The idea of objectivity is primary in Gottlob Frege’s thought, not only for his conception of logic and mathematics, but also for his philosophy as a whole. He deals with the topic for the first time in 1884, in Grundlagen der Arithmetik, precisely in paragraph 26. He distinguishes the objective from the subjective, of course, but also from the real, what he calls the actual (wirklich in German). In order to be perfectly understood, he gives as example the colors but, (...) above all, to explain what is objective in geometry and space, he proceeds to a «thought-experiment», founded on the principle of duality. It is this aspect that I emphasize here, in the general framework ofparagraph 26 and in conjunction with Frege’s other works. (shrink)
This is the first English-language introduction to Peter Sloterdijk, the distinguished German philosopher and controversial public intellectual. Sloterdijk, in the tradition of Nietzsche and Heine, is an iconoclast who uses humour and biting critique to challenge many of modernitys sacred thinkers, from Kant to Heidegger, in the process radically reinterpreting the canon of Western philosophy. In this unique textbook, leading Sloterdijk expert Jean-Pierre Couture explains in accessible language Sloterdijks exceptional contribution, breaking his thought down into five key approaches: (...) psychopolitics, anthropotechnics, spherology, controversy, and therapeutics. Sloterdijks frequent public controversies, with supporters of Habermas and the Frankfurt school in particular, are assessed and their significance for current philosophical debates explained. This fascinating book will be an essential companion for those interested in the hybrid aesthetics of thought situated at the crossroads of art and philosophy. Its up-to-date analyses of Sloterdijks recently translated corpus will make it essential reading for all students and scholars of modern European thought. (shrink)
Here Jean-Pierre Changeux elucidates our current knowledge of the human brain, taking an interdisciplinary approach and explaining in layman's terms the complex theories and scientific breakthroughs that have significantly improved our ...
This volume is about searching for fundamental theory in physics which has become somewhat elusive in recent decades. Like a group of blind men investigating an elephant, one physicist postulates the trunk as a hose, another a leg as a tree, the body a wall or barrier, the tail a rope and the ears as a fan. The organizers of the Vigier series symposia strongly believe cross polination by exploring many avenues of seemingly disparate research is key to breakthrough discovery (...) and solicited papers on all areas of physics deemed pertinent in Astrophysics, Cosmology, nuclear physics, quantum theory, electromagnetism, thermodynamics, vacuum field theory and topology. (shrink)
In an age of nationalisation of international educational policy, or vice versa, the politics and conflicts behind such policies often take centre stage to the detriment of professional expertise. In response, this article develops a nuanced critical realism to propose a practice-based development and implementation of educational policy reforms. Based on empirical reports of head teachers’ subversive practice, the article concludes by highlighting that professional expertise is a central component, dubbed ‘formless capability’, that all stakeholders use to turn policy intentions (...) into policy actions. Actuality consists of the three traditional domains of critical realism – the real, the actual and the empirical – whose importance is derived from whether it is a means to or an end in itself. It is argued here that empirical experiences of leading schools are the stage of actuality that is directly... (shrink)
Tradução do livro: Sociologias da alimentação: os comedores e o espaço social alimentar. Florianópolis, Editora da UFSC, 2004, 311 páginas. Obra traduzida juntamente com Rossana Pacheco da Costa Proença e Carmen Silvia Rial. ISBN 85.328.0290-7. [Título original: Sociologies de l'alimentation: Les mangeurs et l'espace social alimentair. Obra publicada originalmente pela PUF, Paris, 2002. Edição original 288 páginas. ISBN: 213050643. Janeiro 2003, 2e édition. Etnologia-Antropologia].
