Results for 'HIV and Pregnancy and Clinical'

1000+ found
Order:
  1.  6
    Equitable Treatment for HIV/AIDS Clinical Trial Participants: A Focus Group Study of Patients, Clinician Researchers, and Administrators in Western Kenya.D. N. Shaffer - 2006 - Journal of Medical Ethics 32 (1):55-60.
    Objectives: To describe the concerns and priorities of key stakeholders in a developing country regarding ethical obligations held by researchers and perceptions of equity or “what is fair” for study participants in an HIV/AIDS clinical drug trial. Design: Qualitative study with focus groups. Setting: Teaching and referral hospital and rural health centre in western Kenya. Participants: Potential HIV/AIDS clinical trial participants, clinician researchers, and administrators. Results: Eighty nine individuals participated in a total of 11 focus groups over a (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   6 citations  
  2.  5
    The Moral Imperative to Approve Pregnant Women’s Participation in Randomized Clinical Trials for Pregnancy and Newborn Complications.Dan Kabonge Kaye - 2019 - Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 14 (1):1-11.
    Background There is longstanding consensus on the need to include pregnant women in research. The goal of clinical research is to find highly regulated, carefully controlled, morally responsible ways to generate evidence about how to effectively and safely prevent illness or treat sick people. This manuscripts present a conceptual analysis of the ethicality of clinical trials in 3 scenarios: where the pregnant is involved in clinical trials as a participant during pregnancy for data that addresses (...) complications, where the pregnant woman consents to clinical trial participation for an unborn baby that has complications, to generate data on complications at this stage of life, and where the mother may consent for participation of their newborn child in clinical trials. Methods Conceptual analysis. Findings Investigators often choose to exclude pregnant women and newborns from research, even where there is possibility for them to benefit from the study intervention. Objections include vulnerability of pregnant women, altered pharmacokinetics and risk of adverse effects, with a need to balance potential maternal and fetal risks and benefits of research participation. While the objections may be valid, not performing research magnifies what should be a carefully controlled risk during research, pushing this risk into the clinical setting, and subsequently posing a challenge to clinicians who are faced with making treatment decisions for pregnant patients with limited evidence of efficacy and safety. The potential benefits of fair inclusion in clinical trials outweigh the potential risks. Conclusion Research involving pregnant women is necessary to provide women with effective treatment during pregnancy, to promote fetal safety, and to reduce avoidable harm from suboptimal care and to provide pregnant women, their fetuses and newborns. (shrink)
    No categories
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  3.  9
    Ethics of Medical Care and Clinical Research: A Qualitative Study of Principal Investigators in Biomedical HIV Prevention Research.B. G. Haire - 2013 - Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (4):231-235.
    In clinical research there is a tension between the role of a doctor, who must serve the best interests of the patient, and the role of the researcher, who must produce knowledge that may not have any immediate benefits for the research participant. This tension is exacerbated in HIV research in low and middle income countries, which frequently uncovers comorbidities other than the condition under study. Some bioethicists argue that as the goals of medicine and those of research are (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  4.  1
    The Moral Imperative to Approve Pregnant Women’s Participation in Randomized Clinical Trials for Pregnancy and Newborn Complications.Dan Kabonge Kaye - 2019 - Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 14 (1):1-11.
    Background There is longstanding consensus on the need to include pregnant women in research. The goal of clinical research is to find highly regulated, carefully controlled, morally responsible ways to generate evidence about how to effectively and safely prevent illness or treat sick people. This manuscripts present a conceptual analysis of the ethicality of clinical trials in 3 scenarios: where the pregnant is involved in clinical trials as a participant during pregnancy for data that addresses (...) complications, where the pregnant woman consents to clinical trial participation for an unborn baby that has complications, to generate data on complications at this stage of life, and where the mother may consent for participation of their newborn child in clinical trials. Methods Conceptual analysis. Findings Investigators often choose to exclude pregnant women and newborns from research, even where there is possibility for them to benefit from the study intervention. Objections include vulnerability of pregnant women, altered pharmacokinetics and risk of adverse effects, with a need to balance potential maternal and fetal risks and benefits of research participation. While the objections may be valid, not performing research magnifies what should be a carefully controlled risk during research, pushing this risk into the clinical setting, and subsequently posing a challenge to clinicians who are faced with making treatment decisions for pregnant patients with limited evidence of efficacy and safety. The potential benefits of fair inclusion in clinical trials outweigh the potential risks. Conclusion Research involving pregnant women is necessary to provide women with effective treatment during pregnancy, to promote fetal safety, and to reduce avoidable harm from suboptimal care and to provide pregnant women, their fetuses and newborns. (shrink)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  5.  9
    Undue Inducement, or Unfair Exclusion: Considering a Case Study of Pregnancy in an HIV Prevention Trial.Bridget G. Haire & Morenike Oluwatoyin Folayan - 2017 - Journal of Medical Ethics 43 (12):829-830.
