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# Science, Logic, and Mathematics

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 2017-01-03 Piotr GrabowskiPedagogical University of Krakow Dear Mr&Ms.I don't know how can I start, then i said: Wittgenstein in TLP, said that time is work of chronometer.I thought that this could be expressed by formula.I propose this formula below:P/M = Tw   - This is time in which object "a" going way "z". It is simple and i said that is time of way.ButIf we want to have formula for time understood as working chronometer, we need minimum two objects, then: amp((P1/M1) + (P2/M2)) = TcIn variables:amp(x1/m1+...x2/m2+...xn/mn)/mo= TcDictionary:P - speed of objectM- metersamp - amplitudeTw - Time of way ex. car go in road in 40 sec.Tc - Time understood as chronometer ex. 1 sec or quantum of actionsx - speed of objectm - distancemo - distance between objectsConfiguration is rearrengment objects in space. When appear move, then time appear too, but to came time,we need space, object and move. "Move" came when object change his position in space under the influence of power.With regards and hope for comments,P. A. Grabowski Permanent link: https://philpapers.org/post/25534 Reply

 2017-01-03 Piotr GrabowskiPedagogical University of Krakow Dear Ms.&Mr.On my own calculate and experiments power of gravitation is expressed by:M+M/2M - 5% = 2,5%M + 2,5%M = PG Dictionary:M - MassPG - Power of gravitation.It is not dynamic power but power of attraction.I stand below, following hypothesis:The force of gravity is 2.5% by weight.100 kg can achieved with power 2.5 kgN100 kg attracts with 2.5 kgNWhen the force is balanced because of the distance, the body gravitate to each other as long as they are rotated.As a result of fission  atom arises 2.5% of its mass calculated for example, in kgNTo implosion followed the mass that is reduced by fission would begin to attract, but with the outbreak of falling apart. As a result of the implosion would yield more energy than the result of cleavage.The star which burns up and make the implosion, turns into a supernova, which is 2.5% of its weight. Supernova could be star around witch is bigger pressure, and fission give us implosion.The star, who is falls and will be split turns into a black ho ... (read more) Permanent link: https://philpapers.org/post/25530 Reply

 2016-12-11 Piotr GrabowskiPedagogical University of Krakow Welcome,I'm not sure whether what I wrote is correct, but this is my problem. Galileo make thought experiment with gravitation and calculate speed of gravitation for earth. Below my calculate. Please if You can, check it and surrender criticism.Body weight has an effect on gravity, the bodies are heavier, the more they attracted. The sum of their masses are coupled is reduced by 5% from the sum of the bodies which are odalone from each other and interact with each other. Earth's gravity should be relativized to the weight of the body should also be taken into account air resistance. Bedding is falling more slowly than stone, single wash floating on the wind. The body is lighter, the gravity is less, because the same body separate from the planet, also gravitates to the planet. (M + O) / (V / M) = X Dictionary: M - Mass of attracting bodies, O - Distance, V - speed attraction, M - Mass of attracting bodies, X force of gravity. Under this link why 5% unfortunately just in polish.Warm reg ... (read more) Latest replies: Andrew Wutke, 2016-12-11 : Most of things presented in your post are wrong except (in a way) your statement:_"Body weight has an effect on gra... (read more)Piotr Grabowski, 2016-12-12 : I mean, that one body with mass x to diferent body with mass y in lenght ex. 100 m attraction in different power x ^ y w... (read more) Permanent link: https://philpapers.org/post/24914 Reply

