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Science, Logic, and Mathematics

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Dear Mr&Ms.

I don't know how can I start, then i said: Wittgenstein in TLP, said that time is work of chronometer.
I thought that this could be expressed by formula.I propose this formula below:

P/M = Tw   - This is time in which object "a" going way "z". It is simple and i said that is time of way.


If we want to have formula for time understood as working chronometer, we need minimum two objects, then:

 amp((P1/M1) + (P2/M2)) = Tc

In variables:

amp(x1/m1+...x2/m2+...xn/mn)/mo= Tc


P - speed of object
M- meters
amp - amplitude
Tw - Time of way ex. car go in road in 40 sec.
Tc - Time understood as chronometer ex. 1 sec or quantum of actions
x - speed of object
m - distance
mo - distance between objects

Configuration is rearrengment objects in space. When appear move, then time appear too, but to came time,we need space, object and move. "Move" came when object change his position in space under the influence of power.

With regards and hope for comments,
P. A. Grabowski

Dear Ms.&Mr.

On my own calculate and experiments power of gravitation is expressed by:

M+M/2M - 5% = 2,5%M + 2,5%M = PG

M - Mass
PG - Power of gravitation.

It is not dynamic power but power of attraction.

I stand below, following hypothesis:

The force of gravity is 2.5% by weight.
100 kg can achieved with power 2.5 kgN
100 kg attracts with 2.5 kgN
When the force is balanced because of the distance, the body gravitate to each other as long as they are rotated.
As a result of fission  atom arises 2.5% of its mass calculated for example, in kgN
To implosion followed the mass that is reduced by fission would begin to attract, but with the outbreak of falling apart. As a result of the implosion would yield more energy than the result of cleavage.
The star which burns up and make the implosion, turns into a supernova, which is 2.5% of its weight. Supernova could be star around witch is bigger pressure, and fission give us implosion.
The star, who is falls and will be split turns into a black ho ... (read more)

Did you know that many non-Christians celebrate New Year? Of course for them, and for many Christians also, it is only a happy calender event, and usually only "westernized" people really care about it. Still, it is another international aspect of a secularization process that started a very long time ago. We are very far from Anno Domini, or the Year of our Lord. But when have people ever rejected an opportunity to party? After all, they still celebrate their own religious events, including their own New Year, very often in a very different way. More traditional.

Happy New Year.

The issue of two particles communicating with each other faster than light has divided great minds like Einstein and Bohr. It is also the most spectacular proof that Nature cannot be understood with common sense. Two particles that seem to communicate with each other beyond space and time! That is the stuff of legends and myths, and still, it looks like an undeniable scientific truth confirmed aga ... (read more)
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The Michelson Myth

"Some of the current applications of optical interferometry are accurate measurements of distances, displacements, and vibrations; tests of optical systems; studies of gas flows and plasmas; studies of surface topography; measurements of temperature, pressure, and electrical and magnetic fields; rotation sensing; high resolution spectroscopy, and laser frequency measurements. Applications being explored include high-speed all-optical logic and the detection of gravitational waves. There is little doubt that, in the near future, many more will be found."
(P. Hariharan "Basics of INTERFEROMETRY", 2007)

You know how a full moon seems to follow you everywhere you go? Well, you can recreate the same eerie experience with a piece of cardboard in which you have made a small hole. Now all you need is a window pane and a light source. I can use the street lamps I can see from my kitchen or from the living room. If I place the cardboard against the glass in such a way that I can ... (read more)
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I'm not sure whether what I wrote is correct, but this is my problem. Galileo make thought experiment with gravitation and calculate speed of gravitation for earth. Below my calculate. Please if You can, check it and surrender criticism.

Body weight has an effect on gravity, the bodies are heavier, the more they attracted. The sum of their masses are coupled is reduced by 5% from the sum of the bodies which are odalone from each other and interact with each other. Earth's gravity should be relativized to the weight of the body should also be taken into account air resistance. Bedding is falling more slowly than stone, single wash floating on the wind. The body is lighter, the gravity is less, because the same body separate from the planet, also gravitates to the planet. (M + O) / (V / M) = X

Dictionary: M - Mass of attracting bodies, O - Distance, V - speed attraction, M - Mass of attracting bodies, X force of gravity.

Under this link why 5% unfortunately just in polish.