    In their recent paper‘Undue inducement: a case study in CAPRISA 008’, Mngadi et al conclude that a participant in an HIV prevention study who deliberately concealed her pregnancy was not ‘unduly induced’ to participate by the offer of an experimental product. This paper argues that while the authors’ conclusion is sound, the framing of this case study is consistent with the preoccupation in research ethics with the concept of undue inducement, coupled with a highly risk-averse attitude to pregnancy. (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  6.  2
    The Moral Imperative to Approve Pregnant Women’s Participation in Randomized Clinical Trials for Pregnancy and Newborn Complications.Dan Kabonge Kaye - forthcoming - Most Recent Articles: Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine.
    There is longstanding consensus on the need to include pregnant women in research. The goal of clinical research is to find highly regulated, carefully controlled, morally responsible ways to generate evidence...
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  7.  34
    Pregnancy and Protection: The Ethics of Limiting a Pregnant Woman’s Participation in Clinical Trials.Lori Allesee & Colleen M. Gallagher - 2011 - Journal of Clinical Research and Bioethics 2 (2).
  8.  6
    Clinical Ethics Issues in HIV Care in Canada: An Institutional Ethnographic Study.Chris Kaposy, Nicole R. Greenspan, Zack Marshall, Jill Allison, Shelley Marshall & Cynthia Kitson - 2017 - BMC Medical Ethics 18 (1):9.
    This is a study involving three HIV clinics in the Canadian provinces of Newfoundland and Labrador, and Manitoba. We sought to identify ethical issues involving health care providers and clinic clients in these settings, and to gain an understanding of how different ethical issues are managed by these groups. We used an institutional ethnographic method to investigate ethical issues in HIV clinics. Our researcher conducted in-depth semi-structured interviews, compiled participant observation notes, and studied health records in order to document ethical (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  9.  8
    [Clinical Experimentation with HIV Vaccines: Scientific and Ethical Dilemmas].M. Lallemant & S. Le Coeur - 1994 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 17 (1):151-169.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  10.  26
    Convergent Ethical Issues in HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria Vaccine Trials in Africa: Report From the WHO/UNAIDS African AIDS Vaccine Programme's Ethics, Law and Human Rights Collaborating Centre Consultation, 10-11 February 2009, Durban, South Africa. [REVIEW]Nicole Mamotte, Douglas Wassenaar, Jennifer Koen & Zaynab Essack - 2010 - BMC Medical Ethics 11 (1):3-.
    BackgroundAfrica continues to bear a disproportionate share of the global HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis (TB) and malaria burden. The development and distribution of safe, effective and affordable vaccines is critical to reduce these epidemics. However, conducting HIV/AIDS, TB, and/or malaria vaccine trials simultaneously in developing countries, or in populations affected by all three diseases, is likely to result in numerous ethical challenges.MethodsIn order to explore convergent ethical issues in HIV/AIDS, TB and malaria vaccine trials in Africa, the Ethics, Law and Human Rights (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  11.  12
    Ethical Issues Concerning Disclosures of HIV Diagnoses to Perinatally Infected Children and Adolescents.R. Klitzman, S. Marhefka, C. Mellins & L. Wiener - 2007 - Journal of Clinical Ethics 19 (1):31-42.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  12.  25
    Microbicide Research in Developing Countries: Have We Given the Ethical Concerns Due Consideration?Keymanthri Moodley - 2007 - BMC Medical Ethics 8 (1):1-7.
