THIS ESSAY will examine the connection between the subjectivity of man as a person and the structure of the human community. That relationship was tentatively explored in The Acting Person, especially in the chapter entitled "Participation." The present study is an attempt to develop insights initially introduced there.
There are aspects of privacy theory that are analogous to quantum theory. In particular one can define distillable key and key cost in parallel to distillable entanglement and entanglement cost. We present here classical privacy theory as a particular case of information theory with adversaries, where similar general laws hold as in entanglement theory. We place the result of Renner and Wolf—that intrinsic information is lower bound for key cost—into this general formalism. Then we show that the question of whether (...) intrinsic information is equal to key cost is equivalent to the question of whether Alice and Bob can create a distribution product with Eve using I M bits of secret key. We also propose a natural analogue of relative entropy of entanglement in privacy theory and show that it is equal to the intrinsic information. We also provide a formula analogous to the entanglement of formation for classical distributions. (shrink)
This devastating polemical critique of the existentialist philosophy of Martin Heidegger is a monumental study in Adorno's effort to apply qualitative analysis to the content and impact of cultural phenomena.
What, if anything, has art to do with the rest of our lives, and in particular with those ethical and political issues that matter to us most? Will art created today be likely to play a role in our lives as profound as that of the best art of the past? A Theory of Art shifts the focus of aesthetics from the traditional debate of "what is art?" to the engaging question of "what is art for?" Skillfully describing the social (...) and historical situation of art today, author Karol Berger argues that music exemplifies the current condition of art in a radical, acute, and revealing fashion. He also uniquely combines aesthetics with poetics and hermeneutics. Offering a careful synthesis of a wide breadth of scholarship from art history, musicology, literary studies, political philosophy, ethics, and metaphysics, and written in a clear, accessible style, this book will appeal to anyone with a serious interest in the arts. (shrink)
The golden rule, the ethical principle that we should do to others what we want others to do to us, is known also in Christian tradition as the rule of love of neighbor. The aim of this paper is to inquire the relationship between two levels of meaning of the golden rule according to Karol Wojtyla’s philosophical investigations, prior to his pontificate. One strand of the actual debate on the golden rule concerns its anthropological roots and ethical meaning. (...) class='Hi'>Karol Wojtyla’s philosophical approach to the golden rule involves both the investigation of its anthropological roots and its ethical requirements. Indeed, there is a pre-ethical sense of the golden rule in Karol Wojtyla, which is linked to his phenomenological approach to human person and life in community. At this level, the golden rule is described from the perspective of the self-fulfillment logic, which manifests the personalist value of human action. On the other hand, there is also a second sense, properly ethical, of the golden rule, thanks to which developed his perspective of self-donation as a condition for self-fulfillment. In this wojtylian perspective, what makes golden a moral rule is its ability to integrate and complement the search for self-realization with the fulfillment of another through the gift of oneself. (shrink)
El incesante retorno de Karol Wojtyla al estudio del hombre y la defensa de la dignidad de la persona no son hechos producto del azar o del mero interés del pensador, sino que son resultado de la experiencia del fenómeno del totalitarismo durante el transcurso de la Segunda Guerra Mundial; además, sufrió todo el desprecio de la barbarie nazi y la posterior llegada del comunismo a su nación; estas “ideologías del mal” como él las llamó, dan cuenta de la (...) naturaleza verdadera y radical del mal, del olvido del otro y de la desestimación sistemática por la vida humana. Este artículo es una descripción del ejercicio de poder y dominación ejecutados concretamente por Adolf Hitler a Polonia durante el paso de la guerra por ese país, tierra natal del Papa. El objeto de estudio es la comprensión, en términos de causalidad, del pensamiento de Wojtyla: personalismo y humanismo cristiano; los términos “totalitarismo”, “geopolíica”, “personalismo” y la figura de Hitler son esenciales. Los pensadores no se hacen solos, su temperamento es fruto del contexto en el que vivieron. En este análisis, para hacer más fina esa comprensión pretendida, son citados otros autores que han ampliado el horizonte de comprensión sobre el fenómeno citado, por ejemplo Hannah Arendt y Joan Carles Mélich. (shrink)
_Beyond Reason_ relates Wagner’s works to the philosophical and cultural ideas of his time, centering on the four music dramas he created in the second half of his career:_ Der Ring des Nibelungen_, _Tristan und Isolde_, _Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg_, and _Parsifal_. Karol Berger seeks to penetrate the “secret” of large-scale form in Wagner’s music dramas and to answer those critics, most prominently Nietzsche, who condemned Wagner for his putative inability to weld small expressive gestures into larger wholes. Organized (...) by individual opera, this is essential reading for both musicologists and Wagner experts. (shrink)
