ZUSAMMENFASSUNGDer Anlass ist ein hermeneutisch wie rhetorisch-homiletisch bedeutsames Phänomen, das jedoch meistens übersehen wird und auch in praktisch-theologischen Diskursen oftmals ungeklärt bleibt. Zur Klärung dieses Phänomens zieht der Aufsatz die Analysen Sören Kierkegaards heran. Kierkegaard entwickelt in mehreren Texten eine dichte Beschreibung des Anlasses und zeigt seine hermeneutische Bedeutung auf allen Ebenen: für die ästhetische Expressivität, für die ethische Reflexivität und für eine christliche Semiotik. Kierkegaards Analysen helfen dabei, sich von einem objektivistischen Verständnis des Anlasses zu verabschieden und ihn stattdessen (...) als ein dynamisches Element in der Selbstkommunikation des Evangeliums zu erkennen.SUMMARYThe paper outlines the notion of occasion [Andlegning] as it is to be found in the works of Sören Kierkegaard. Kierkegaard describes occasion as a rather mysterious but also powerful element in communication on all levels of human existence, i.e. in aesthetics, ethics, and religion. His analysis shows that occasion determines the function of aesthetic expressivity, ethical reflection and religious semiotics in human communication. By following Kierkegaard's interpretation the essay draws conclusions for the understanding of a theological hermeneutics that sees occasion as a dynamic element in the self-communication of the gospel rather than as a given objectivity that has to be interpreted. (shrink)
ZusammenfassungDer Aufsatz erforscht die Rolle der Rhetorik in dem Werk Kierkegaards, besonders in seinen theologischen Überlegungen. Die Art, in der Kierkegaard solche rhetorischen Konzepte wie die persuasive Rede, den öffentlichen Raum und den sensus communis begreift und anwendet, zeigt, dass er auf dem Boden der klassischen rhetorischen Tradition steht und vor allem auf dem von Aristoteles. Er passt diese Formen an sein Verständnis der ethisch-religiösen Kommunikation an, besonders an seine wohlbekannte Theorie indirekter Kommunikation. Dennoch dürfen die rhetorischen Spuren in seinen (...) Texten nicht mit seiner Theorie indirekter Kommunikation identifiziert oder unter diese klassifiziert werden. Statt dessen spielt die rhetorische Tradition eine komplementäre Rolle in dem Versuch, religiöse Kommunikation zu verstehen. Und sie ermöglicht zu begreifen, wie Kierkegaard das Thema negativer Kommunikation als ein Beispiel der Resonanz christlicher Rede in der Welt interpretiert.SummaryThe essay explores the role of rhetorics in Kierkegaard's work, especially in his theological thought. The way in which Kierkegaard employs and understands rhetorical concepts such as persuasive speech, public space, and sensus communis shows that he stands firm within the classical rhetorical, explicitly Aristotelian, tradition. He adapts those concepts to his understanding of ethical-religious communication, especially to his well known theory of indirect communication. However, the rhetorical traits in his texts must not be identified with, nor classified, under the theory of indirect communications. Rather, the rhetoric tradition functions complementarily in order to understand religious communication. And it provides a way to see how Kierkegaard interprets the issue of negative communication as an example of the wordly resonance to Christian speech. (shrink)
Critical Heuristics of Social Planning has been recognised as the seminal work on critical systems thinking. Ulrich offers a new approach both to practical philosophy (which has until now remained rather unpractical) and to systems thinking (which has reduced the systems idea to a tool of merely instrumental, rather than practical, reason). Critical systems heuristics (CSH), as the approach is now generally called, provides planners, practitioners and policy makers with a conceptual tool for practising practical reason. It will enable (...) them to identify and discuss systematically the value implications of policies, plans, problem definitions, or program evaluations. In addition, the book offers the most thorough-going introduction available today to the espistemological foundations of critical systems thinking, including a practicable model of cogent argumentation on disputed value implications of designs. A must for practitioners and scholars who are interested in a self-critical and practicable understanding of the widespread call for holistic or systems thinking! "Critical Heuristics will be recognised as a very important book in the emerging systems discipline and will hold a significant position for many years to come". Peter B. Checkland, University of Lancaster, England. "An outstanding contribution to an adequate philosophical and heuristic framework for critical social inquiry and design". C. West Churchman, University of California, Berkeley, USA. "The book fills a major gap in the literature on the systems tradition". Michael C. Jackson, University of Hull, England. "Drawing on a profound knowledge of both Anglo-American systems theory and German practical philosophy, this book belongs to the best studies I have seen on the normative foundations of planning and systems design." Horst Steinmann, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Germany. "Mandatory for libraries in the field of planning". John Friedmann, University of California, Los Angeles, USA. (shrink)