    Background HIV prevention research has been fraught with ethical concerns since its inception. These concerns were highlighted during HIV vaccine research and have been elaborated in microbicide research. A host of unique ethical concerns pervade the microbicide research process from trial design to post-trial microbicide availability. Given the urgency of research and development in the face of the devastating HIV pandemic, these ethical concerns represent an enormous challenge for investigators, sponsors and Research Ethics Committees (RECs) both locally and internationally. Discussion (...)
    Direct download (10 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   7 citations  
  13.  9
    Resource and Needs of Research Ethics Committees in Africa: Preparations for HIV Vaccine Trials.C. Milford, D. Wassenaar & C. Slack - 2005 - IRB: Ethics & Human Research 28 (2):1-9.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   7 citations  
  14.  33
    Women's Views About Participating in Research While Pregnant.A. D. Lyerly, E. E. Namey, B. Gray, G. Swamy & R. R. Faden - 2012 - IRB: Ethics & Human Research 34 (4):1-8.
    Pregnant women and their interests have been underrepresented in health research. Little is known about issues relevant to women considering research participation during pregnancy. We performed in-depth interviews with 22 women enrolled in either one of two trials sponsored by the National Institutes of Health to assess the safety and immunogenicity of the H1N1 vaccine during pregnancy. Three themes characterized women’s decisions to participate in research: they valued early access to the vaccine, they perceived a safety advantage when (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  15.  11
    The Ethics of Talking About ‘HIV Cure’.Stuart Rennie, Mark Siedner, Joseph D. Tucker & Keymanthri Moodley - 2015 - BMC Medical Ethics 16 (1):18.
    In 2008, researchers reported that Timothy Brown , a man with HIV infection and leukemia, received a stem-cell transplant that removed HIV from his body as far as can be detected. In 2013, an infant born with HIV infection received anti-retroviral treatment shortly after birth, but was then lost to the health care system for the next six months. When tested for HIV upon return, the child had no detectable viral load despite cessation of treatment. These remarkable clinical developments (...)
    Direct download (11 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  16.  57
    Exploitation and Developing Countries: The Ethics of Clinical Research.Jennifer S. Hawkins & Ezekiel J. Emanuel - 2008 - Princeton, NJ, USA: Princeton Univ Pr.
    This book was inspired originally by the debates at the turn of the century about placebo controlled trials of antiretrovirals in HIV positive pregnant women in developing countries. Moving forward from this one limited example, the book includes several additional controversial cases of clinical research conducted in developing countries, and asks probing philosophical questions about the ethics of such trials. All clinical research by its very nature uses people to acquire generalizable knowledge to help future people. But what (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   15 citations  
  17.  99
    HIV Prevention Research and Global Inequality: Steps Towards Improved Standards of Care.K. Shapiro - 2005 - Journal of Medical Ethics 31 (1):39-47.
    Next SectionIntensification of poverty and degradation of health infrastructure over recent decades in countries most affected by HIV/AIDS present formidable challenges to clinical research. This paper addresses the overall standard of health care (SOC) that should be provided to research participants in developing countries, rather than the narrow definition of SOC that has characterised the international debate on standards of health care. It argues that contributing to sustainable improvements in health by progressively ratcheting the standard of care upwards for (...)
    Direct download (10 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   19 citations  
  18.  15
    Preventive Misconception and Adolescents' Knowledge About HIV Vaccine Trials.M. A. Ott, A. B. Alexander, M. Lally, J. B. Steever & G. D. Zimet - 2013 - Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (12):765-771.
    Objective Adolescents have had very limited access to research on biomedical prevention interventions despite high rates of HIV acquisition. One concern is that adolescents are a vulnerable population, and trials carry a possibility of harm, requiring investigators to take additional precautions. Of particular concern is preventive misconception, or the overestimation of personal protection that is afforded by enrolment in a prevention intervention trial. Methods As part of a larger study of preventive misconception in adolescent HIV vaccine trials, we interviewed 33 (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  19.  7
    Post-Trial Access to Study Medication: A Brazilian E-Survey with Major Stakeholders in Clinical Research.S. M. Dainesi & M. Goldbaum - 2012 - Journal of Medical Ethics 38 (12):757-762.
