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  1. added 2019-04-11
    Epistemic Burdens and the Incentives of Surrogate Decision-Makers.Parker Crutchfield & Scott Scheall - forthcoming - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy.
    We aim to establish the following claim: other factors held constant, the relative weights of the epistemic burdens of competing treatment options serve to determine the options that patient surrogates pursue. Simply put, surrogates confront an incentive, ceteris paribus, to pursue treatment options with respect to which their knowledge is most adequate to the requirements of the case. Regardless of what the patient would choose, options that require more knowledge than the surrogate possesses (or is likely to learn) will either (...)
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  2. added 2019-04-11
    Why Letting Die Instead of Killing? Choosing Active Euthanasia on Moral Grounds.Evangelos D. Protopapadakis - 2018 - Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy.
    Ever since the debate concerning euthanasia was ignited, the distinction between active and passive euthanasia – or, letting die and killing – has been marked as one of its key issues. In this paper I will argue that a) the borderline between act and omission is an altogether blurry one, and it gets even vaguer when it comes to euthanasia, b) there is no morally significant difference between active and passive euthanasia, and c) if there is any, it seems to (...)
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  3. added 2019-04-06
    The Medical Surrogate as Fiduciary Agent.Dana Howard - 2017 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 45 (3):402-420.
    Within bioethics, two prevailing approaches structure how we think about the role of medical surrogates and the decisions that they must make on behalf of incompetent patients. One approach views the surrogate primarily as the patient's agent, obediently enacting the patient's predetermined will. The second approach views the surrogate as the patient's custodian, judging for herself how to best safeguard the patient's interests. This paper argues that both of these approaches idealize away some of the ethically relevant features of advance (...)
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  4. added 2019-01-31
    Respecting Autonomy in Difficult Medical Settings: A Questionnaire Study in Japan.Toshinori Kitamura, Hisao Katoh, Mika Takeuchi, Masaaki Murakami, Fusako Kitamura, Chieko Hasui & Miki Hayashi - 2000 - Ethics and Behavior 10 (1):51-63.
    Some people in Japan are still comfortable with the paternalistic role of doctors, but others wish that their own decisions would receive a greater amount of respect. A total of 747 students of universities and colleges and 114 parents of these students participated in a questionnaire survey. Most of the participants thought that autonomy should be respected in situations involving death with dignity and euthanasia, whereas it should not be respected in attempted suicide and involuntary admission of individuals with mental (...)
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  5. added 2019-01-02
    Authority Without Identity: Defending Advance Directives Via Posthumous Rights Over One’s Body.Govind Persad - 2019 - Journal of Medical Ethics 45 (4):249-256.
    This paper takes a novel approach to the active bioethical debate over whether advance medical directives have moral authority in dementia cases. Many have assumed that advance directives would lack moral authority if dementia truly produced a complete discontinuity in personal identity, such that the predementia individual is a separate individual from the postdementia individual. I argue that even if dementia were to undermine personal identity, the continuity of the body and the predementia individual’s rights over that body can support (...)
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  6. added 2018-06-14
    Some Ethical Considerations About the Use of Biomarkers for the Classification of Adult Antisocial Individuals.Marko Jurjako, Luca Malatesti & Inti Brazil - 2018 - International Journal of Forensic Mental Health.
    It has been argued that a biomarker-informed classification system for antisocial individuals has the potential to overcome many obstacles in current conceptualizations of forensic and psychiatric constructs and promises better targeted treatments. However, some have expressed ethical worries about the social impact of the use of biological information for classification. Many have discussed the ethical and legal issues related to possibilities of using biomarkers for predicting antisocial behaviour. We argue that prediction should not raise the most pressing ethical worries. Instead, (...)
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  7. added 2017-09-04
    Advance Directives and the Descendant Argument.Jukka Varelius - 2018 - HEC Forum 30 (1):1-11.
    By issuing an advance treatment directive, an autonomous person can formally express what kinds of treatment she wishes and does not wish to receive in case she becomes ill or injured and unable to autonomously decide about her treatment. While many jurisdictions and medical associations endorse them, advance treatment directives have also been criticized. According to an important criticism, when a person irreversibly loses her autonomy what she formerly autonomously desired ceases to be of importance in deciding about her treatment. (...)
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  8. added 2017-03-27
    Animals, Advance Directives, and Prudence: Should We Let the Cheerfully Demented Die?D. G. Limbaugh - 2016 - Ethics, Medicine and Public Health 2 (4):481-489.
    A high level of confidence in the identity of individuals is required to let them die as ordered by an advance directive. Thus, if we are animalists, then we should lack the confidence required to apply lethal advance directives to the cheerfully demented, or so I argue. In short, there is consensus among animalists that the best way to avoid serious objections to their account is to adopt an ontology that denies the existence of brains, hands, tables, chairs, iced-tea, and (...)