It is tempting to regard the perpetrators of the September 11th terrorist attacks as evil incarnate. But their motives, as Bruce Lincoln’s acclaimed Holy Terrors makes clear, were profoundly and intensely religious. Thus what we need after the events of 9/11, Lincoln argues, is greater clarity about what we take religion to be. Holy Terrors begins with a gripping dissection of the instruction manual given to each of the 9/11 hijackers. In their evocation of passages from the Quran, (...) we learn how the terrorists justified acts of destruction and mass murder “in the name of God, the most merciful, the most compassionate.” Lincoln then offers a provocative comparison of President Bush’s October 7, 2001 speech announcing U.S. military action in Afghanistan alongside the videotaped speech released by Osama bin Laden just a few hours later. As Lincoln authoritatively demonstrates, a close analysis of the rhetoric used by leaders as different as George W. Bush and Osama bin Laden—as well as Mohamed Atta and even Jerry Falwell—betrays startling similarities. These commonalities have considerable implications for our understanding of religion and its interrelationships with politics and culture in a postcolonial world, implications that Lincoln draws out with skill and sensitivity. With a chapter new to this edition, “Theses on Religion and Violence,” Holy Terrors remains one of the essential books on September 11 and a classic study on the character of religion. “Modernity has ended twice: in its Marxist form in 1989 Berlin, and in its liberal form on September 11, 2001. In order to understand such major historical changes we need both large-scale and focused analyses—a combination seldom to be found in one volume. But here Bruce Lincoln . . . has given us just such a mix of discrete and large-picture analysis.”—Stephen Healey, Christian Century “From time to time there appears a work . . . that serves to focus the wide-ranging, often contentious discussion of religion’s significance within broader cultural dynamics. Bruce Lincoln’s Holy Terrors is one such text. . . . Anyone still struggling toward a more nuanced comprehension of 9/11 would do well to spend time with this book.”—Theodore Pulcini, Middle East Journal. (shrink)
How do managers think about the relationship between the pursuit of economic success and ethical demands? This paper presents the main results of a qualitative-empirical study (Ulrich and Thielemann, 1992). The range of thinking patterns displayed by Swiss managers in this field of tension is elucidated and typologized. The results are then compared with those yielded by other studies on managerial ethics. Although the comparisons reveal essential parallels, the findings of previous investigations are interpreted in a considerably different manner. (...) In particular it is shown that, on the strength of a systematic conception of the fundamental problem of business ethics, the frequently heard assertion that the vast majority of managers are ethical opportunists must be revised. The internationally prevailing thinking pattern among managers does not prove to be ethical opportunism or even cynicism buteconomism, i.e. theethical conviction that economically appropriate actionin itself is ethically good as such. (shrink)
The Constructivist Credo is a set of foundational principles for those wishing to conduct social science research within the constructivist paradigm. They were distilled by Yvonna Lincoln and Egon Guba from their many writings on this topic and are provided in the form of 150 propositional statements. After Guba’s death in 2008, the Credo was completed by Lincoln and is presented here. In addition to the key principles of constructivist thought, the volume also contains an introduction to constructivism, (...) an intellectual biography and complete bibliography of Guba’s work, and a case study using constructivism, showing how the paradigm can be applied to a research study. (shrink)
Purpose/methods: This study investigated the relationship between ethics education and training, and the use and usefulness of ethics resources, confidence in moral decisions, and moral action/activism through a survey of practicing nurses and social workers from four United States (US) census regions. Findings: The sample (n = 1215) was primarily Caucasian (83%), female (85%), well educated (57% with a master's degree). no ethics education at all was reported by 14% of study participants (8% of social workers had no ethics education, (...) versus 23% of nurses), and only 57% of participants had ethics education in their professional educational program. Those with both professional ethics education and in-service or continuing education were more confident in their moral judgments and more likely to use ethics resources and to take moral action. Social workers had more overall education, more ethics education, and higher confidence and moral action scores, and were more likely to use ethics resources than nurses. Conclusion: Ethics education has a significant positive influence on moral confidence, moral action, and use of ethics resources by nurses and social workers. (shrink)