Jean-Pierre Dupuy, prophet of what he calls "enlightened doomsaying," has long warned that modern society is on a path to self-destruction. In this book, he pleads for a subversion of this crisis from within, arguing that it is our lopsided view of religion and reason that has set us on this course. In denial of our sacred origins and hubristically convinced of the powers of human reason, we cease to know our own limits: our disenchanted world leaves us (...) defenseless against a headlong rush into the abyss of global warming, nuclear holocaust, and the other catastrophes that loom on our horizon. Reviving the religious anthropology of Max Weber, Emile Durkheim, and Marcel Mauss and in dialogue with the work of René Girard, Dupuy shows that we must remember the world's sacredness in order to keep human violence in check. A metaphysical and theological detective, he tracks the sacred in the very fields where human reason considers itself most free from everything it judges irrational: science, technology, economics, political and strategic thought. In making such claims, The Mark of the Sacred takes on religion bashers, secularists, and fundamentalists at once. Written by one of the deepest and most versatile thinkers of our time, it militates for a world where reason is no longer an enemy of faith. (shrink)
Prosocial compensation is a corporate social responsibility practice that involves donating money to a charitable cause on behalf of customers as a means to compensate them for their loss after a service failure. In order to determine the effectiveness of PC, we carried out three experiments while also comparing its effectiveness within private and public settings. Experiment 1 focused on the signaling effects of communicating the promise to offer PC to potential customers in the event of service failure. Results show (...) that, in both private and public settings, PC has positive effects on corporate image, credibility, and word-of-mouth intent. More significantly, PC improved one’s CSR image, whereas more tangible compensation, such as a gift voucher, did not. Experiments 2A and 2B focused on the effects of offering PC after a service failure on perceptions of justice. Results show that PC contributes to perceived distributive justice, procedural justice, and post-recovery satisfaction in both private and public settings. Our study showed that PC could be a relevant new CSR practice for organizations wanting to enhance theirs CSR image while contributing to fulfilling their ethical and philanthropic CSR responsibilities. We discuss the implications of our findings and offer several avenues for follow-up research on this initial study on PC. (shrink)
Jean-Pierre Vernant delineates a compelling new vision of ancient Greece that takesus far from the calm and familiar images of Polykleitos and the Parthenon, and reveals a culture ofslavery, of blood sacrifice, of perpetual and ritualized warfare, of ceremonial hunting andecstasies.In his provocative discussions of various institutions and practices including war,marriage, and the city state, Vernant unveils a complex and previously unexplored intersection ofthe religious, social, and political structures of ancient Greece. He concludes with a genealogy ofthe study (...) of myth from antiquity to the present, and offers a critique of structuralism.Jean-PierreVernant is Professor Emeritus of Comparative Study of Ancient Religions at the College de France inParis. (shrink)
An examination of the fundamental role cybernetics played in the birth of cognitive science and the light this sheds on current controversies. The conceptual history of cognitive science remains for the most part unwritten. In this groundbreaking book, Jean-Pierre Dupuy—one of the principal architects of cognitive science in France—provides an important chapter: the legacy of cybernetics. Contrary to popular belief, Dupuy argues, cybernetics represented not the anthropomorphization of the machine but the mechanization of the human. The founding fathers (...) of cybernetics—some of the greatest minds of the twentieth century, including John von Neumann, Norbert Wiener, Warren McCulloch, and Walter Pitts—intended to construct a materialist and mechanistic science of mental behavior that would make it possible at last to resolve the ancient philosophical problem of mind and matter. The importance of cybernetics to cognitive science, Dupuy argues, lies not in its daring conception of the human mind in terms of the functioning of a machine but in the way the strengths and weaknesses of the cybernetics approach can illuminate controversies that rage today—between cognitivists and connectionists, eliminative materialists and Wittgensteinians, functionalists and anti-reductionists. Dupuy brings to life the intellectual excitement that attended the birth of cognitive science sixty years ago. He separates the promise of cybernetic ideas from the disappointment that followed as cybernetics was rejected and consigned to intellectual oblivion. The mechanization of the mind has reemerged today as an all-encompassing paradigm in the convergence of nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology, and cognitive science. The tensions, contradictions, paradoxes, and confusions Dupuy discerns in cybernetics offer a cautionary tale for future developments in cognitive science. (shrink)
A Study of the History and Philosophy of Category Theory Jean-Pierre Marquis. to say that objects are dispensable in geometry. What is claimed is that the specific nature of the objects used is irrelevant. To use the terminology already ...
