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Summary The Turing test is a test for intelligence in machines.  In 1950, Alan Turing published "Computing Machinery and Intelligence" where he described a game he called the "imitation game" involving a human judge conversing only in written text with a second human and a language-using computer, each hidden away in separate rooms (3 rooms total).  The point of the game is for the computer to converse in such a human-like way with the judge that the judge cannot tell the second human from the computer (in usual renditions of the Test, the second human also tries to convince the judge that he or she is the human, so the test becomes a contest).  The computer wins if the judge cannot tell which conversant is the human and which is the computer.  Turing's point is that were a computer to successfully and repeatedly pass such a test, we should then regard the computer as intelligent on the human level. To date, no computer has passed the Test reliably and often.
Key works Turing 1950; Weizenbaum, Joseph (January 1966), "ELIZA—A Computer Program For the Study of Natural Language Communication Between Man And Machine", Communications of the ACM 9 (1): 36–45.
Introductions McCorduck, Pamela (2004), Machines Who Think (2nd ed.), Natick, MA: A. K. Peters, Ltd.; Weizenbaum, Joseph (1976), Computer power and human reason: from judgment to calculationW. H. Freeman and CompanyISBN 0-7167-0463-3; Robert Epstein, Gary Roberts, Grace Beber (eds.) (2008), Parsing the Turing Test: Philosophical and Methodological Issues in the Quest for the Thinking Computer; Searle 1980
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  1. added 2019-09-26
    Do Chatbots Dream of Androids? Prospects for the Technological Development of Artificial Intelligence and Robotics.Albert R. Efimov - 2019 - Philosophical Sciences 62 (7):73-95.
    The article discusses the main trends in the development of artificial intelligence systems and robotics (AI&R). The main question that is considered in this context is whether artificial systems are going to become more and more anthropomorphic, both intellectually and physically. In the current article, the author analyzes the current state and prospects of technological development of artificial intelligence and robotics, and also determines the main aspects of the impact of these technologies on society and economy, indicating the geopolitical strategic (...)
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  2. added 2019-08-01
    Davidson on Turing: Rationality Misunderstood?John-Michael Kuczynski - 2005 - Principia: An International Journal of Epistemology 9 (1-2):111-124.
    Alan Turing advocated a kind of functionalism: A machine M is a thinker provided that it responds in certain ways to certain inputs. Davidson argues that Turing’s functionalism is inconsistent with a cer-tain kind of epistemic externalism, and is therefore false. In Davidson’s view, concepts consist of causal liasons of a certain kind between subject and object. Turing’s machine doesn’t have the right kinds of causal li-asons to its environment. Therefore it doesn’t have concepts. Therefore it doesn’t think. I argue (...)
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  3. added 2019-07-15
    Minimum Intelligent Signal Test as an Alternative to the Turing Test.Paweł Łupkowski & Patrycja Jurowska - 2019 - Diametros 59 (59):35-47.
    The aim of this paper is to present and discuss the issue of the adequacy of the Minimum Intelligent Signal Test (MIST) as an alternative to the Turing Test. MIST has been proposed by Chris McKinstry as a better alternative to Turing’s original idea. Two of the main claims about MIST are that (1) MIST questions exploit commonsense knowledge and as a result are expected to be easy to answer for human beings and difficult for computer programs; and that (2) (...)
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  4. added 2019-06-14
    There is No General AI: Why Turing Machines Cannot Pass the Turing Test.Jobst Landgrebe & Barry Smith - 2019 - arXiv.
    Since 1950, when Alan Turing proposed what has since come to be called the Turing test, the ability of a machine to pass this test has established itself as the primary hallmark of general AI. To pass the test, a machine would have to be able to engage in dialogue in such a way that a human interrogator could not distinguish its behaviour from that of a human being. AI researchers have attempted to build machines that could meet this requirement, (...)
