About this topic
Summary The Turing test is a test for intelligence in machines.  In 1950, Alan Turing published "Computing Machinery and Intelligence" where he described a game he called the "imitation game" involving a human judge conversing only in written text with a second human and a language-using computer, each hidden away in separate rooms (3 rooms total).  The point of the game is for the computer to converse in such a human-like way with the judge that the judge cannot tell the second human from the computer (in usual renditions of the Test, the second human also tries to convince the judge that he or she is the human, so the test becomes a contest).  The computer wins if the judge cannot tell which conversant is the human and which is the computer.  Turing's point is that were a computer to successfully and repeatedly pass such a test, we should then regard the computer as intelligent on the human level. To date, no computer has passed the Test reliably and often.
Key works Turing 1950; Weizenbaum, Joseph (January 1966), "ELIZA—A Computer Program For the Study of Natural Language Communication Between Man And Machine", Communications of the ACM 9 (1): 36–45.
Introductions McCorduck, Pamela (2004), Machines Who Think (2nd ed.), Natick, MA: A. K. Peters, Ltd.; Weizenbaum, Joseph (1976), Computer power and human reason: from judgment to calculationW. H. Freeman and CompanyISBN 0-7167-0463-3; Robert Epstein, Gary Roberts, Grace Beber (eds.) (2008), Parsing the Turing Test: Philosophical and Methodological Issues in the Quest for the Thinking Computer; Searle 1980
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  1. added 2019-01-03
    Davidson's No-Priority Thesis in Defending the Turing Test.Mohammad Reza Vaez Shahrestani - 2012 - Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 32:456-461.
    Turing does not provide an explanation for substituting the original question of his test – i.e., “Can machines think?” with “Can a machine pass the imitation game?” – resulting in an argumentative gap in his main thesis. In this article, I argue that a positive answer to the second question would mean attributing the ability of linguistic interactions to machines; while a positive answer to the original question would mean attributing the ability of thinking to machines. In such a situation, (...)
  2. added 2018-09-07
    Turing, Wittgenstein and the Science of the Mind.Diane Proudfoot & B. Jack Copeland - 1994 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 72 (4):497 – 519.
  3. added 2018-03-13
    The Test of Literature: John Henry Newman's Holy Imaginings.Bernard Manzo - 2010 - The Chesterton Review 36 (3/4):255-264.
  4. added 2018-02-16
    Yes, She Was! Reply to Ford’s “Helen KellerWas Never in a Chinese Room”.William Rapaport - 2011 - Minds and Machines 21 (1):3-17.
    Ford’s Helen Keller Was Never in a Chinese Room claims that my argument in How Helen Keller Used Syntactic Semantics to Escape from a Chinese Room fails because Searle and I use the terms ‘syntax’ and ‘semantics’ differently, hence are at cross purposes. Ford has misunderstood me; this reply clarifies my theory.
  5. added 2017-12-14
    Wittgenstein and the Aesthetic Robot's Handicap.Julian Friedland - 2005 - Philosophical Investigations 28 (2):177-192.
    Ask most any cognitive scientist working today if a digital computational system could develop aesthetic sensibility and you will likely receive the optimistic reply that this remains an open empirical question. However, I attempt to show, while drawing upon the later Wittgenstein, that the correct answer is in fact available. And it is a negative a priori. It would seem, for example, that recent computational successes in textual attribution, most notably those of Donald Foster (famed finder of Ted Kazinski a.k.a. (...)
  6. added 2017-11-27
    The Turing Guide.Jack Copeland, Jonathan Bowen, Robin Wilson & Mark Sprevak (eds.) - 2017 - Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  7. added 2017-05-26
    El test de Turing: dos mitos, un dogma.Rodrigo González - 2007 - Revista de Filosofía 63:37-53.
    Este artículo analiza el Test de Turing, uno de los métodos más famosos y controvertidos para evaluar la existencia de vida mental en la Filosofía de la Mente, revelando dos mitos filosóficos comúnmente aceptados y criticando su dogma. En primer lugar, se muestra por qué Turing nunca propuso una definición de inteligencia. En segundo lugar, se refuta que el Test de Turing involucre condiciones necesarias o suficientes para la inteligencia. En tercer lugar, teniendo presente el objetivo y el tipo de (...)
  8. added 2017-02-15
    Turing and the Universal Machine: The Making of the Modern Computer. [REVIEW]Martin Campbell-Kelly - 2002 - British Journal for the History of Science 35 (4):475-485.
  9. added 2017-02-15
    The Demise of the Turing Machine in Complexity Theory.Iain A. Stewart - 1996 - In P. J. R. Millican & A. Clark (eds.), Machines and Thought: The Legacy of Alan Turing, Volume 1. Clarendon Press.
  10. added 2017-02-14
    A Senseless Conversation.Zach Barnett - 2011 - Think 10 (29):9-21.
