About this topic
Summary This category includes work on a wide variety of British philosophers of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. It excludes those figures covered in other categories within '17th/18th Century British Philosophy'. But it includes many others, such as Samuel Clarke, Richard Price, James Beattie, Damaris Masham and Lady Mary Shepherd.
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2611 found
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1 — 50 / 2611
  1. Mary Shepherd and the Causal Relation - Part One.Jennifer McRobert - manuscript
    Mary Shepherd and the Causal Relation - Part One -/- Part One gives context to the life and work of Lady Mary Shepherd. It weaves together the stories of her ancestors, her own stories and the wider social, historical and philosophical context. The aim is to evoke a world from which to mark the emergence of Mary Shepherd, Scotland’s first female philosopher.
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  2. Newton-Hooke Controversy in the Opinion of Scientists.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    A presentation of Hooke’s 1674 monograph introducing the idea of universal gravity was included in the Philosophical Transactions (Royal Society 1775) and subsequently several letters containing observations, including one of Huygens. But obviously, after the publication of Principia in 1687, Hooke’s priority in proposing universal gravitation was forgotten. Hooke, considered as a “mechanical genius” rather than a scientist, was often at a social disadvantage to Newton, the noble theorist, or Huygens. Hooke’s inferior social status did not allow him to identify (...)
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  3. Isaac Newton Vs. Robert Hooke on the Law of Universal Gravitation.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    One of the most disputed controversy over the priority of scientific discoveries is that of the law of universal gravitation, between Isaac Newton and Robert Hooke. Hooke accused Newton of plagiarism, of taking over his ideas expressed in previous works. In this paper I try to show, on the basis of previous analysis, that both scientists were wrong: Robert Hooke because his theory was basically only ideas that would never have materialized without Isaac Newton's mathematical support; and the latter was (...)
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  4. Isaac Newton vs Robert Hooke sur la loi de la gravitation universelle.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    L'une des controverses les disputées sur la priorité des découvertes scientifiques est celle de la loi de la gravitation universelle, entre Isaac Newton et Robert Hooke. Hooke a accusé Newton de plagiat, de reprendre ses idées exprimées dans des travaux antérieurs. J'essaie de montrer, sur la base d'une analyse précédente, que tous les deux scientifiques avaient tort: Robert Hooke parce que sa théorie n'était fondamentalement que des idées qui ne se seraient jamais matérialisées sans l'appui mathématique d'Isaac Newton; et ce (...)
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  5. La controverse Newton-Hooke dans l'opinion des scientifiques contemporains.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Une présentation de la monographie de 1674 de Hooke présentant l'idée de la gravitation universelle est apparue dans Philosophical Transactions de 1674, et puis plusieurs lettres contenant des observations, dont celle de Huygens. Mais évidemment, après la publication du Principia en 1687, la priorité de Hooke dans la proposition de la gravitation universelle a été oubliée. Après avoir entendu parler de la demande de Hooke de reconnaître sa priorité, Newton a supprimé les nombreuses références à Hooke dans Principia. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.27734.40009.
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  6. About God in Newton's Correspondence with Richard Bentley and Queries in Opticks.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    In Newton’s correspondence with Richard Bentley, Newton rejected the possibility of remote action, even though he accepted it in the Principia. Practically, Newton’s natural philosophy is indissolubly linked to his conception of God. The knowledge of God seems to be essentially immutable, unlike the laws of nature that can be subjected to refining, revision and rejection procedures. As Newton later states in Opticks, the cause of gravity is an active principle in matter, but this active principle is not an essential (...)
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  7. L'action à distance dans la correspondance d'Isaac Newton avec Richard Bentley et les questions d'Opticks.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Dans sa correspondance avec Richard Bentley, Newton a rejeté la possibilité d'une action à distance, bien qu'il l'ait acceptée en Principia. L’environnement introduit par Newton à la question 21 d'Opticks se compose d’une part de corps matériels extrêmement petits, séparés dans l’espace, et d’un principe actif non mécanique produisant et médiatisant les forces de répulsion entre ces corps. À la question 28, il a clairement fait valoir qu'un environnement mécanique devrait être rejeté. L'éther traverse les corps, il est donc sans (...)