Warm reg ... (read more)
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Since 1998 I carry out independent research on the logic operators and in particular of "if then" and "if and only if then". Given my difficulty when a student, and the difficulties of my students to understand mainly the operator "if then" and the concepts of sufficient condition and necessary condition in it implicit, and given my passion for logic, neuroscience and psychology, I spent over 20 years researching how these concepts arise in reality, and how our minds create their abstract models.
The study of the 4 cards test of Peter Wason (1966), is an excellent didactic example to explain the logical infrastructure of sufficient condition, and always use with my students. But in spite of literary research, not having met a specimen, equally excellent in explaining the necessary condition, I started a thorough study on the issue that has led me not only to devise a new specific test for the necessary condition, but also to find out what I think is a millenary gap in on the o ... (read more)
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Some words in my paper:

T(hj|ei)--fuzzy truth function of a predicate hj.

T(hj)--logical probability or  average thue-value of a predicate hj.

Popper defined Testing severity and Verisimilitude (1963/2005, 526, 534). Since Logical Probability and Statistical Probability are not well distinguished by him, his definitions are not satisfactory. The author suggests defining log [1/T(hj)] as testing severity, and T(hj|ei)/T(hj) as verisimilitude. In terms of Likelihood method, P(ei| hi is true)/P(ei) =T(hj|ei)/T(hj) is also called standard likelihood. So, we may say Semantic information = log (Standard likelihood) = log (Verisimilitude)=Testing severity - Relative deviation
 If negative verisimilitude for lies or wrong predictions is expected, one may also define verisimilitude by log [T(hj|ei)/T(hj)]. 

The figure 8 in the paper shows how positive and negative degrees of believe affect thruthlikeness. 

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Hello, I am a third-year undergrad in the States and was wondering about this forum. I am studying ecology, evolutionary, organismal biology (e.e.o.b) and possibly might double-major with molecular, cellular, and developmental biology (m.c.d.b) since there is only a small set of differing classes. Unfortunately, these are heavily experimental and lately over the years, I am become more interested in the theoretical/philosophical implications of the life sciences. So I am turning over to this forum to help get some perspectives on issues within particularly the evolutionary sciences (evolutionary population, quantitative, and molecular genetics, evolutionary ecology, paleontology, etc.).     One thing that I have been thinking about as I learn about the foundations of evolutionary theory is this notion, among many other ones, about selection. To explain further, in pop. genetics selection is represented by this coefficient, s, found commonly in places like the b ... (read more)
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Electromagnetism or gravitomagnetism?
[See also
Halley's "Synopsis of the Astronomy of Comets", 1705, is an ingenious mathematical proof of the parabolic shape of a comet's path and fits those cosmic wanderers right into Newtonian Physics, but it does not explain how such paths are possible. We understand now the why of the famous "hypotheses non fingo", Newton could simply not start to imagine what such an explanation would have looked like. The only thing he could say was that his equations seemed to work. A cosmologist's nightmare.]

Ever since Faraday it has been understood that electricity and magnetism are inseparable. Electric current influences the magnetized needle of a compass, and the motion of a magnet can create an electrical current in a metal coil.
Gravity seems different not only because it always is attractive, but also because it is understood to be the reason why bodies not only move towards each other, but also orbit each other. And that i ... (read more)
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We all know Mother Nature’s gradualist ways and have coined phrases for them: “Rome was not built in a day”; “a journey of a thousand miles starts with a step”, “little drops of water make a mighty ocean”, etc. Unfortunately, some cosmologists would prefer that the universe become wealthy overnight. The universe is now 1052kg rich (i.e. about 1069J) and they want to force this wealth, our current mass estimate into the very beginning (time zero), the Planck epoch and the other early times.  Of course, Mother Nature has resisted this get-rich-quick attitude and has inflicted such versions of our Big bang model with riddles, like the flatness and singularity problems for example.

In this post, I quote from Steven Weinberg’s popular book, The First Three Minutes,

 “As the explosion continued the temperature dropped …but the temperature continued to drop, finally reaching one thousand million degrees (109K) at the end of the first three minutes. It was then cool enough for the protons and neu ... (read more)

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After the publication of this paper, I enjoyed personal communication with Aloysius Martinich and discovered that I misused if and only if in several places of this paper. The corrections are below:

The formula indicates the following:
1. A is relatively identical to the value, but A is not absolutely identical to the value.
2. B is relatively identical to the value, but B is not absolutely identical to the value.
3. The value of A is absolutely identical to the value of B.
4. A is not identical to B.
(page 135)

1. The expression 1 + 3 is relatively identical to the value 4, but 1 + 3 is not absolutely identical to 4.

2. The expression 2 + 2 is relatively identical to the value 4, but 2 + 2 is not absolutely identical to 4.
3. The value of 1 + 3 is absolutely identical to the value of 2 + 2.
4. The expression 1 + 3 is not identical to the expression 2 + 2.
(page 135)

1. The triumvir was relatively identical to Lepidus, but the triumvir was not absolutely identical to Lepidus.
2. The pontifex maximus ... (read more)

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This thread has been abusively deleted. The Philpapers Team offered me the opportunity to restore it.