 2016-10-18 Since 1998 I carry out independent research on the logic operators and in particular of "if then" and "if and only if then". Given my difficulty when a student, and the difficulties of my students to understand mainly the operator "if then" and the concepts of sufficient condition and necessary condition in it implicit, and given my passion for logic, neuroscience and psychology, I spent over 20 years researching how these concepts arise in reality, and how our minds create their abstract models.The study of the 4 cards test of Peter Wason (1966), is an excellent didactic example to explain the logical infrastructure of sufficient condition, and always use with my students. But in spite of literary research, not having met a specimen, equally excellent in explaining the necessary condition, I started a thorough study on the issue that has led me not only to devise a new specific test for the necessary condition, but also to find out what I think is a millenary gap in on the o ... (read more) Latest replies: Fabrizio Ranzani, 2016-11-14 : please, if I wrote something wrong or unclear correct me, or ask me questions, if what I propose does not make sense let... (read more)Karl Pfeifer, 2016-11-15 : It looks like you’re no longer really after truthtables for conditionals in propositional logic, Fabrizio, but something... (read more)Fabrizio Ranzani, 2016-11-23 : .1 There is no ordinary language; there are people who do not know the language, so make it an intuitive functional ordi... (read more)Fabrizio Ranzani, 2016-12-07 : Hi everybody await your precious observations Fabrizio Piotr Grabowski, 2016-12-08 : My proposition to translate for ordinal language. By the way this could be definitio P | Q | if P then Q... (read more) 22 more .. Permanent link: https://philpapers.org/post/22034 Reply

 2016-10-05 Chenguang Luindependent researcher Some words in my paper:T(hj|ei)--fuzzy truth function of a predicate hj.T(hj)--logical probability or  average thue-value of a predicate hj.Popper defined Testing severity and Verisimilitude (1963/2005, 526, 534). Since Logical Probability and Statistical Probability are not well distinguished by him, his definitions are not satisfactory. The author suggests defining log [1/T(hj)] as testing severity, and T(hj|ei)/T(hj) as verisimilitude. In terms of Likelihood method, P(ei| hi is true)/P(ei) =T(hj|ei)/T(hj) is also called standard likelihood. So, we may say Semantic information = log (Standard likelihood) = log (Verisimilitude)=Testing severity - Relative deviation If negative verisimilitude for lies or wrong predictions is expected, one may also define verisimilitude by log [T(hj|ei)/T(hj)].  The figure 8 in the paper shows how positive and negative degrees of believe affect thruthlikeness.  Latest replies: Chenguang Lu, 2016-10-07 : Logical probability T(hj)=sum i P(xi)T(hj|ei).1/ T(hj) indicates  Fallibi lity Eray Ozkural, 2017-01-16 : Don't worry about anything Popper said. As far as epistemology goes, his work may be considered pseudoscience. Bette... (read more)Aleksandra Samonek, 2017-03-17 : Chenguang Lu, since Popper's original two proposals for defining verisimilitude a lot has been written on the topic... (read more) Permanent link: https://philpapers.org/post/21538 Reply

 2016-08-08 After the publication of this paper, I enjoyed personal communication with Aloysius Martinich and discovered that I misused if and only if in several places of this paper. The corrections are below:The formula indicates the following:1. A is relatively identical to the value, but A is not absolutely identical to the value.2. B is relatively identical to the value, but B is not absolutely identical to the value.3. The value of A is absolutely identical to the value of B.4. A is not identical to B.(page 135)1. The expression 1 + 3 is relatively identical to the value 4, but 1 + 3 is not absolutely identical to 4.2. The expression 2 + 2 is relatively identical to the value 4, but 2 + 2 is not absolutely identical to 4.3. The value of 1 + 3 is absolutely identical to the value of 2 + 2.4. The expression 1 + 3 is not identical to the expression 2 + 2.(page 135)1. The triumvir was relatively identical to Lepidus, but the triumvir was not absolutely identical to Lepidus.2. The pontifex maximus ... (read more) Latest replies: Michael Parker, 2017-02-21 : In accounting, we have a similar issue derived from the same position as 1.    The offered good and... (read more) Permanent link: https://philpapers.org/post/18954 Reply