    Objectives To analyse the perspective of clinical research stakeholders concerning post-trial access to study medication. Methods Questionnaires and informed consents were sent through e-mail to 599 ethics committee (EC) members, 290 clinical investigators (HIV/AIDS and Diabetes) and 53 sponsors in Brazil. Investigators were also asked to submit the questionnaire to their research patients. Two reminders were sent to participants. Results The response rate was 21%, 20% and 45% in EC, investigators and sponsors’ groups, respectively. 54 patients answered the (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  20.  12
    Developing Ethics Guidance for HIV Prevention Research: The HIV Prevention Trials Network Approach.Stuart Rennie & Jeremy Sugarman - 2010 - Journal of Medical Ethics 36 (12):810-815.
    More than 25 years into the HIV epidemic, in excess of 2 million new infections continue to occur each year. HIV prevention research is crucial for groups at heightened risk for HIV, but the design and conduct of HIV prevention research with vulnerable populations worldwide raises considerable ethical challenges. The HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) is a global collaborative network that conducts clinical and behavioural studies on non-vaccine interventions to reduce the transmission of HIV. In 2003, the HPTN developed (...)
    Direct download (9 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  21.  15
    Ethical and Legal Constraints to Children's Participation in Research in Zimbabwe: Experiences From the Multicenter Pediatric Hiv Arrow Trial.Mutsawashe Bwakura-Dangarembizi, Rosemary Musesengwa, Kusum Nathoo, Patrick Takaidza, Tawanda Mhute & Tichaona Vhembo - 2012 - BMC Medical Ethics 13 (1):17-.
    Background: Clinical trials involving children previously considered unethical are now considered a necessity because of the inherent physiological differences between children and adults. An integral part of research ethics is the informed consent, which for children is obtained by proxy from a consenting parent or guardian. The informed consent process is governed by international ethical codes that are interpreted in accordance with local laws and procedures raising the importance of contextualizing their implementation.DiscussionThe Zimbabwean parental informed consent document for children (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  22. Terminating Pregnancy After Prenatal Diagnosis--With a Little Help of Professional Ethics?D. Schmitz - 2012 - Journal of Medical Ethics 38 (7):399-402.
    Termination of pregnancy after a certain gestational age and following prenatal diagnosis, in many nations seem to be granted with a special status to the extent that they by law have to be discussed within a predominantly medical context and have physicians as third parties involved in the decision-making process (‘indication-based’ approach). The existing legal frameworks for indication-based approaches, however, do frequently fail to provide clear guidance for the involved physicians. Critics, therefore, asked for professional ethics and professional institutions (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  23.  50
    Are There Adverse Consequences of Quizzing During Informed Consent for HIV Research?J. Sugarman, A. Corneli, D. Donnell, T. Y. Liu, S. Rose, D. Celentano, B. Jackson, A. Aramrattana, L. Wei, Y. Shao, F. Liping, R. Baoling, B. Dye & D. Metzger - 2011 - Journal of Medical Ethics 37 (11):693-697.
    Introduction While quizzing during informed consent for research to ensure understanding has become commonplace, it is unclear whether the quizzing itself is problematic for potential participants. In this study, we address this issue in a multinational HIV prevention research trial enrolling injection drug users in China and Thailand. Methods Enrolment procedures included an informed consent comprehension quiz. An informed consent survey followed. Results 525 participants completed the informed consent survey (Heng County, China=255, Xinjiang, China=229, Chiang Mai, Thailand=41). Mean age was (...)
    Direct download (9 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  24.  16
    National HIV Treatment Guidelines in Tanzania and Ethiopia: Are They Legitimate Rationing Tools?K. A. Johansson, D. Jerene & O. F. Norheim - 2008 - Journal of Medical Ethics 34 (6):478-483.
    Objective: To provide an ethical analysis of whether the Ethiopian and Tanzanian national HIV/AIDS treatment guidelines can be considered legitimate and fair rationing tools.Method: Qualitative study and ethical analysis involving guideline documents and interviews with nine key members involved in the development of the guidelines. The analysis followed an editing organising style. The theoretical framework was a guideline-specific framework based on theories of just resource allocation in healthcare and conditions that ensure fair processes in guideline development. According to this framework, (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  25.  32
    Is Current Practice Around Late Termination of Pregnancy Eugenic and Discriminatory? Maternal Interests and Abortion.J. Savulescu - 2001 - Journal of Medical Ethics 27 (3):165-171.