    Can machines think? Until what happened today, I thought that no human-made machine could ever think as a human does. I now know that I was wrong.
  11. added 2017-02-14
    Extraordinary Litmus Tests-Reply.D. Callahan - 2004 - Hastings Center Report 34 (2):4-5.
  12. added 2017-02-14
    Beyond the Universal Turing Machine.B. Jack Copeland & Richard Sylvan - 1999 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 77 (1):46-66.
  13. added 2017-02-14
    The Commentation Test. Application and Limitations.Roland Posner - 1974 - Foundations of Language 12:383.
  14. added 2017-02-14
    The Catalina Test Facility.Fc Fay Iii & Wc Hall - 1968 - In Peter Koestenbaum (ed.), Proceedings. [San Jose? Calif..
  15. added 2017-02-14
    “Intelligence” Tests.C. Spearman - 1939 - The Eugenics Review 30 (4):249.
  16. added 2017-02-14
    Intelligence Tests.P. E. Vernon - 1936 - The Eugenics Review 28 (3):246.
  17. added 2017-02-14
    Mental and Scholastic Tests.E. Prideaux - 1923 - The Eugenics Review 15 (3):502.
  18. added 2017-02-14
    The Measurement of Intelligence by the Binet Tests: Part II.Cyril Burt - 1914 - The Eugenics Review 6 (2):140.
  19. added 2017-02-14
    The Measurement of Intelligence by the Binet Tests: Part I.Cyril Burt - 1914 - The Eugenics Review 6 (1):36.
  20. added 2017-02-13
    Turing Machine-Inspired Computer Science Results.Juris Hartmanis - 2012 - In S. Barry Cooper (ed.), How the World Computes. pp. 276--282.
  21. added 2017-02-13
    What is Turing's Comparison Between Mechanism and Writing Worth?Jean Lassègue & Giuseppe Longo - 2012 - In S. Barry Cooper (ed.), How the World Computes. pp. 450--461.
  22. added 2017-02-13
    Turing's Normal Numbers: Towards Randomness.Verónica Becher - 2012 - In S. Barry Cooper (ed.), How the World Computes. pp. 35--45.
  23. added 2017-02-13
    The Human Turing Machine: A Neural Framework for Mental Programs.Ariel Zylberberg, Stanislas Dehaene, Pieter R. Roelfsema & Mariano Sigman - 2011 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 15 (7):293-300.
  24. added 2017-02-13
    Máquinas sin engranajes y cuerpos sin mentes: ¿Cuán dualista es el funcionalismo de máquina de Turing?Rodrigo González - 2011 - Revista de filosofía (Chile) 67:183-200.
    En este trabajo examino cómo el Funcionalismo de Máquina de Turing resulta compatible con una forma de dualismo, lo que aleja a la IA clásica o fuerte del materialismo que la inspiró originalmente en el siglo XIX. Para sostener esta tesis, argumento que efectivamente existe una notable cercanía entre el pensamiento cartesiano y dicho funcionalismo, ya que el primero afirma que es concebible/posible separar mente y cuerpo, mientras que el segundo sostiene que no es estrictamente necesario que los estados mentales (...)
  25. added 2017-02-13
    Comments on the Paper by Lynn Et Al. On the Interpretation of Correlations Between Iq and Achievement Test Scores.William Lichten - 2008 - Journal of Biosocial Science 40 (5):793-794.
  26. added 2017-02-13
    But Didn't You Have the Tests?'.Joanna Richards - 2002 - In K. W. M. Fulford, Donna Dickenson & Thomas H. Murray (eds.), Healthcare Ethics and Human Values: An Introductory Text with Readings and Case Studies. Blackwell. pp. 232.
  27. added 2017-02-13
    Is the Distribution of Coherence a Test of the Model?Theodore H. Bullock - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (2):296.
  28. added 2017-02-13
    The Real Miss Beauchamp: Gender and the Subject of Imitation.Ruth Leys - 1992 - In Judith Butler & Joan Wallach Scott (eds.), Feminists Theorize the Political. Routledge. pp. 167--214.
  29. added 2017-02-13
    The Use of the PPST and Intelligence Tests in Teacher Education Programs.Howard Carvajal, Jeffrey Kixmiller, Megan Knapp, Joseph Vitt & Kenneth A. Weaver - 1991 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 29 (2):192-194.
  30. added 2017-02-13
    Cultural Determination of Picture Space: The Acid Test.E. Broydrick Thro - 1989 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 12 (1):94.
  31. added 2017-02-13
    In What Sense Does Intelligence Underlie an Intelligent Performance?David R. Olson - 1984 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7 (2):296.
  32. added 2017-02-13
    Experimental Test of a Network Theory of Vision.David H. Foster - 1983 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 6 (4):664.
  33. added 2017-02-13
    Do IQ Tests Really Measure Intelligence?Peter H. Schönemann - 1983 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 6 (2):311-313.