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  8. Controversa dintre Isaac Newton și Robert Hooke despre prioritatea în legea gravitației.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Una din cele mai disputate controverse privind prioritatea unor descoperiri științifice este cea privind legea gravitației universale, între Isaac Newton și Robert Hooke. În acest eseu extind o lucrare mai veche pe aceeași temă, ”Isaac Newton vs. Robert Hooke în legea gravitației universale”. Hooke l-a acuzat pe Newton de plagiat, preluându-i ideile exprimate în lucrările anterioare. În această lucrare încerc să arăt, pe baza unor analize anterioare, că ambii oameni de știință au greșit: Robert Hooke pentru că teoria sa nu (...)
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  9. La revendication de Hooke sur la loi de la gravité.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Dans une note intitulée « Un état vrai de l'affaire et la controverse entre Sr Isaak Newton et le Dr Robert Hooke comme priorité de cette noble hypothèse du mouvement des planètes autour du Soleil en tant que leurs centres » non publié au cours de sa vie, Hooke a décrit sa théorie de la gravité. Pour soutenir sa « priorité », Hooke cite ses conférences sur les mouvements planétaires du 23 mai 1666, « Une tentative de prouver le mouvement (...)
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  10. Hooke's Claim on the Law of Gravity.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Based on Galileo's experiments, Newton develops the theory of gravity in his first book Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica ("Principia") of 1686. Immediately after, Robert Hooke accused Newton of plagiarism, claiming that he unduly assumed his "notion" of "the rule of the decrease of Gravity, being reciprocally as the squares of the distances from the Center". But, according to Edmond Halley, Hooke agreed that "the demonstration of the curves generated by it" belongs entirely to Newton.
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  11. Hume, Newton, & Maclaurin.Charles R. Twardy - manuscript
    Paper presented to the Twenty-seventh Hume Society Conference, 26 July 2000, Williamsburg, Virginia. -/- At the time I thought there was a stronger link between Maclaurin and Hume, but in discussions at and after the meeting, decided Hume was not taking his mechanics out of Maclaurin’s Account. Although I still have found Maclaurin useful in interpreting Hume -- see Sapadin 1997 for a discussion of popular Newtonianism in Hume's day -- I suspect my draft suffers somewhat from ambivalence. There are (...)
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  12. Anglo-Scottish Relations From 1603 to 1900.T. C. Smout - unknown - Proceedings of the British Academy 127.
    1: T. C. SMOUT: Introduction 2: JENNY WORMALD: O Brave New World? The Union of England and Scotland in 1603 3: KEITH BROWN: A Blessed Union? Anglo-Scottish Relations before the Covenant 4: JOHN MORRILL: The English, the Scots, and the Dilemmas of Union, 1638-1654 5: CLARE JACKSON: Judicial Torture, the Liberties of the Subject, and Anglo-Scottish Relations, 1660-1690 6: CHRISTOPHER A. WHATLEY: Taking Stock: Scotland at the End of the Seventeenth Century 7: JOHN FORD: The Law of the Sea and (...)
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  13. Ms.Natasha Bailie - forthcoming - British Journal for the History of Mathematics.
    The reception of Newton's Principia in 1687 led to the attempt of many European scholars to ‘mathematicise' their field of expertise. An important example of this ‘mathematicisation' lies in the work of Irish-Scottish philosopher Francis Hutcheson, a key figure in the Scottish Enlightenment. This essay aims to discuss the mathematical aspects of Hutcheson's work and its impact on British thought in the following centuries, providing a case in point for the importance of the interactions between mathematics and philosophy throughout time.
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  14. Two Routes to Idealism: Collier and Berkeley.David Bartha - forthcoming - Tandf: British Journal for the History of Philosophy:1-23.
  15. Pricean Reflection.John Bengson, Terence Cuneo & Russ Shafer-Landau - forthcoming - British Journal for the History of Philosophy:1-18.