    The attitudes of Australian practitioners working in clinical genetics and obstetrical ultrasound were surveyed on whether termination of pregnancy (TOP) should be available for conditions ranging from mild to severe fetal abnormality and for non-medical reasons.These were compared for terminations at 13 weeks and 24 weeks. It was found that some practitioners would not facilitate TOP at 24 weeks even for lethal or major abnormalities, fewer practitioners support TOP at 24 weeks compared with 13 weeks for any condition, (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  26.  32
    Ethical Considerations in International HIV Vaccine Trials: Summary of a Consultative Process Conducted by the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS).D. Guenter - 2000 - Journal of Medical Ethics 26 (1):37-43.
    Research that is initiated, designed or funded by sponsor agencies based in countries with relatively high social and economic development, and conducted in countries that are relatively less developed, gives rise to many important ethical challenges. Although clinical trials of HIV vaccines began ten years ago in the US and Europe, an increasing number of trials are now being conducted or planned in other countries, including several that are considered “developing” countries. Safeguarding the rights and welfare of individuals participating (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  27.  23
    Does Professional Orientation Predict Ethical Sensitivities? Attitudes of Paediatric and Obstetric Specialists Toward Fetuses, Pregnant Women and Pregnancy Termination.S. D. Brown, K. Donelan, Y. Martins, S. A. Sayeed, C. Mitchell, T. L. Buchmiller, K. Burmeister & J. L. Ecker - 2014 - Journal of Medical Ethics 40 (2):117-122.
    Background To determine whether fetal care paediatric and maternal–fetal medicine specialists harbour differing attitudes about pregnancy termination for congenital fetal conditions, their perceived responsibilities to pregnant women and fetuses, and the fetus as a patient and whether self-perceived primary responsibilities to fetuses and women and views about the fetus as a patient are associated with attitudes about clinical care.Methods Mail survey of 434 MFM and FCP specialists .Results MFMs were more likely than FCPs to disagree with these statements (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  28.  5
    Stigmatisation, Exaggeration, and Contradiction: An Analysis of Scientific and Clinical Content in Canadian Print Media Discourse About Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder.John Aspler, Natalie Zizzo, Emily Bell, Nina Di Pietro & Eric Racine - 2019 - Canadian Journal of Bioethics / Revue canadienne de bioéthique 2 (2):23-35.
    Background: Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, a complex diagnosis that includes a wide range of neurodevelopmental disabilities, results from exposure to alcohol in the womb. FASD remains poorly understood by Canadians, which could contribute to reported stigma faced by both people with FASD and women who drink alcohol while pregnant. Methods: To better understand how information about FASD is presented in the public sphere, we conducted content analysis of 286 articles from ten major English-language Canadian newspapers. We used inductive coding to (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  29. HIV-Positive Status and Preservation of Privacy: A Recent Decision From the Italian Data Protection Authority on the Procedure of Gathering Personal Patient Data in the Dental Office.A. Conti, P. Delbon, L. Laffranchi, C. Paganelli & F. De Ferrari - 2012 - Journal of Medical Ethics 38 (6):386-388.
    The processing of sensitive information in the health field is subject to rigorous standards that guarantee the protection of information confidentiality. Recently, the Italian Data Protection Authority (Garante per la Protezione dei Dati Personali) stated their formal opinion on a standard procedure in dental offices involving the submission of a questionnaire that includes the patient's health status. HIV infection status is included on the form. The Authority has stated that all health data collection must be in accordance with the current (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  30.  14
    Responsibly Counselling Women About the Clinical Management of Pregnancies Complicated by Severe Fetal Anomalies.F. Chervenak & L. B. McCullough - 2012 - Journal of Medical Ethics 38 (7):397-398.
    Heuser, Eller and Byrne provide important descriptive ethics data about how physicians counsel women on the clinical management of pregnancies complicated by severe fetal anomalies. The authors present an account of what such counselling ought to be based on, the ethical concept of the fetus as a patient and the professional responsibility model of obstetric ethics. When there is certainty about the diagnosis and either a very high probability of either death as the outcome of the anomaly or survival (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  31.  9
    A Qualitative Study on the Voluntariness of Counselling and Testing for HIV Amongst Antenatal Clinic Attendees: Do Women Have a Choice?Tausi S. Haruna, Evelyne Assenga & Judith Shayo - 2018 - BMC Medical Ethics 19 (1):92.