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  9. added 2017-03-03
    Advance Directives for Euthanasia.Eric Vogelstein - 2017 - In Michael J. Cholbi (ed.), Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide: Global Views on Choosing to End Life. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger. pp. 327-350.
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  10. added 2017-03-03
    Deciding for the Incompetent.Eric Vogelstein - 2017 - In John K. Davis (ed.), Ethics at the End of Life: New Issues and Arguments. New York: Routledge. pp. 108-125.
    This chapter discusses the moral framework for surrogate decision-making for incompetent medical patients. The chapter focuses on the question of how we can respect the autonomy of those who are no longer competent to make such decisions. The standard counterfactual account of how to respect the autonomy of the incompetent is evaluated, along with accounts that ground respect for autonomy on the patient’s most recent desires and values (regardless of whether the patient still possesses those desires and values) as well (...)
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  11. added 2016-12-08
    Scientific Dishonesty—a Nationwide Survey of Doctoral Students in Norway.Bjørn Hofmann, Anne Ingeborg Myhr & Søren Holm - 2013 - BMC Medical Ethics 14 (1):3-.
    Background: The knowledge of scientific dishonesty is scarce and heterogeneous. Therefore this study investigates the experiences with and the attitudes towards various forms of scientific dishonesty among PhD-students at the medical faculties of all Norwegian universities.MethodAnonymous questionnaire distributed to all post graduate students attending introductory PhD-courses at all medical faculties in Norway in 2010/2011. Descriptive statistics. Results: 189 of 262 questionnaires were returned (72.1%). 65% of the respondents had not, during the last year, heard or read about researchers who committed (...)
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  12. added 2016-12-08
    The Attitude of Canadian Nurses Towards Advance Directives.D. Blondeau, M. Lavoie, P. Valois, E. W. Keyserlingk, M. Hebert & I. Martineau - 2000 - Nursing Ethics 7 (5):399-411.
    This article seeks to shed light on the beliefs that influence nurses’ intention of respecting or not respecting an advance directive document, namely a living will or a durable power of attorney. Nurses’ beliefs were measured using a 44-statement questionnaire. The sample was made up of 306 nurses working either in a long-term care centre or in a hospital centre offering general and specialized care in the province of Québec. The results indicate that nurses have a strong intention of complying (...)
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  13. added 2016-09-14
    Autonomy and the Moral Authority of Advance Directives.Eric Vogelstein - 2016 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 41 (5):500-520.
    Although advance directives are widely believed to be a key way to safeguard the autonomy of incompetent medical patients, significant questions exist about their moral authority. The main philosophical concern involves cases in which an incompetent patient no longer possesses the desires on which her advance directive was based. The question is, does that entail that prior expressions of medical choices are no longer morally binding? I believe that the answer is “yes.” I argue that a patient’s autonomy is not (...)
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  14. added 2016-09-09
    The Problem of Counterfactuals in Substituted Judgement Decision-Making.Anthony Wrigley - 2011 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 28 (2):169-187.
    The standard by which we apply decision-making for those unable to do so for themselves is an important practical ethical issue with substantial implications for the treatment and welfare of such individuals. The approach to proxy or surrogate decision-making based upon substituted judgement is often seen as the ideal standard to aim for but suffers from a need to provide a clear account of how to determine the validity of the proxy's judgements. Proponents have responded to this demand by providing (...)
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  15. added 2016-05-03
    Views of Patients with Heart Failure About Their Role in the Decision to Start Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Treatment: Prescription Rather Than Participation.A. Agard, R. Lofmark, N. Edvardsson & I. Ekman - 2007 - Journal of Medical Ethics 33 (9):514-518.
    Background: There is a shortage of reports on what potential recipients of implantable cardioverter–defibrillators need to be informed about and what role they can and want to play in the decision-making process when it comes to whether or not to implant an ICD.Aims: To explore how patients with heart failure and previous episodes of malignant arrhythmia experience and view their role in the decision to initiate ICD treatment.Patients and methods: A qualitative content analysis of semistructured interviews was used. The study (...)
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  16. added 2015-12-21
    Wanted Dead or Alive: Organ Donation and Ethical Limitations on Surrogate Consent for Non-Competent Living Donors.A. Wrigley - 2013 - In A. Wrigley (ed.), Ethics, Law and Society, Vol. V. Ashgate. pp. 209-234.
    People have understandable concerns over what happens to their bodies, both during their life and after they die. Consent to organ donation is often perceived as an altruistic decision made by individuals prior to their death so that others can benefit from use of their organs once they have died. More recently, live organ donation has also been possible, where an individual chooses to donate an organ or body tissue that will not result in their death (such as a kidney). (...)