    We offer a reconstruction of Richard Price’s intuition-based epistemology of normative essences, highlighting its key elements and showing how it differs from the approaches taken by other intuitio...
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  16. Active Powers of the Human Mind.Ruth Boeker - forthcoming - In Scottish Philosophy in the Eighteenth Century, vol. 2. Oxford:
  17. Scottish Philosophy in the Eighteenth Century.Alexander Broadie - forthcoming - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  18. Locke and Sergeant on Syllogistic Reasoning.Patrick J. Connolly - forthcoming - In Shelley Weinberg & Jessica Gordon-Roth (eds.), The Lockean Mind. Routledge.
    This paper explores Locke’s thinking specifically about syllogisms and more generally about logic and proper logical method. Locke’s texts display a mixed attitude toward syllogisms. On the one hand, he was highly critical of syllogisms and their central role in Scholastic disputation. On the other hand, he sometimes allowed that syllogisms could effectively capture valid forms of inference and could be useful in certain contexts. This paper seeks to explain Locke’s mixed attitude by showing that he believed syllogisms were useful (...)
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  19. Susanna Newcome and the Origins of Utilitarianism.Patrick J. Connolly - forthcoming - Utilitas:1-15.
    This paper provides the first systematic interpretation of the moral theory developed in Newcome’s Enquiry Into the Evidence of the Christian Religion (1728, revised 1732). More importantly, it shows that Newcome’s views constitute a valuable but overlooked contribution to the development of utilitarianism. Indeed, she is arguably the first utilitarian. Her ethical views are considered in two stages. The paper first explores her hedonist approach to the good and then turns to her consequentialist account of right action. The paper then (...)
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  20. Cairns Craig, Out of History: Narrative Paradigms in Scottish and British Culture.S. Cowley - forthcoming - Radical Philosophy.
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  21. Post-Mechanical Explanation in the Natural and Moral Sciences: The Language of Nature and Human Nature in David Hume and William Cullen.Tamás Demeter - forthcoming - Jahrbuch für Europäische Wissenschaftskultur.
    It is common wisdom in intellectual history that eighteenth-century science of man evolved under the aegis of Newton. It is also frequently suggested that David Hume, one of the most influential practitioners of this kind of inquiry, aspired to be the Newton of the moral sciences. Usually this goes hand in hand with a more or less explicit reading of Hume’s theory of human nature as written in an idiom of particulate inert matter and active forces acting on it, i.e. (...)
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  22. Adam Ferguson: History, Progress and Human Nature. [REVIEW]Marco Di Giulio - forthcoming - Bollettino Telematico di Filosofia Politica.
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  23. Sir Kenelm Digby (1603–1665): un penseur à l’'ge du baroque.Niall Dilucia - forthcoming - Intellectual History Review:1-3.
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  24. Early Modern Accounts of Epicureanism.Stewart Duncan & Antonia LoLordo - forthcoming - In Jacob Klein & Nathan Powers (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Hellenistic Philosophy. Oxford University Press.
    We look at some interesting and important episodes in the life of early modern Epicureanism, focusing on natural philosophy. We begin with two early moderns who had a great deal to say about ancient Epicureanism: Pierre Gassendi and Ralph Cudworth. Looking at how Gassendi and Cudworth conceived of Epicureanism gives us a sense of what the early moderns considered important in the ancient tradition. It also points us towards three main themes of early modern Epicureanism in natural philosophy, which we (...)
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  25. Questioning Authority: Anthony Collins’ Challenge to Orthodox Anglican Authority Figures & George Berkeley’s Reply.Manuel Fasko - forthcoming - Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie.
    My goal in this paper is to reconstruct Anthony Collins’ challenge to the authority of orthodox Anglican figures, which arises due to arguments Collins develops in his Vindication of the Divine Attributes (1710) and Discourse on Free-Thinking (1713). In addition to shedding light on a hitherto underappreciated argument by Collins, my reconstruction allows me to propose a solution to the interpretive problem posed by §§16–22 of the fourth dialogue of Berkeley’s Alciphron (1732). While it has been acknowledged that Collins looms (...)