    Mother-to-child transmission of the Human Immunodeficiency –Virus is a serious public health problem, contributing up to 90% of childhood HIV infections. In Tanzania, the prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission feature of the HIV programme was rolled out in 2000. The components of PMTCT include counselling and HIV testing directed at antenatal clinic attendees. It is through the process of Provider Initiated Counseling and Testing that counselling is offered participant confidentiality and voluntariness are upheld and valid consent obtained. The objective of the study was to (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  32.  13
    Risk of Disclosure of Participating in an Internet-Based HIV Behavioural Risk Study of Men Who Have Sex with Men.C. M. Khosropour & P. S. Sullivan - 2011 - Journal of Medical Ethics 37 (12):768-769.
    As the frequency of internet-based research has increased, it is important for researchers to consider how the conditions in which data are collected may influence the risks to participants. In particular, because internet-based data collection often occurs outside a clinical or research setting, there may be unintentional disclosures of a participant's involvement in a research study of which the researcher is unaware. The current analysis examined the responses of men who have sex with men participating in an internet-based HIV (...)
    Direct download (9 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  33.  14
    Diet in Pregnancy, 1930–1960: A Shifting Social, Political and Scientific Concern.Najia Sultan - 2010 - Medical Humanities 36 (2):118-121.
    The diet of expectant mothers was a significant issue of social, political and scientific concern between 1930 and 1960. However, while histories of maternity services and nutritional science are independently available, no existing study addresses the nutrition of expectant mothers in this period. Between 1900 and 1930, maternal mortality rates were rising despite improving clinical antenatal provisions. Breakthroughs in nutritional science resulted in the identification of key dietary components, while changing social attitudes meant hunger was increasingly being seen as (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  34.  9
    Ethical Considerations for HIV Cure-Related Research at the End of Life.Karine Dubé, Sara Gianella, Susan Concha-Garcia, Susan J. Little, Andy Kaytes, Jeff Taylor, Kushagra Mathur, Sogol Javadi, Anshula Nathan, Hursch Patel, Stuart Luter, Sean Philpott-Jones, Brandon Brown & Davey Smith - 2018 - BMC Medical Ethics 19 (1):83.
    The U.S. National Institute of Allergies and Infectious Diseases and the National Institute of Mental Health have a new research priority: inclusion of terminally ill persons living with HIV in HIV cure-related research. For example, the Last Gift is a clinical research study at the University of California San Diego for PLWHIV who have a terminal illness, with a prognosis of less than 6 months. As end-of-life HIV cure research is relatively new, the scientific community has a timely opportunity (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  35.  4
    The Use of Log-Linear Analysis for Pregnancy Prediction.Anna Justyna Milewska, Dorota Citko, Dorota Jankowska, Rafał Milewski, Katarzyna Konończuk, Teresa Więsak, Allen Morgan & Robert Milewski - 2018 - Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric 56 (1):7-18.
    Log-linear analysis is a practical tool for examining relationships, successfully applied in many fields of science. This paper discusses the topic of estimation of the chance of getting pregnant in couples that underwent ART insemination. The authors focus on finding significant interactions between variables, on the basis of which statistical models are built. With the use of results of log-linear analysis, a model predicting the chances of achieving a clinical pregnancy that contained interactions was successfully built. Moreover, it (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  36.  78
    Selective Reduction of Pregnancy: A Legal Analysis.A. Hall - 1996 - Journal of Medical Ethics 22 (5):304-308.
    This article examines the technique and legality of induced abortion of one or more fetuses in a multiple pregnancy, where the aim is the destruction of some but not all of the fetuses present (selective reduction of pregnancy). It concludes that since the legal status of the procedure in English law is unclear, it may be a criminal offence to perform selective reduction even where there is an ostensible clinical need. Moreover if the procedure is carried out (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  37.  11
    The Ethics of Anonymised HIV Testing of Pregnant Women: A Reappraisal.A. J. Pinching - 2000 - Journal of Medical Ethics 26 (1):22-24.
    Dr de Zulueta articulates some important and commonly held concerns about the anonymised screening programme for HIV in pregnant women, which is one of a number of such programmes that are current. However, in my view, many of these concerns reflect a failure to understand two key distinctions.In both these regards, there is a danger of putting up a “straw man” for challenge. In this commentary, I wish to pick up some of these issues to help to resolve the apparent (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  38.  13
    Selecting Subjects for Participation in Clinical Research: One Sphere of Justice.Charles Weijer - 1999 - Journal of Medical Ethics 25 (1):31-36.