Sex reassignment surgery raises a number of ethical questions. This article examines a few of these questions through the lens of Karol Wojtyla’s philosophical anthropology. The author maintains that the operation is based on a dualistic view of the person and a distorted understanding of the human capacity for self-determination. In his work, Wojtyla emphasizes the inseparable connection between freedom and truth, and he argues that the person is a unity of body and spirit, so that the body cannot (...) be reduced to mere matter. Therefore, the author concludes that sex reassignment surgery must be seen as morally illicitin light of Wojtyla’s anthropology. National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 9.4 : 711–723. (shrink)
An important milestone of 20th Century philosophy was the rise of personalism. After the crimes and atrocities against millions of human beings in two World Wars, especially the Second, some philosophers and other thinkers began to seek arguments showing the value of each human being, to expose and denounce the folly of political structures that violate the inalienable rights of the individual person. -/- Karol Wojtyla appeals to the ancient concept of 'person' to emphasize the particular value of each (...) human being. The person is unique because of their subjectivity by which they possesses an unrepeatable interior world in the history of humanity. Their rational nature grants them a special character among living beings, among which is the transcendence to the infinite. Wojtyla magisterially shows how each human being's personhood is rooted in a conscious and free subjectivity, which is marked also by personal and social responsibility. Wojtyla's original philosophical analysis takes for its starting point the human act, in which consciousness and experience consolidate voluntary choices, which are objectively efficacious. By their acts, the person determines their own personhood. This self-dominion manifests the person and enables them to live together in a community in which one's neighbor can be a companion on the voyage of life. -/- This work provides a clear guide to Karol Wojtyla's principal philosophical work, Person and Act, rigorously analyzing the meaning that the author intended in his exposition. An important feature of the work is that the authors rely on the original Polish text, Osoba i czyn, as well as the best translations into Italian and Spanish, rather than on a flawed and sometimes misleading English edition of the work. -/- Besides the analysis of Wojtyla's masterwork, this volume offers three chapters examining the impact of Wojtyla's anthropology on the relationship between faith and reason. (shrink)
This short essay by Karol Kuzmány (1806–1866), a founding father of Slovak aesthetic thinking, was written in Czech and published in 1836 in Hronka, a periodical edited by the author. In the essay, Kuzmány follows on from the thinking of his teacher at Jena, Jakob Friedrich Fries (1773–1843), particularly Fries’s theory of Ahn(d)ung (intuitive awareness). In the introduction, Kuzmány emphasizes that his concern is to bridge the gap between the theory of imitation and the theory of art based on (...) imagination. In the first part of the essay, concerning general aesthetics, Kuzmány presents his theory of beauty – the feeling of the essence of things through perception by the mind (Anschauung or intuitus mentis); the basic idea – truth, the moral good, and beauty – according to Kuzmány, comprises the idea of religion in the broader sense – Humanität, humanitas. Rather than the opposite of beauty, the sublime constitutes beauty’s being raised to a qualitatively higher level: it is based on a contemplated intuitive awareness, which is itself felt. The second part of the essay consists of Kuzmány’s attempt to define art and to categorize kinds of art and genres of poetry. He distinguishes between unmediated art, which represents beauty to the external senses, and mediated art, which is aimed at inner feeling. The latter category includes poetry, which is, according to him, the supreme art, for it can, with the help of language, represent all forms of unmediated art as well. Kuzmány also devotes himself to a speculative justification of its genres, poetic style, and verse. (shrink)
The article analyzes the process of modification of Japan’s foreign policy after Donald Trump’s election as US president. As short- and middle-range aims of Japan’s diplomatic strategy were outlined with expectation of victory of Hillary Clinton, Tokyo was forced to abruptly change its policy. Relying on the neoclassical realist theory, the article examines the complex interaction between the external factors, such as security threats from North Korea or China, and domestic factors both in Japan and the US, that is personal, (...) institutional, societal and economic determinants. It is argued that while it was strategic convergence between Tokyo and Washington that enabled relatively smooth cooperation between Prime Minister Abe and President Trump, internal factors, such as right-wing credentials of both decision makers, distorted and to some extent facilitated this process. (shrink)