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  26. Diderot Et le Problème de Molyneux.Richard Glauser - forthcoming - Les Etudes Philosophiques.
  27. Protestantism and Liberty: Catharine Macaulay’s Politics of Religion as a Response to David Hume.Lucy Littlefield - forthcoming - Intellectual History Review:1-20.
  28. The Oxford Handbook of Eighteenth-Century German Philosophy.Brandon Look & Frederick Beiser (eds.) - forthcoming - Oxford University Press.
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  29. Utilitarianism in the Age of Enlightenment: The Moral and Political Thought of William Paley, by Niall O’Flaherty.R. J. W. Mills - forthcoming - Intellectual History Review:1-3.
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  30. George Campbell and Richard Whately: Two Examples of Rhetoric Rationality in the Enlightenment.María G. Navarro - forthcoming - In Brunhilde Wehinger (ed.), Forschungszentrum Europäische Aufklärung. Wehrhahn Verlag.
    So wohl Campbell als auch Whately sind sehr besorgt um die verschiedenen argumentations Formen zu analisieren, aber nicht in seiner abstrecten Vielfalt, sondern den verschiedenen Ableihungen des gebrauches oder der gegenwärtigen argumentations absicht im Entwurf jedes Arguments. In seiner Analyse haben sie beobachtet, dass die etische Begründung bemerkensmert verschieden als die Wissenschafliche. Beide Verfasser sind damit einverstanden dass es einen grossen Unterschied gibt zwischen: der existenten Prämisse in der Wissenchaftlichen Probe, und zweitens, die Form in der die Prämissen im induktiven (...)
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  31. Mercantilisme et utopie dans la « Préface » de L'Anatomie de la Mélancolie de Robert Burton.Claire Crignon-De Oliveira - forthcoming - Revue de Métaphysique et de Morale.
    Si l'on s'accorde à voir dans l'ouvrage du clergyman mélancolique Robert Burton paru en 1621 une sorte d'aboutissement et de consécration de la mode mélancolique, l'on a toutefois tendance à négliger le fait que l'anatomiste utilise le discours médical et la tradition mélancolique pour attirer l'attention de ses contemporains sur l'existence d'un désordre qui se manifeste, au niveau de la collectivité, par une crise religieuse, politique, sociale et économique. C'est sous le patronage de l'un des premiers représentants du courant mercantiliste (...)
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  32. The Epistemology of Testimony: Locke and His Critics.Kenneth L. Pearce - forthcoming - In Stephen Howard & Jack Stetter (eds.), The Edinburgh Critical History of Early Modern and Enlightenment Philosophy. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
    Contemporary discussions of the epistemology of testimony are often framed in terms of the disagreement on this topic between Hume and Reid. However, it is widely assumed that, prior to Hume, philosophers in the grip of Enlightenment individualism neglected philosophical questions about testimony, simply treating testimony as ordinary empirical evidence. In fact, although the evidential model of testimony was popular in early modern philosophy, it was also the subject of vigorous debate. This chapter examines Locke's defence of the evidential model (...)
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  33. Astell and Masham on Epistemic Authority and Women's Individual Judgment in Religion.Kenneth L. Pearce - forthcoming - Oxford Studies in Early Modern Philosophy.
    In 1705, Mary Astell and Damaris Masham both published works advocating for women's use of individual judgment in matters of religion. Although both philosophers advocate for women's education and intellectual autonomy, and both are adherents of the Church of England, they differ dramatically in their attitudes to religious authority. These differences are rooted in a deeper disagreement about the nature of epistemic authority in general. Astell defends an interpersonal model of epistemic authority on which we properly trust testimony when the (...)
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  34. Joseph Glanvill: Apologet der Royal Society und Erforscher der Geisterwelt.Reinald Schröder - forthcoming - Philosophia Scientiae.
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  35. Walter Charleton, Wellbeing, and the Cartesian Passions.Maks Sipowicz - forthcoming - Intellectual History Review:1-20.