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  5. added 2019-06-06
    Andrew W. Appel , Alan Turing's System of Logic: The Princeton Thesis. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2012. Pp. Xv+142. ISBN 978-0-691-15574-6. £16.95. [REVIEW]Alexander von Lünen - 2013 - British Journal for the History of Science 46 (4):728-729.
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  6. added 2019-06-06
    Turing, Searle, and the Wizard of Oz: Life and Custom Among the Automata or How Ought We to Assess the Attribution of Capacities of Living Systems to Technological Artefacts?S. D. Noam Cook - 2010 - Techné: Research in Philosophy and Technology 14 (2):88-102.
    Since the middle of the 20th century there has been a significant debate about the attribution of capacities of living systems, particularly humans, to technological artefacts, especially computers—from Turing’s opening gambit, to subsequent considerations of artificial intelligence, to recent claims about artificial life. Some now argue that the capacities of future technologies will ultimately make it impossible to draw any meaningful distinctions between humans and machines. Such issues center on what sense, if any, it makes to claim that gadgets can (...)
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  7. added 2019-06-06
    B. Jack Copeland , the Essential Turing: The Ideas That Gave Birth to the Computer Age. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2004. Pp. VIII+613. Isbn 0-19-825079-7. £50.00 . Isbn 0-19-825080-0. £14.99. [REVIEW]Andrew Hodges - 2006 - British Journal for the History of Science 39 (3):470-471.
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  8. added 2019-06-06
    Distributed Cognition: Cognizing, Autonomy and the Turing Test.Stevan Harnad & Itiel E. Dror - 2006 - Pragmatics and Cognition 14 (2):209-213.
    Some of the papers in this Special Issue distribute cognition between what is going on inside individual cognizers' heads and their outside worlds; others distribute cognition among different individual cognizers. Turing's criterion for cognition was for individual, autonomous input/output capacity. It is not clear that distributed cognition could pass the Turing Test.
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  9. added 2019-06-06
    Radical Interpretation and the Gunderson Game.Andrew Ward - 1989 - Dialectica 43 (3):271-280.
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  10. added 2019-06-06
    The Drawing-Completion Test: A Projective Technique Based on the Wartegg Test Blank. [REVIEW]Andre Godin - 1953 - Thought: Fordham University Quarterly 28 (1):157-157.
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  11. added 2019-05-27
    The Qubit.Ilexa Yardley - 2019
  12. added 2019-02-23
    Review of I Am a Strange Loop by Douglas Hofstadter (2007) (Review Revised 2019).Michael Starks - 2019 - In Suicidal Utopian Delusions in the 21st Century-- Philosophy, Human Nature and the Collapse of Civilization -- Articles and Reviews 2006-2019 4th Edition Michael Starks. Las Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press. pp. 217-235.
    Latest Sermon from the Church of Fundamentalist Naturalism by Pastor Hofstadter. Like his much more famous (or infamous for its relentless philosophical errors) work Godel, Escher, Bach, it has a superficial plausibility but if one understands that this is rampant scientism which mixes real scientific issues with philosophical ones (i.e., the only real issues are what language games we ought to play) then almost all its interest disappears. I provide a framework for analysis based in evolutionary psychology and the work (...)
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  13. added 2019-01-03
    Davidson's No-Priority Thesis in Defending the Turing Test.Mohammad Reza Vaez Shahrestani - 2012 - Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 32:456-461.
    Turing does not provide an explanation for substituting the original question of his test – i.e., “Can machines think?” with “Can a machine pass the imitation game?” – resulting in an argumentative gap in his main thesis. In this article, I argue that a positive answer to the second question would mean attributing the ability of linguistic interactions to machines; while a positive answer to the original question would mean attributing the ability of thinking to machines. In such a situation, (...)
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  14. added 2018-09-07
    Turing, Wittgenstein and the Science of the Mind.Diane Proudfoot & B. Jack Copeland - 1994 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 72 (4):497 – 519.
  15. added 2018-03-13
    The Test of Literature: John Henry Newman's Holy Imaginings.Bernard Manzo - 2010 - The Chesterton Review 36 (3/4):255-264.