A longitudinal survey of business graduates over a four-year period revealed stability over time in their assessments of proposals to improve business ethics except for significantly greater disapproval of government regulation. A comparison of graduates and executives indicate both favor developing general ethical business principles, business ethics courses, and codes of ethics, while disapproving government regulation and participation by religious leaders in ethical norms for business. The mean rankings by business graduates over time of factors influencing ethical conduct show significant (...) declines in school-university training and significant increases for religious training and industry practices. Graduates and executives rank family training as the most important influence and school-university training as least important. The authors conclude that a more careful consideration be given to matching reform proposals and influence factors, and to increasing the depth of change efforts in individual business ethics. (shrink)
Ten new graduate speech pathologists recounted their experiences in managing workplace ethical dilemmas in semi-structured interviews. Their stories were analysed for elements that described the nature and management of the ethical dilemmas. Ethical reasoning themes were generated to reflect the participants’ approaches to managing these dilemmas. Finally, a conceptual model, the Dynamic Model of Ethical Reasoning, was developed. This model incorporates the elements of awareness, independent problem solving, supported problem solving, and decision and outcome evaluation. Features of the model demonstrate (...) the complexity of ethical reasoning and the challenges that new graduates encounter when managing ethical dilemmas. The results have implications for preparing new graduates to manage ethical dilemmas in the workplace. (shrink)
Looking for ‘the future of Christian ethics’ we have to be aware of different paradigms of theological ethics and its different implications for a theologically reflected notion of future. With regard to the Reformation heritage there can be identified a Protestant paradigm of a Christian moral subject, liberated for a universal rational responsibility related to the future of the human condition on the one hand, and—according to a Lutheran grammar—an ethics of Christian practices within a worshipping community, grounded in God’s (...) ongoing creational work. The future of Christian ethics, then, consists of the continuity of this Christian witness as it is rooted in God’s promises and faithfulness. (shrink)
The paper describes the biblical understanding of God’s commanded law in its indispensable political form, i.e. the law of God’s people. This is distinct from a confinement of God’s commandments to a moral code independent from that political context as it is present as the ‘political worship’ of God’s people.This worship has to be seen as the ground for ethics. From here follow consequences for human laws and legislation concerning human life forms. That disposition of theological ethics has been elaborated (...) in a particular form by the Lutheran-Reformed tradition especially in its concepts of God’s twofold regiment and the estates. (shrink)
detail a question that, for a quarter of a century, remained open despite intense study by various researchers. Is the formula XC B = e(x e(e(e( ) e( )) z)) a single axiom for the classical equivalential calculus when the rules of inference consist..
A four-valued matrix is presented which validates all theorems of the implicational fragment, IF, of the classical sentential calculus in which at most two distinct sentence letters occur. The Wajsberg/Diamond-McKinsley Theorem for IF follows as a corollary: every complete set of axioms (with substitution and detachment as rules) must include at least one containing occurrences of three or more distinct sentence letters. Additionally, the matrix validates all IF theses built from nine or fewer occurrences of connectives and letters. So the (...) classic result of Jagkovski for the full sentential calculus -that every complete axiom set must contain either two axioms of length at least nine or else one of length at least eleven-can be improved in the implicational case: every complete axiom set for IF must contain at least one axiom eleven or more characters long. Both results are "best possible", and both apply as well to most subsystems of IF, e.g., the implicational fragments of the standard relevance logics, modal logics, the relatives of implicational intutionism, and logics in the Lukasiewicz family. (shrink)
Realizing that scientific knowledge was not based on a simple disclosure of reality, but was rather invented and developed in accordance with our own conceptions and prejudices, it should no longer be possible to consider matters as if they existed independently of us out there.Taking as examples the notions of memory and information we try to elucidate the relevance this perspective has with respect to neuro- and psychophysiological research.
Karl Marx and Abraham Lincoln held very different views on the ‘social question’. This essay explores the way in which they converged in their estimation of slavery during the course of the Civil War; Marx was an ardent abolitionist, and Lincoln came to see this position as necessary. It is argued that the rôle of runaway slaves – called ‘contraband’ – and German-revolutionary ’48ers played a significant rôle in the radicalisation of Lincoln and the direction of the (...) War. (shrink)