JeanPierre-Vernant and Pierre Vidal-Naquet are leaders in a contemporary French classical scholarship that has produced a a stunning reconfiguration of Greek thought and literature. In this work, published here as a single volume, the authors present a disturbing and decidedly non-classical reading of Greek tragedy that insists on its radical discontinuity with our own outlook and with our social, aesthetic, and psychological categories. Originally published in French in two volumes, this new single-volume edition includes revised essays (...) from volume one and is the first English translation of both volumes.Pierre Vidal-Naquet is Director of Studies and Professor of Sociology at the Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes in Paris. JeanPierre-Vernant is Professor Emeritus of Comparative Study of Ancient Religions at the Coll?ge de France. Janet Lloyd is a translator and writer living in England. Distributed for Zone Books. (shrink)
Partant des fondements multidimensionnels de l’action, choix, décision et projet sont présentés comme trois grands modes de détermination des personnes et des groupes dans l’action. Ces trois modes n’ont pas la même importance ni la même place dans les grandes théories de l’action. Une explication majeure réside dans le traitement de la temporalité. L’action sociale comprise comme processus engage à poser la préséance du projet, porteur d’une temporalité englobante, au regard du choix et de la décision qui s’inscrivent dans des (...) temporalités plus ponctuelles. Le concept de projet, qui trouve ses origines dans les sphères de l’architecture, de la philosophie, de la politique comme des sciences et techniques, témoigne aussi aisément de sa nature fondamentalement transdisciplinaire. Il semble à même de jouer un rôle important pour fonder une perspective pluridisciplinaire sur le plan paradigmatique et théorique comme sur celui des postures de recherche.Starting from the multidimensional foundations of action, choice, decision and project, these components are presented as the three main determination modes in action by individuals and groups. However, these three modes do not have the same importance or the same place in the main theories of action. A major explanation for this lies in the treatment of temporality/approach to temporality. Social action is understood as a process that involves putting precedence on the project, which carries an all-encompassing temporality, with regard to choices and decisions that are part of more limited temporalities. The concept of project, with its origin in the spheres of architecture, philosophy, politics as well as science and technology, easily testifies to its fundamentally transdisciplinary nature. It appears to be able to play an important role in the founding of a multidisciplinary perspective at both the paradigmatic and theoretical levels, as well as with regard to the postures of research. (shrink)
There were three such assumptions required, one explicitly stated, and two not made explicit until Bayle. The explicit one was a certain commonly accepted double understanding of ‘destruction’: a ‘natural’ version, which made it no more than a change in a particular arrangement or ‘organization’ of particles through which an aggregate was destroyed by losing its identity, and a metaphysical version, which entailed the actual annihilation of a substance. It was assumed that the latter could be accomplished only by miraculous (...) supra-natural means available only to God. Thus, if it could be shown that the soul was ‘without parts,’ it followed that the soul was ‘naturally’ indestructible and thus immortal. Bayle summarized the Cartesian argument to immortality as follows. (shrink)
If such a thing as nanoethics is possible, it can only develop by confronting the great questions of moral philosophy, thus avoiding the pitfalls so common to regional ethics. We identify and analyze some of these pitfalls: the restriction of ethics to prudence understood as rational risk management; the reduction of ethics to cost/benefit analysis; the confusion of technique with technology and of human nature with the human condition. Once these points have been clarified, it is possible to take up (...) some weighty philosophical and metaphysical questions which are not new, but which need to be raised anew with respect to nanotechnologies: the artificialization of nature; the question of limits; the role of religion; the finiteness of the human condition as something with a beginning and an end; the relationship between knowledge and know-how; the foundations of ethics. (shrink)
A partir de entrevistas realizadas numa empresa de informática em momentos diferentes, dos anos oitenta aos anos noventa, junto a vários agentes que trabalhavam nesse local, este artigo expõe como, atrás das relações de trabalho aparentemente descontraídas, a busca pela "transparência" obriga cada um dos assalariados a trabalhar sob o olhar dos outros, e as avaliações constantes dos desempenhos são indicadores de tensões que suscita a intensificação da concorrência. Também é exigido do pessoal subalterno uma parte cada vez maior de (...) atividade e de "comunicação". Enfim, verifica-se que as relações de trabalho são inseparavelmente relações de dominação, onde cada posto, ao mesmo tempo que implica o domínio de uma competência técnica especifica, demanda as qualidades ordinariamente exigidas do pessoal de serviço. (shrink)