 2016-07-20 This thread has been abusively deleted. The Philpapers Team offered me the opportunity to restore it."How many threads do you need to restore? Combining multiple posts into one would be a way to get around the limitation on 2 posts, and would also be less work for you. Since they were previously accepted, we'll make sure to accept them if you notify us ahead of time with the subject heading." The PhilPapers Team]1 What is the goal of vision, and does it need one?The problem of the teleological approach is that it assumes that which still is not and cannot be known: clear vision. How can the brain have as goal the elimination of obstacles to clear vision, through, among other, all kinds of ocular movements, if clear vision is itself the result of these movements? As we shall see, many visual phenomena has been approached under this naive perspective, with many complex theories as a result.If, like I claim, clear vision can never be the goal of the visual system, but only its effect, tha ... (read more) Latest replies: Hachem El Ouggouti, 2016-07-20 : This thread has been abusively deleted. The Philpapers Team offered me the oppor _"How many threads do you need to... (read more) Permanent link: https://philpapers.org/post/18194 Reply

 2016-07-20 It seems to me that this work is very much unavailable to students and professionals. Have not found it online in any form, save for a few hardcover editions for more than \$500. Crazy. Latest replies: Abdelhamid Bouzouzou, 2017-02-22 : https://ia601506.us.archive.org/16/items/in.ernet.dli.2015.275271/2015.275271.Law-As.pdf Permanent link: https://philpapers.org/post/18146 Reply

 2016-07-11 Ferdinand FellmannChemnitz University of Technology In a recent article “From Sexuality to Eroticism: The Making of the Human Mind” http://www.scirp.org/journal/AA/ I describe a new scenario for human evolution. Besides the well known topics of upright gait and explorative curiosity I dwell on the realm of erotic life. I do this in accordance with Owen Lovejoy’s pair-bonding hypothesis of human origins. In consequence of their upright gait early humans practiced frontal eye-to-eye copulation. In the beginning this was merely random and took place in the horde. But some females may have felt better with a specific male and thus looked for intimate relations with him. Here begins a sort of “emotional selection”, different from mere sexual selection for good genes. Through long-term bonds erotic feelings are intensified and extended onto higher-order emotions such as hope and jealousy. This scenario is confirmed by the fact that the development of the large brain of humans seems to be more in relation to emotional development than to techn ... (read more) Latest replies: Mark Titus, 2016-07-12 : You might enjoy Aristophanes' account of the origin of Love in Plato's _Symposium._ Ferdinand Fellmann, 2016-07-12 : Hi Mark, yes, I enjoy Artistophanes very much. I even wrote about him in my last book in the chapter: "The myth of... (read more)Derek Allan, 2016-07-14 : _Re: “_ But some females may have felt better with a specific_ _male and thus looked for intimate relations with hi... (read more)John Hodgson, 2016-10-05 : Is this any different from the widely accepted mate selection discussed by Darwin for many species, among many others re... (read more)Derek Allan, 2016-10-05 : “Maybe the difference is a belief that only humans experience emotions but this is far from established…” If our experie... (read more) Permanent link: https://philpapers.org/post/17694 Reply

 2016-07-08 I have come across a strange discrepancy between the claims of Simon Stevin and Einstein concerning gravitation. Well, the first is a classic thinker of the 16-17th century, while Einstein is a prodigy of the 20th. So, why should it be a problem? But then, this is not my area of expertise and I would like very much to hear from people on the know.I would greatly appreciate comments on the following post:http://philpapers.org/post/17566 Latest replies: Richard Sieb, 2016-08-10 : This is an interesting question.  I agree that if you just look at Einstein's special theory of relativity, it... (read more)Hachem El Ouggouti, 2016-08-16 : I beg to differ. See my thread _ Quantum Computing: Myth or Reality?  __e_specially the posts concerning Relat... (read more)Andrew Wutke, 2016-09-12 : Who has ever proven space contraction? Theoretically let alone experimentally.Under certain conditions it has been likel... (read more)Hachem El Ouggouti, 2016-09-12 : Interesting. What then makes space common to all and time relative? I think the idea of spacetime is pure nonsense, meta... (read more)Hachem El Ouggouti, 2016-09-13 : You cannot have time dilation without space contraction since both are based on the idea that moving clocks are slower... (read more) 16 more .. Permanent link: https://philpapers.org/post/17602 Reply