    Walter Charleton is an often-overlooked figure in the history of seventeenth-century philosophy, frequently thought of as a mere conduit for the ideas of others, rather than a significant thinker in his own right. As a self-described “eclectic,” Charleton saw himself as avoiding dogmatism by selecting the best ideas from his sources and fitting them together into a new, coherent system. Here I argue his method allowed him to innovate on his sources, and led to attempts at overcoming the limitations of (...)
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  36. Catharine Cockburn on Substantival Space.Emily Thomas - forthcoming - History of Philosophy Quarterly 30(30).
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  37. Du Châtelet’s Libertarianism.Aaron Wells - forthcoming - History of Philosophy Quarterly.
    There is a growing consensus that Emilie Du Châtelet’s challenging essay “On Freedom” defends compatibilism. I offer an alternative, libertarian reading of the essay. I lay out the prima facie textual evidence for such a reading. I also explain how apparently compatibilist remarks in “On Freedom” can be read as aspects of a sophisticated type of libertarianism that rejects blind or arbitrary choice. To this end, I consider the historical context of Du Châtelet’s essay, and especially the dialectic between various (...)
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  38. On Mary Shepherd's Essay Upon the Relation of Cause and Effect.Jessica Wilson - forthcoming - In Eric Schliesser (ed.), Neglected Classics of Philosophy, II. Oxford University Press.
    Mary Shepherd (1777–1847) was a fierce and brilliant critic of Berkeley and Hume, who moreover offered strikingly original positive views about the nature of reality and our access to it which deserve much more attention (and credit, since she anticipates many prominent views) than they have received thus far. By way of illustration, I focus on Shepherd's 1824 Essay Upon the Relation of Cause and Effect, Controverting the Doctrine of Mr. Hume, Concerning the Nature of that Relation (ERCE). After a (...)
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  39. Empire and Liberty in Adam Ferguson’s Republicanism.Elena Yi-Jia Zeng - forthcoming - History of European Ideas:1-21.
    Adam Ferguson’s imperial thought casts new light on the age-old republican dilemma of the tension between empire and liberty. Generations of republican writers had been haunted by this issue as the decline of Rome proved that imperial expansion would eventually ruin the liberty of a state. Many eighteenth-century Scottish thinkers regarded this as an insoluble conundrum and thus became critics of empire. Ferguson shared their basic views but, paradoxically, was still able to defend the British Empire in the debates over (...)
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  40. Richard Price and the Foundation of Virtue: Some Historical Roots of Contemporary Ethics in "a Review of the Principal Questions in Morals".Francesco Allegri - 2023
    Despite being much less famous, Price's 'A Review of the Principal Questions in Morals' can stand up to comparison with the greatest classics of eighteenthth-century Anglo-Saxon ethics, such as Hume's 'Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals' or Adam Smith's 'Theory of Moral Sentiments'.
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  41. Of Savages and Stoics: Converging Moral and Political Ideals in the Conjectural Histories of Rousseau and Ferguson.Rudmer Bijlsma - 2022 - Philosophy and Social Criticism 48 (2):209-244.
    This article undertakes a comparative study of the conjectural histories of Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Adam Ferguson, focusing on the convergences in the moral and political ideals expressed and grounded in these histories. In comparison with Scots like Adam Smith and John Millar, the conjectural histories of Ferguson and Rousseau follow a similar historical trajectory as regards the development and progress of commercial, political and cultural arts. However, their assessment of the moral progress of humanity does not, or in a much (...)
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  42. Of Savages and Stoics: Converging Moral and Political Ideals in the Conjectural Histories of Rousseau and Ferguson.Rudmer Bijlsma - 2022 - Philosophy and Social Criticism 48 (2):209-244.
    This article undertakes a comparative study of the conjectural histories of Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Adam Ferguson, focusing on the convergences in the moral and political ideals expressed and grounded in these histories. In comparison with Scots like Adam Smith and John Millar, the conjectural histories of Ferguson and Rousseau follow a similar historical trajectory as regards the development and progress of commercial, political and cultural arts. However, their assessment of the moral progress of humanity does not, or in a much (...)