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  16. added 2017-12-14
    Wittgenstein and the Aesthetic Robot's Handicap.Julian Friedland - 2005 - Philosophical Investigations 28 (2):177-192.
    Ask most any cognitive scientist working today if a digital computational system could develop aesthetic sensibility and you will likely receive the optimistic reply that this remains an open empirical question. However, I attempt to show, while drawing upon the later Wittgenstein, that the correct answer is in fact available. And it is a negative a priori. It would seem, for example, that recent computational successes in textual attribution, most notably those of Donald Foster (famed finder of Ted Kazinski a.k.a. (...)
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  17. added 2017-11-27
    The Turing Guide.Jack Copeland, Jonathan Bowen, Robin Wilson & Mark Sprevak (eds.) - 2017 - Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  18. added 2017-05-26
    El test de Turing: dos mitos, un dogma.Rodrigo González - 2007 - Revista de Filosofía 63:37-53.
    Este artículo analiza el Test de Turing, uno de los métodos más famosos y controvertidos para evaluar la existencia de vida mental en la Filosofía de la Mente, revelando dos mitos filosóficos comúnmente aceptados y criticando su dogma. En primer lugar, se muestra por qué Turing nunca propuso una definición de inteligencia. En segundo lugar, se refuta que el Test de Turing involucre condiciones necesarias o suficientes para la inteligencia. En tercer lugar, teniendo presente el objetivo y el tipo de (...)
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  19. added 2017-02-15
    Turing and the Universal Machine: The Making of the Modern Computer. [REVIEW]Martin Campbell-Kelly - 2002 - British Journal for the History of Science 35 (4):475-485.
  20. added 2017-02-15
    The Demise of the Turing Machine in Complexity Theory.Iain A. Stewart - 1996 - In P. J. R. Millican & A. Clark (eds.), Machines and Thought: The Legacy of Alan Turing, Volume 1. Clarendon Press.
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  21. added 2017-02-14
    A Senseless Conversation.Zach Barnett - 2011 - Think 10 (29):9-21.
    Can machines think? Until what happened today, I thought that no human-made machine could ever think as a human does. I now know that I was wrong.
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  22. added 2017-02-14
    Extraordinary Litmus Tests-Reply.D. Callahan - 2004 - Hastings Center Report 34 (2):4-5.
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  23. added 2017-02-14
    Beyond the Universal Turing Machine.B. Jack Copeland & Richard Sylvan - 1999 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 77 (1):46-66.
  24. added 2017-02-14
    The Commentation Test. Application and Limitations.Roland Posner - 1974 - Foundations of Language 12:383.
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  25. added 2017-02-14
    The Catalina Test Facility.Fc Fay Iii & Wc Hall - 1968 - In Peter Koestenbaum (ed.), Proceedings. [San Jose? Calif..
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  26. added 2017-02-14
    “Intelligence” Tests.C. Spearman - 1939 - The Eugenics Review 30 (4):249.
  27. added 2017-02-14
    Intelligence Tests.P. E. Vernon - 1936 - The Eugenics Review 28 (3):246.
  28. added 2017-02-14
    Mental and Scholastic Tests.E. Prideaux - 1923 - The Eugenics Review 15 (3):502.
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  29. added 2017-02-14
    The Measurement of Intelligence by the Binet Tests: Part II.Cyril Burt - 1914 - The Eugenics Review 6 (2):140.
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  30. added 2017-02-14
    The Measurement of Intelligence by the Binet Tests: Part I.Cyril Burt - 1914 - The Eugenics Review 6 (1):36.
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  31. added 2017-02-13
    What is Turing's Comparison Between Mechanism and Writing Worth?Jean Lassègue & Giuseppe Longo - 2012 - In S. Barry Cooper (ed.), How the World Computes. pp. 450--461.
  32. added 2017-02-13
    Turing's Normal Numbers: Towards Randomness.Verónica Becher - 2012 - In S. Barry Cooper (ed.), How the World Computes. pp. 35--45.