  34. added 2017-02-13
    Paranoia Concerning Program-Resistant Aspects of the Mind - and Let's Drop Rocks on Turing's Toes Again.Keith Gunderson - 1981 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4 (4):537.
  35. added 2017-02-13
    Evaluation of a Model's Test.Russell Revlin - 1981 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4 (4):547.
  36. added 2017-02-13
    Test Bias and Problems in Cross-Cultural Testing.Paul Kline - 1980 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (3):349.
  37. added 2017-02-13
    A Test of Four Proposed New Dimensions of Semantic Space.Delos D. Wickens & Marc A. Lindberg - 1975 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 6 (4):381-382.
  38. added 2017-02-13
    Psychological Tests in Advertising.A. T. Poffenberger - 1924 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 7 (4):312-320.
  39. added 2017-02-12
    Is Frankenstein's Creature a Machine or Artificially Created Human Life? Intentionality Between Searle and Turing.Marco Buzzoni - 2013 - Epistemologia 36 (1):37-53.
  40. added 2017-02-12
    Relativized Schnorr Tests with Universal Behavior.Nicholas Rupprecht - 2010 - Archive for Mathematical Logic 49 (5):555-570.
    A Schnorr test relative to some oracle A may informally be called “universal” if it covers all Schnorr tests. Since no true universal Schnorr test exists, such an A cannot be computable. We prove that the sets with this property are exactly those with high Turing degree. Our method is closely related to the proof of Terwijn and Zambella’s characterization of the oracles which are low for Schnorr tests. We also consider the oracles which compute relativized Schnorr tests with the (...)
  41. added 2017-02-12
    An Exploratory Study for Analyzing Interactional Processes of Group Discussion: The Case of a Focus Group Interview.Kana Suzuki, Ikuyo Morimoto, Etsuo Mizukami, Hiroko Otsuka & Hitoshi Isahara - 2009 - AI and Society 23 (2):233-249.
    The purposes of this study are (a) to establish a measurement for evaluating conversational impressions of group discussions, and (b) to make an exploratory investigation on their interactional processes which may affect to form those impressions. The impression rating and factor analysis undertaken first give us four factors concerning conversational impressions of “focus group interviews (FGIs)”: conversational activeness, conversational sequencing, the attitudes of participants and the relationships of participants. In relation to the factors of conversational activeness and conversational sequencing in (...)
  42. added 2017-02-12
    Test Objects for Microscopes.Jutta Schickore - 2009 - History of Science 47 (2):117-146.
  43. added 2017-02-12
    Enumeration of Recursive Sets By Turing Machine.E. K. Blum - 1965 - Mathematical Logic Quarterly 11 (3):197-201.
  44. added 2017-02-11
    Crucial Tests of the Phenomenology.Bernhard Waldenfels - 2010 - Philosophische Rundschau 57 (2):154 - 178.
  45. added 2017-02-11
    Exploring Sociality and Engagement in Play Through Game-Control Distribution.Marco C. Rozendaal, Bram A. L. Braat & Stephan A. G. Wensveen - 2010 - AI and Society 25 (2):193-201.
    This study explores how distributing the controls of a video game among multiple players affects the sociality and engagement experienced in game play. A video game was developed in which the distribution of game controls among the players could be varied, thereby affecting the abilities of the individual players to control the game. An experiment was set up in which eight groups of three players were asked to play the video game while the distribution of the game controls was increased (...)
  46. added 2017-02-11
    On Alan Turing's Anticipation of Connectionism.B. Jack Copeland & Diane Proudfoot - 1996 - Synthese 108 (3):361 - 377.
    It is not widely realised that Turing was probably the first person to consider building computing machines out of simple, neuron-like elements connected together into networks in a largely random manner. Turing called his networks 'unorganised machines'. By the application of what he described as 'appropriate interference, mimicking education' an unorganised machine can be trained to perform any task that a Turing machine can carry out, provided the number of 'neurons' is sufficient. Turing proposed simulating both the behaviour of the (...)
  47. added 2017-02-11
    Intelligence Test Performance in Obesity in Relation to Educational Attainment and Parental Social Class.T. I. A. Sørensen & S. Sonne-Holm - 1985 - Journal of Biosocial Science 17 (4):379-387.
  48. added 2017-02-11
    Effect of Tests Without Feedback and Presentation-Test Interval in Paired-Associate Learning.Thomas K. Landauer & Lynn Eldridge - 1967 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 75 (3):290.
  49. added 2017-02-11
    Standardization of Two Tests of Equilibrium: The Railwalking Test and the Ataxiagraph.M. B. Fisher, J. E. Birren & A. L. Leggett - 1945 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 35 (4):321.
  50. added 2017-02-11
    The Factor of Speed in Intelligence.H. Peak & E. G. Boring - 1926 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 9 (2):71.
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