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  43. Revisiting William Paley.John Hedley Brooke - 2022 - Zygon 57 (1):141-160.
    Zygon®, Volume 57, Issue 1, Page 141-160, March 2022.
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  44. Hume's ‘Idea of a Perfect Commonwealth’ and Scottish Political Thought of the 1790s.Danielle Charette - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (1):78-96.
    ABSTRACT This article traces the reception of Hume's ‘Idea of a Perfect Commonwealth’ among a circle of Scottish Whigs supportive of the French Revolution. While the influence of Hume's essay on American Federalists like James Madison has long been a subject of debate, historians have overlooked the appeal that the plan held for Hume's intellectual heirs in Scotland. In the early 1790s, theorists such as John Millar, James Mackintosh, and Dugald Stewart believed European governments – above all France – could (...)
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  45. How Did the American Revolution Relate to the French? Richard Price, the Age of Revolutions, and the Enlightenment.J. C. D. Clark - 2022 - Modern Intellectual History 19 (1):105-127.
    Richard Price is important in present-day historiography chiefly for the interpretation of two great revolutions, the American and the French. Recent studies have depicted him as insightfully forward-looking, a well-informed cosmopolitan, his thought providing an interpretive key to the Age of Revolutions, and so as a landmark figure of a singular Enlightenment. They have paid insufficient attention to his identity as a theologian, a Welsh-born Nonconformist minister of more defined outlook, spending his life in England and campaigning above all for (...)
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  46. The History of Political Thought Above All.Cesare Cuttica - 2022 - Hobbes Studies 35 (1):7-22.
    Well-known for his work on absolutism, divine right theory, and his contextual reading of Hobbes’ ideas, Sommerville also published successful critical editions of Sir Robert Filmer and King James vi and I’s political writing. Sommerville’s engagement in key historiographical debates on early- modern British history, involving “opposing camps” of revisionists and post-revisionists, is less explored. Here, I focus on the question whether pre-Civil War England was immune to ideological conflict or, instead, featured a confrontation between King and Parliament based on (...)
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  47. Il dibattito tra Damaris Masham e Mary Astell sull'amore di Dio: una congettura storiografica?Emilio Maria De Tommaso - 2022 - Rivista di Storia Della Filosofia 1:36-50.
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  48. The Downfall of All Slavish Hierarchies: Richard Price on Emancipation, Improvement, and Republican Utopia.Yiftah Elazar - 2022 - Modern Intellectual History 19 (1):81-104.
    Scholars have been paying increasing attention to the republican theory of liberty developed by the eighteenth-century British radical Richard Price. This article studies his narrative of a revolution of liberty, which consists in the downfall of oppressive powers, the establishment of republican institutions, and the introduction of a utopian age. In distinction from work that has focused on the millennial aspects of Price's narrative of emancipation, I highlight its political contexts and functions, situating its early development in utopian speculations about (...)
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  49. Infinitesimal Knowledges.Rodney Nillsen - 2022 - Axiomathes 32 (3):557-583.
    The notion of indivisibles and atoms arose in ancient Greece. The continuum—that is, the collection of points in a straight line segment, appeared to have paradoxical properties, arising from the ‘indivisibles’ that remain after a process of division has been carried out throughout the continuum. In the seventeenth century, Italian mathematicians were using new methods involving the notion of indivisibles, and the paradoxes of the continuum appeared in a new context. This cast doubt on the validity of the methods and (...)
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  50. Monboddo’s ‘Ugly Tail’: The Question of Evidence in Enlightenment Sciences of Man.Silvia Sebastiani - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (1):45-65.
    ABSTRACT The erudite James Burnet, Lord Monboddo, member of the Select Society and judge of the Court of Session in Edinburgh, wrote many pages about the existence of ‘men with tails’ and orang-utans’ humanity. For this reason, he has been labelled as ‘credulous’, ‘bizarre’ and ‘eccentric’ both by his contemporaries and by modern scholars. In this paper, I shall try to take his argument seriously and to show that throughout his work Monboddo searched for evidence. If his belief in mermaids, (...)
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1 — 50 / 2611