  33. added 2017-02-13
    Turing Machine-Inspired Computer Science Results.Juris Hartmanis - 2012 - In S. Barry Cooper (ed.), How the World Computes. pp. 276--282.
  34. added 2017-02-13
    Máquinas sin engranajes y cuerpos sin mentes: ¿Cuán dualista es el funcionalismo de máquina de Turing?Rodrigo González - 2011 - Revista de filosofía (Chile) 67:183-200.
    En este trabajo examino cómo el Funcionalismo de Máquina de Turing resulta compatible con una forma de dualismo, lo que aleja a la IA clásica o fuerte del materialismo que la inspiró originalmente en el siglo XIX. Para sostener esta tesis, argumento que efectivamente existe una notable cercanía entre el pensamiento cartesiano y dicho funcionalismo, ya que el primero afirma que es concebible/posible separar mente y cuerpo, mientras que el segundo sostiene que no es estrictamente necesario que los estados mentales (...)
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  35. added 2017-02-13
    The Human Turing Machine: A Neural Framework for Mental Programs.Ariel Zylberberg, Stanislas Dehaene, Pieter R. Roelfsema & Mariano Sigman - 2011 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 15 (7):293-300.
  36. added 2017-02-13
    Comments on the Paper by Lynn Et Al. On the Interpretation of Correlations Between Iq and Achievement Test Scores.William Lichten - 2008 - Journal of Biosocial Science 40 (5):793-794.
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  37. added 2017-02-13
    But Didn't You Have the Tests?'.Joanna Richards - 2002 - In K. W. M. Fulford, Donna Dickenson & Thomas H. Murray (eds.), Healthcare Ethics and Human Values: An Introductory Text with Readings and Case Studies. Blackwell. pp. 232.
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  38. added 2017-02-13
    Is the Distribution of Coherence a Test of the Model?Theodore H. Bullock - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (2):296-296.
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  39. added 2017-02-13
    The Real Miss Beauchamp: Gender and the Subject of Imitation.Ruth Leys - 1992 - In Judith Butler & Joan Wallach Scott (eds.), Feminists Theorize the Political. Routledge. pp. 167--214.
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  40. added 2017-02-13
    The Use of the PPST and Intelligence Tests in Teacher Education Programs.Howard Carvajal, Jeffrey Kixmiller, Megan Knapp, Joseph Vitt & Kenneth A. Weaver - 1991 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 29 (2):192-194.
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  41. added 2017-02-13
    Cultural Determination of Picture Space: The Acid Test.E. Broydrick Thro - 1989 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 12 (1):94-95.
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  42. added 2017-02-13
    In What Sense Does Intelligence Underlie an Intelligent Performance?David R. Olson - 1984 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7 (2):296.
  43. added 2017-02-13
    Do IQ Tests Really Measure Intelligence?Peter H. Schönemann - 1983 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 6 (2):311-313.
  44. added 2017-02-13
    Experimental Test of a Network Theory of Vision.David H. Foster - 1983 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 6 (4):664.
  45. added 2017-02-13
    Paranoia Concerning Program-Resistant Aspects of the Mind - and Let's Drop Rocks on Turing's Toes Again.Keith Gunderson - 1981 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4 (4):537-539.
  46. added 2017-02-13
    Evaluation of a Model's Test.Russell Revlin - 1981 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4 (4):547-548.
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  47. added 2017-02-13
    Test Bias and Problems in Cross-Cultural Testing.Paul Kline - 1980 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (3):349-350.
  48. added 2017-02-13
    A Test of Four Proposed New Dimensions of Semantic Space.Delos D. Wickens & Marc A. Lindberg - 1975 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 6 (4):381-382.
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  49. added 2017-02-13
    Psychological Tests in Advertising.A. T. Poffenberger - 1924 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 7 (4):312-320.
  50. added 2017-02-12
    Is Frankenstein's Creature a Machine or Artificially Created Human Life? Intentionality Between Searle and Turing.Marco Buzzoni - 2013 - Epistemologia 36 (1):37-53.
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