Aesthetic perception is one of the most interesting topics for philosophers and scientists who investigate how it influences our interactions with objects and states of affairs. Over the last few years, several studies have attempted to determine “how aesthetics is represented in an object,” and how a specific feature of an object could evoke the respective feelings during perception. Despite the vast number of approaches and models, we believe that these explanations do not resolve the problem concerning the conditions under (...) which aesthetic perception occurs, and what constitutes the content of these perceptions. Adopting a naturalistic perspective, we here view aesthetic perception as a normative process that enables agents to enhance their interactions with physical and socio-cultural environments. Considering perception as an anticipatory and preparatory process of detection and evaluation of indications of potential interactions, we argue that the minimal content of aesthetic perception is an emotionally valued indication of interaction potentiality. Aesthetic perception allows an agent to normatively anticipate interaction potentialities, thus increasing sense making and reducing the uncertainty of interaction. This conception of aesthetic perception is compatible with contemporary evidence from neuroscience, experimental aesthetics, and interaction design. The proposed model overcomes several problems of transcendental, art-centered, and objective aesthetics as it offers an alternative to the idea of aesthetic objects that carry inherent values by explaining “the aesthetic” as emergent in perception within a context of uncertain interaction. (shrink)
Even though aesthetics and affordances are two important factors based on which designers provide effective ways of interaction through their artifacts, there is no study or theoretical model that relates these two aspects of design. We suggest a theoretical explanation that relates the underlying functionality of aesthetics, in particular, of interaction aesthetics and of affordances in the design process. Our claim is that interaction aesthetics are one among other factors that allow users to enhance the detection of action possibilities and (...) consequently, the detection of affordances. Our aim is first to discuss the role of interaction aesthetics in the design process, and second to suggest an explanation for their role in the detection of affordances when users interact with artifacts. (shrink)
Exploring emotions, in terms of their evolutionary origin; their basic neurobiological substratum, and their functional significance in autonomous agents, we propose a model of minimal functionality of emotions. Our aim is to provide a naturalized explanation – mostly based on an interactivist model of emergent representation and appraisal theory of emotions – concerning basic aesthetic emotions in the formation of aesthetic judgment. We suggest two processes the Cognitive Variables Subsystem (CVS) which is fundamental for the accomplishment of the function of (...) heuristic learning; and Aesthetic Appraisal Subsystem (AAS) which primarily affects the elicitation of aesthetic emotional meanings. These two subsystems (CVS and AAS) are organizationally connected and affect the action readiness of the autonomous agent. More specifically, we consider the emotional outcome of these two subsystems as a functional indication that strengthens or weakens the anticipation for the resolution of the dynamic uncertainty that emerges in the particular interaction. (shrink)
Nowadays, aesthetics are generally considered as a crucial aspect that affects the way we confront things, events, and states of affairs. However, the functional role of aesthetics in the interaction between agent and environment has not been addressed effectively. Our objective here is to provide an explanation concerning the role of aesthetics, and especially, of the aesthetic experience as a fundamental bodily and emotional activity in the respective interactions. An explanation of the functional role of the aesthetic experience could offer (...) new orientations to our understanding of embodied cognition and of aesthetics as a fundamental part of it. We argue that aesthetic experience, especially its emotional dimension, is an evaluative process that influences the anticipation for stable and successful interactions with the environment. In other words, aesthetics facilitates sense-making as they affect what might be anticipated by an action tendency with respect to an environment. (shrink)
Aesthetic experience, as a cognitive activity is a fundamental part of the interaction process in which an agent attempts to interpret his/her environment in order to support the fundamental process of decision making. Proposing a four-level interactive model, we underline and indicate the functions that provide the operations of aesthetic experience and, by extension, of aesthetic judgment. Particularly in this paper, we suggest an integration of the fundamental Peircean semiotic parameters and their related levels of semiotic organization with the proposed (...) model. Our aim is to provide a further theoretical understanding with respect to the perception of aesthetics and to enrich our models regarding the functionality of aesthetic interpretation, using the theoretical interpretive richness provided by the semiotic perspective. (shrink)
Hippiedom is the latest Cynic apparition. Both make fun of the rat race, money?making, accumulation, consumerism, uptightness, egodependence, Puritanism, racism, nationalism, sexism. Their rebellions transcend particular times and places and share a common target. Even the expressions of rebellion are largely the same, from long hair to panhandling to sexualizing in public. Of course there are differences. Thus the Cynics were not social dropouts, although remember hippie offshoots like the yippies. Nor did they go for artificially?induced highs and self?confidence, though (...) to them guts and freedom (as liberation, not primarily as option or responsibility) were the wildest things, man. (shrink)
In this article I am applying the anthropological term of "cosmology" to the study of Christianity in order to place plural Christian settings under a wider methodological perspective. I am drawing on the findings of my fieldwork in Southwestern Ghana, where I met twelve different Christian denominations and five traditional healers operating in one village. I am sketching a concise image of the local Nzema cosmology and then I am launching an attempt to present its Christian equivalent. Informed by the (...) situation in the field, by general history of Christianity, as well as by my personal understanding of it, my cosmological investigation yields three different Christian cosmologies, which all coincide side by side in African contexts. I see, thus, pluralism as inherent to Christianity itself, rather than as an outcome of cultural encounter between Christianity and local pre-Christian religion. (shrink)
Ioannis Spatharakis has produced a book about the iconography of seventy-three painted churches of Crete. Given the lack of an exhaustive photographic publication of the Byzantine wall paintings of the island and the relatively few monographs on individual churches, in the past forty years scholars have attempted to compile synthetic works with mixed results. Three other volumes have dealt with Cretan frescoes prior to Spatharakis's book reviewed here: K. D. Kalokyris, The Byzantine Wall Paintings of Crete ; Manfred Bissinger, (...) Kreta. Byzantinische Wandmalerei. Münchener Arbeiten zur Kunstgeschichte und Archäologie 4 ; and to a lesser degree Klaus Gallas, Klaus Wessel, and Manolis Borboudakis, Byzantinisches Kreta. Studium und Reise. which is a learned, comprehensive travel guide. (shrink)
San Agustín hace posible el uso de la retórica en la predicación cristiana, tanto en la teoría como en la práctica. Los mismos recursos, pero usados de otra manera. Esto puede analizarse mediante el uso y función de los "signa" en su propia predicación. Los "In Ioannis euangelium tractatus" proporcionan una base sólida para el estudio de los "signa", según los utiliza Agustín.
C'est un témoignage jusque-là inconnu de l'influence des Tractatus in Evangelium Ioannis d'Augustin que cet abrégé de l'ouvrage trouvé dans un fragment du manuscrit Paris lat. 10399 et dans trois manuscrits du IXe s. . Plusieurs passages de cet abrégé sont publiés ici pour la première fois. Les Tractatus in Evangelium Ioannis ont dominé les tentatives de commenter l'Évangile de Jean, faites au début du Moyen Age ; les commentaires, alors publiés, sont ici brièvement discutés.