    Recent guidelines from the US National Institutes of Health (NIH) mandate the inclusion of adequate numbers of women in clinical trials. Ought such standards to apply internationally? Walzer's theory of justice is brought to bear on the problem, the first use of the theory in research ethics, and it argues for broad application of the principle of adequate representation. A number of practical conclusions for research ethics committees (RECs) are outlined. Eligibility criteria in clinical trials ought to be (...)
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  39.  12
    Ethics of Treatment Interruption Trials in HIV Cure Research: Addressing the Conundrum of Risk/Benefit Assessment.Gail E. Henderson, Holly L. Peay, Eugene Kroon, Rosemary Jean Cadigan, Karen Meagher, Thidarat Jupimai, Adam Gilbertson, Jill Fisher, Nuchanart Q. Ormsby, Nitiya Chomchey, Nittaya Phanuphak, Jintanat Ananworanich & Stuart Rennie - forthcoming - Journal of Medical Ethics:medethics-2017-104433.
    Though antiretroviral therapy is the standard of care for people living with HIV, its treatment limitations, burdens, stigma and costs lead to continued interest in HIV cure research. Early-phase cure trials, particularly those that include analytic treatment interruption, involve uncertain and potentially high risk, with minimal chance of clinical benefit. Some question whether such trials should be offered, given the risk/benefit imbalance, and whether those who choose to participate are acting rationally. We address these questions through a longitudinal decision-making (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  40.  3
    The Psychology of “Cure” - Unique Challenges to Consent Processes in HIV Cure Research in South Africa.Keymanthri Moodley, Ciara Staunton, Theresa Rossouw, Malcolm de Roubaix, Zoe Duby & Donald Skinner - 2019 - BMC Medical Ethics 20 (1):9.
    Consent processes for clinical trials involving HIV prevention research have generated considerable debate globally over the past three decades. HIV cure/eradication research is scientifically more complex and consequently, consent processes for clinical trials in this field are likely to pose a significant challenge. Given that research efforts are now moving toward HIV eradication, stakeholder engagement to inform appropriate ethics oversight of such research is timely. This study sought to establish the perspectives of a wide range of stakeholders in (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (3 more)  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  41.  19
    ‘Miscarriage or Abortion?’ Understanding the Medical Language of Pregnancy Loss in Britain; a Historical Perspective.Andrew Moscrop - 2013 - Medical Humanities 39 (2):98-104.
    Clinical language applied to early pregnancy loss changed in late twentieth century Britain when doctors consciously began using the term ‘miscarriage’ instead of ‘abortion’ to refer to this subject. Medical professionals at the time and since have claimed this change as an intuitive empathic response to women's experiences. However, a reading of medical journals and textbooks from the era reveals how the change in clinical language reflected legal, technological, professional and social developments. The shift in language is (...)
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  42.  20
    Doctors' Views About the Importance of Shared Values in HIV Positive Patient Care: A Qualitative Study.A. Lawlor - 2004 - Journal of Medical Ethics 30 (6):539-543.
    Robert Veatch has proposed a model of the doctor-patient relationship that has as its foundation the sharing of values between the doctor and the patient. This paper uses qualitative research conducted with six doctors involved in the long term, specialised care of HIV positive patients in South Australia to explore the practical application of Veatch’s value sharing model in that setting. The research found that the doctors in this study linked “values” with sexual identity such that they defined value sharing, (...)
    Direct download (10 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  43.  5
    Moving the Needle: Strengthening Ethical Protections for People Who Inject Drugs in Clinical Trials.Daniel Wolfe - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (3):161-162.
    Those researching HIV prevention measures for people who inject drugs face a dilemma. Regions where baseline HIV prevalence and onward transmission via injecting is sufficiently high to power HIV prevention trials are also those where repressive laws, policies and practices raise concerns about the ethics of research subject protection. Dawson et al, outlining criteria to address ethical challenges in HIV prevention research among PWID, recommend that all trial participants be offered sterile injecting equipment and urge additional strategies to limit research (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  44.  13
    Challenges in the Provision of ICU Services to HIV Infected Children in Resource Poor Settings: A South African Case Study.P. M. Jeena - 2005 - Journal of Medical Ethics 31 (4):226-230.
