 48-66.
    This paper attempts to shed light on Kant’s notion of autonomy in his moral philosophy by considering Kant’s critique of the rationalist theories of morality that Kant discussed in his lectures on practical philosophy from the 1760s to the time of the Groundwork. The paper first explains Kant’s taxonomy of moral theories. Second, it considers Kant's arguments against the two main variants of ‘rationalism’ as he construes it, that is, perfectionism and theological voluntarism, pointing out the similarities to previous criticisms. (...)
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  45. Wittgenstein’s Method: The Third Phase of Its Development (1933–36).Nikolay Milkov - 2012 - In Marques Antonio (ed.), Knowledge, Language and Mind: Wittgenstein’s Early Investigations. de Gruyter.
    Wittgenstein’s interpreters are undivided that the method plays a central role in his philosophy. This would be no surprise if we have in mind the Tractarian dictum: “philosophy is not a body of doctrine but an activity” (4.112). After 1929, Wittgenstein’s method evolved further. In its final form, articulated in Philosophical Investigations, it was formulated as different kinds of therapies of specific philosophical problems that torment our life (§§ 133, 255, 593). In this paper we follow the changes in Wittgenstein’s (...)
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  46. Peirce's Final Account of Signs and the Philosophy of Language.Albert Atkin - 2008 - Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society 44 (1):pp. 63-85.
    In this paper I examine parallels between C.S. Peirce's most mature account of signs and contemporary philosophy of language. I do this by first introducing a summary of Peirce's final account of Signs. I then use that account of signs to reconstruct Peircian answers to two puzzles of reference: The Problem of Cognitive Significance, or Frege's Puzzle; and The Same-Saying Phenomenon for Indexicals. Finally, a comparison of these Peircian answers with both Fregean and Direct Referentialist approaches to the puzzles highlights (...)
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  47. Motive and Rightness in Kant's Ethical System.Mark Timmons - 2002 - In Kant's Metaphysics of Morals: Interpretative Essays. Oxford University Press.
    Some contemporary intepreters of Kant maintain that on Kant's view fulfilling duties of virtue require doing so from the motive of duty. I argue that there are interpretive and doctinal reasons for rejecting this interpretation. However, I argue that for Kant motives can be deontically relevant; one's motives can affect the deontic status of actions.
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  48.  45
    Expanding Western Definitions of Shamanism: A Conversation with Stephan Beyer, Stanley Krippner, and Hillary S. Webb.Hillary S. Webb - 2013 - Anthropology of Consciousness 24 (1):57-75.
    Where has the Western attraction to the study and practice of shamanic techniques brought us? Where might it take us? In what ways have our Western biases and philosophical underpinnings influenced and changed how shamanism is practiced, both in the West and in the traditional cultures out of which they emerged? Is it time to stop using the umbrella term “shamanism” to refer to such diverse cross-cultural practices? What are our responsibilities, both as researchers and as spiritual seekers? In this (...)
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  49.  37
    Moral Realism by Other Means: The Hybrid Nature of Kant’s Practical Rationalism.Stefano Bacin - 2017 - In Elke Elisabeth Schmidt & Robinson dos Santos (eds.), Realism and Anti-Realism in Kant’s Moral Philosophy. De Gruyter. pp. 155-178.
    After qualifying in which sense ‘realism’ can be applied to eighteenth- century views about morality, I argue that while Kant shares with traditional moral realists several fundamental claims about morality, he holds that those claims must be argued for in a radically different way. Drawing on his diagnosis of the serious weaknesses of traditional moral realism, Kant proposes a novel approach that revolves around a hybrid view about moral obligation. Since his solution to that central issue combines elements of realism (...)
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  50. Real (M)Othering: The Metaphysics of Maternity in Children's Literature.Shelley M. Park - 2005 - In Sally Haslanger & Charlotte Witt (eds.), Real (M)othering: The Metaphysics of Maternity in Children's Literature. In Sally Haslanger and Charlotte Witt, eds. Adoption Matters: Philosophical and Feminist Essays. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. 171-194. Cornell University Press. pp. 171-194.
    This paper examines the complexity and fluidity of maternal identity through an examination of narratives about "real motherhood" found in children's literature. Focusing on the multiplicity of mothers in adoption, I question standard views of maternity in which gestational, genetic and social mothering all coincide in a single person. The shortcomings of traditional notions of motherhood are overcome by developing a fluid and inclusive conception of maternal reality as authored by a child's own perceptions.
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