"How many threads do you need to restore? Combining multiple posts into one would be a way to get around the limitation on 2 posts, and would also be less work for you. Since they were previously accepted, we'll make sure to accept them if you notify us ahead of time with the subject heading." The PhilPapers Team


1 What is the goal of vision, and does it need one?
The problem of the teleological approach is that it assumes that which still is not and cannot be known: clear vision. How can the brain have as goal the elimination of obstacles to clear vision, through, among other, all kinds of ocular movements, if clear vision is itself the result of these movements? As we shall see, many visual phenomena has been approached under this naive perspective, with many complex theories as a result.
If, like I claim, clear vision can never be the goal of the visual system, but only its effect, tha ... (read more)

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It seems to me that this work is very much unavailable to students and professionals. Have not found it online in any form, save for a few hardcover editions for more than $500. Crazy.
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In a recent article “From Sexuality to Eroticism: The Making of the Human Mind” I describe a new scenario for human evolution. Besides the well known topics of upright gait and explorative curiosity I dwell on the realm of erotic life. I do this in accordance with Owen Lovejoy’s pair-bonding hypothesis of human origins. In consequence of their upright gait early humans practiced frontal eye-to-eye copulation. In the beginning this was merely random and took place in the horde. But some females may have felt better with a specific male and thus looked for intimate relations with him. Here begins a sort of “emotional selection”, different from mere sexual selection for good genes. Through long-term bonds erotic feelings are intensified and extended onto higher-order emotions such as hope and jealousy. This scenario is confirmed by the fact that the development of the large brain of humans seems to be more in relation to emotional development than to techn ... (read more)

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I have come across a strange discrepancy between the claims of Simon Stevin and Einstein concerning gravitation. Well, the first is a classic thinker of the 16-17th century, while Einstein is a prodigy of the 20th. So, why should it be a problem? But then, this is not my area of expertise and I would like very much to hear from people on the know.I would greatly appreciate comments on the following post:

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This thread has been abusively deleted. The Philpapers Team offered me the opportunity to restore it.

"How many threads do you need to restore? Combining multiple posts into one would be a way to get around the limitation on 2 posts, and would also be less work for you. Since they were previously accepted, we'll make sure to accept them if you notify us ahead of time with the subject heading." The PhilPapers Team


1 Turing and the Myth of Universality

There is a strong, not to say absolute belief in the consistency of Turing's thesis, which can be, informally, expressed as such: what a computer can do, any other computer can.

Let us start with the simplest expression of all:

1) 0+1=1

It will be obvious to anyone that any computer worth its silicone, or any other material substrate, will be able to compute (1).

What does that say about universal computing?

Well, that's just it, really. It does not say anything at all. All it shows is that, once the problem has been solved, or at least, put ... (read more)

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This thread has been abusively deleted. The Philpapers Team offered me the opportunity to restore it.

"How many threads do you need to restore? Combining multiple posts into one would be a way to get around the limitation on 2 posts, and would also be less work for you. Since they were previously accepted, we'll make sure to accept them if you notify us ahead of time with the subject heading." The PhilPapers Team


1 Hearing

George: I hate ears!
me: You sound just like Hate-Smurf. You did not mind the semi-circular canals, so why hate ears?
George: I don't mind the canals, in fact I love them. They're really fun. Any time you move your head I get to whoosh from one pool to the other!
me: And riding the basilar membrane, that's not fun? That's just like a trampoline, isn't it?
George: Yeah, I guess it is. Or at least it would be, if I could play the drums instead of having them bellowing in my head!
me: I don't understand.
George: Of course you don't. You're not supposed to. It's a h ... (read more)

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Could anyone explain the difference between being part and being member (if any)? References to existing literature are welcome. 
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Quantum Computing: Myth or Reality?

"What I like most in science is science-fiction"
Unknown from the web.

Schrödinger's cat is probably one of the most famous pets in history, right beside Cerberus and Pegasus. I must confess that quantum computing remains largely a mystery, and while researching the subject I could not but notice the lack of any concrete information about what it really entails.
Take the concept of qubit. It has mathematically been defined, and, as far as I can see, mathematicians agree on the definition. Which is certainly good enough for me. But then I wonder, how would a quantum gate or circuit look like?
Well, if you ask this question on the Internet, you get treated to more mathematical formulas.
A very intriguing concept is that of superposition. I have great difficulty in grasping the reality behind it. Let us assume that a bit can be both 1 and 0 at the same time. What good will it do to us if we are not able to get a clear answer after reading it? In other words ... (read more)
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