    The HIV/AIDS epidemic has placed increasing demands on limited paediatric intensive care services in developing countries. The decision to admit HIV infected children with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia into the paediatric intensive care unit has to be made on the best available evidence of outcome and the ethical principles guiding appropriate use of scarce resources. The difficulty in confirming the diagnosis of HIV infection and PCP in infancy, issues around HIV counselling, and the variance in the outcome of HIV infected children (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  45.  10
    Revisiting the Ethics of HIV Prevention Research in Developing Countries.Charles Weijer & Guy LeBlanc - unknown
    Issues: We present key aspects of our paper, commissioned by UNAIDS in 2005, entitled, “Revisiting the ethics of HIV prevention research in developing countries.” In 2004 and 2005 we witnessed the closure or suspension of three international clinical trials testing tenofovir in the prevention of HIV infection in high risk groups due to the failure to provide free treatment to those who seroconvert during the conduct of the study. We examine critically moral claims for the provision of treatment to (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  46.  8
    The Views of Genitourinary Medicine (GUM) Clinic Users on Unlinked Anonymous Testing for HIV: Evidence From a Pilot Study of Clinics in Two English Cities.J. Datta, A. Kessel, K. Wellings, K. Nanchahal, D. Marks & G. Kinghorn - 2011 - Journal of Medical Ethics 37 (11):668-672.
    A study was undertaken of the views of users of two genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinics in England on unlinked anonymous testing (UAT) for HIV. The UAT programme measures the prevalence of HIV in the population, including undiagnosed prevalence, by testing residual blood (from samples taken for clinical purposes) which is anonymised and irreversibly unlinked from the source. 424 clinic users completed an anonymous questionnaire about their knowledge of, and attitudes towards, UAT. Only 1/7 (14%) were aware that blood left (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  47.  4
    Perspectives on the Ethical Concerns and Justifications of the 2006 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention HIV Testing: HIV Screening Policy Changes.Michael J. Waxman, Roland C. Merchant, M. T. Celada & Melissa A. Clark - 2013 - BMC Medical Ethics 14 (1):46.
    The 2006 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) revised recommendations for HIV testing in clinical settings contained seven specific changes to how health care facilities should provide HIV testing. These seven elements have been both supported and challenged in the lay and medical literature. Our first paper in BMC Medical Ethics presented an analysis of the three HIV testing procedural changes included in the recommendations. In this paper, we address the four remaining elements that concern HIV screening policy (...)
    Direct download (10 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  48.  75
    Bioethics, Vulnerability, and Protection.Ruth Macklin - 2003 - Bioethics 17 (5-6):472--486.
    What makes individuals, groups, or even entire countries vulnerable? And why is vulnerability a concern in bioethics? A simple answer to both questions is that vulnerable individuals and groups are subject to exploitation, and exploitation is morally wrong. This analysis is limited to two areas. First is the context of multinational research, in which vulnerable people can be exploited even if they are not harmed, and harmed even if they are not exploited. Second is the situation of women, who are (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   39 citations  
  49.  13
    Ethical and Legal Constraints to Children’s Participation in Research in Zimbabwe: Experiences From the Multicenter Pediatric Hiv Arrow Trial.Mutsa Bwakura-Dangarembizi, Rosemary Musesengwa, Kusum J. Nathoo, Patrick Takaidza, Tawanda Mhute & Tichaona Vhembo - 2012 - BMC Medical Ethics 13 (1):17.
    Clinical trials involving children previously considered unethical are now considered essential because of the inherent physiological differences between children and adults. An integral part of research ethics is the informed consent, which for children is obtained by proxy from a consenting parent or guardian. The informed consent process is governed by international ethical codes that are interpreted in accordance with local laws and procedures raising the importance of contextualizing their implementation.
    Direct download (10 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  50.  9
    The Principle of Cooperation in Confidential Withholdings of HIV Status From Partners of Sexually Active Patients Who Do Not Intend to Disclose: A Role for Organizational Moral Agency.Peter A. Depergola Ii - 2018 - Journal of Clinical Research and Bioethics 9 (2).
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
1 — 50 / 1000