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  17. added 2015-09-14
    The Impact of Personal Identity on Advance Directives.Nada Gligorov & Christine Vitrano - 2011 - Journal of Value Inquiry 45 (2):147-158.
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  18. added 2015-07-24
    Professional Ethics in Extreme Circumstances: Responsibilities of Attending Physicians and Healthcare Providers in Hunger Strikes.Nurbay Irmak - 2015 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 36 (4):249-263.
    Hunger strikes potentially present a serious challenge for attending physicians. Though rare, in certain cases, a conflict can occur between the obligations of beneficence and autonomy. On the one hand, physicians have a duty to preserve life, which entails intervening in a hunger strike before the hunger striker loses his life. On the other hand, physicians’ duty to respect autonomy implies that attending physicians have to respect hunger strikers’ decisions to refuse nutrition. International medical guidelines state that physicians should follow (...)
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  19. added 2015-06-25
    The Significance of a Wish.Felicia Ackerman - 1991 - Hastings Center Report 21 (4):27-29.
  20. added 2015-06-13
    Medicine & Well-Being.Daniel Groll - 2015 - In Guy Fletcher (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Well-Being. Routledge.
    The connections between medicine and well-being are myriad. This paper focuses on the place of well-being in clinical medicine. It is here that different views of well-being, and their connection to concepts like “autonomy” and “authenticity”, both illuminate and are illuminated by looking closely at the kinds of interactions that routinely take place between clinicians, patients, and family members. -/- In the first part of the paper, I explore the place of well-being in a paradigmatic clinical encounter, one where a (...)
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  21. added 2015-06-11
    A proposito del diritto di morire [On the right to die debate].Rosangela Barcaro - 1996 - Bioetica 4 (3):499-510.
    Analisi dei significati della locuzione "diritto di morire" nelle sue accezioni di diritto di porre termine alla propria vita e diritto di ricevere assistenza ed accompagnamento alla morte.
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  22. added 2015-04-30
    L'éthique et les professions de la santé [Ethics and the healthcare professionals].Rosangela Barcaro - 2014 - Arc En Ciel. La Revue de Nouveaux Droits de L’Homme (73):10.
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  23. added 2015-03-18
    Les Directives Anticipées En France.Véronique Fournier & Sophie Trarieux - 2005 - Médecine et Droit 2005 (74-75):146-148.
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  24. added 2015-03-18
    Directives aux Auteurs.Fernand van Steenberghen - 1991 - Revue Philosophique De Louvain 89 (3):515-516.
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  25. added 2014-04-03
    Communication About Advance Directives: Are Patients Sharing Information with Physicians?Suzanne B. Yellen, Laurel A. Burton & Ellen Elpern - 1992 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 1 (4):377.
    Historically, patients have deferred to physicians′ judgments about appropriate medical care, thereby limiting patient participation in treatment decisions. In this model of medical decision making, physicians typically decided upon the treatment plan. Communication with patients focused on securing their cooperation in accepting a treatment decision that essentially had already been made.
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  26. added 2014-04-02
    Advance Directives and the Pursuit of Death with Dignity.J. Saunders - 1995 - Journal of Medical Ethics 21 (2):126-126.
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  27. added 2014-04-01
    Betting Your Life: An Argument Against Certain Advance Directives.C. J. Ryan - 1996 - Journal of Medical Ethics 22 (2):95-99.
    In the last decade the use of advance directives or living wills has become increasingly common. This paper is concerned with those advance directives in which the user opts for withdrawal of active treatment in a future situation where he or she is incompetent to consent to conservative management but where that incompetence is potentially reversible. This type of directive assumes that the individual is able accurately to determine the type of treatment he or she would have adopted had he (...)
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  28. added 2014-04-01
    Book Review: Making Sense of Advance Directives. [REVIEW]Evan G. DeRenzo - 1996 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 24 (2):156-157.
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  29. added 2014-04-01
    Advance Directives.T. Hope - 1996 - Journal of Medical Ethics 22 (2):67-68.
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  30. added 2014-04-01
    Book Review: Making Sense of Advance Directives. [REVIEW]Marshall B. Kapp - 1996 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 24 (2):153-155.
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  31. added 2014-03-31
    Making Sense of Advance Directives (2nd Ed).A. Sommerville - 1997 - Journal of Medical Ethics 23 (3):195-196.
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  32. added 2014-03-31
    Advance Directives Outside the USA: Are They the Best Solution Everywhere?Miguel A. Sanchez-Conzalez - 1997 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 18 (3):283-301.
    This article evaluates the potential role of advance directives outside of their original North American context. In order to do this, the article first analyses the historical process which has promoted advance directives in recent years. Next, it brings to light certain presuppositions which have given them force: atomistic individualism, contractualism, consumerism and entrepreneurialism, pluralism, proceduralism, and American moralism. The article next studies certain European cultural peculiarities which could affect advance directives: the importance of virtue versus rights, stoicism versus consumerist (...)
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  33. added 2014-03-31
    Furthering the Dialogue on Advance Directives and the Patient Self-Determination Act.Erich H. Loewy, Lawrence P. Ulrich, Miguel Bedolla, Robin Terrell Tucker & Melvina McCabe - 1994 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 3 (3):405.
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  34. added 2014-03-30
    Comparison of Patients' and Health Care Professionals' Attitudes Towards Advance Directives.D. Blondeau, P. Valois, E. W. Keyserlingk, M. Hebert & M. Lavoie - 1998 - Journal of Medical Ethics 24 (5):328-335.
    OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to identify and compare the attitudes of patients and health care professionals towards advance directives. Advance directives promote recognition of the patient's autonomy, letting the individual exercise a certain measure of control over life-sustaining care and treatment in the eventuality of becoming incompetent. DESIGN: Attitudes to advance directives were evaluated using a 44-item self-reported questionnaire. It yields an overall score as well as five factor scores: autonomy, beneficence, justice, external norms, and the affective dimension. SETTING: (...)
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  35. added 2014-03-30
    Advance Directives for Non-Therapeutic Dementia Research: Some Ethical and Policy Considerations.R. L. Berghmans - 1998 - Journal of Medical Ethics 24 (1):32-37.
    This paper explores the use of advance directives in clinical dementia research. The focus is on advance consent to participation of demented patients in non-therapeutic research involving more than minimal risks and/or burdens. First, morally relevant differences between advance directives for treatment and care, and advance directives for dementia research are discussed. Then attention is paid to the philosophical issue of dementia and personal identity, and the implications for the moral authority of research advance directives. Thirdly, a number of practical (...)
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  36. added 2014-03-30
    Advance Directives: A Computer Assisted Approach to Assuring Patients’ Rights and Compliance with PSDA and JCAHO Standards. [REVIEW]G. Don Murphy, Tom Schenkenberg, Jeff S. Hunter & Margaret P. Battin - 1997 - HEC Forum 9 (3):247-255.
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  37. added 2014-03-29
    A Proposal for the Use of Advance Directives in the Treatment of Incompetent Mentally Ill Persons.Dan W. Brock - 1993 - Bioethics 7 (2-3):247-256.
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  38. added 2014-03-28
    (In)Valid Consent of Advance Directives.S. G. Barber - 1999 - Journal of Medical Ethics 25 (6):549-550.
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  39. added 2014-03-28
    Advance Directives Are the Solution to Dr Campbell's Problem for Voluntary Euthanasia.A. Flew - 1999 - Journal of Medical Ethics 25 (3):245-246.
    Dr Neil Campbell suggests that when patients suffering extremes of protracted pain ask for help to end their lives, their requests should be discounted as made under compulsion. I contend that the doctors concerned should be referred to and then act upon advance directives made by those patients when of sound and calm mind and afflicted by no such intolerable compulsion.
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  40. added 2014-03-28
    Some Reflections on the Problem of Advance Directives, Personhood, and Personal Identity.Helga Kuhse - 1999 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 9 (4):347-364.
    : In this paper, I consider objections to advance directives based on the claim that there is a discontinuity of interests, and of personal identity, between the time a person executes an advance directive and the time when the patient has become severely demented. Focusing narrowly on refusals of life-sustaining treatment for severely demented patients, I argue that acceptance of the psychological view of personal identity does not entail that treatment refusals should be overridden. Although severely demented patients are morally (...)
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  41. added 2014-03-28
    The Death Penalty and Victims' Rights: Legal Advance Directives. [REVIEW]Heather J. Gert - 1999 - Journal of Value Inquiry 33 (4):457-473.
  42. added 2014-03-28
    Advance Directives or Living Wills.S. Luttrell - 1999 - Journal of Medical Ethics 25 (1):65-66.
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  43. added 2014-03-28
    Advance Directives as Part of a Residency-Based Educational Initiative: Doing What's Right or Doing What One is Told. [REVIEW]Patrick B. Railey & Brian H. Childs - 1999 - HEC Forum 11 (2):122-133.
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  44. added 2014-03-28
    Research Into Emergency Treatments--Could the Offer of 'Advance Directives' Help?R. Gillon - 1999 - Journal of Medical Ethics 25 (4):291-292.
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  45. added 2014-03-28
    Family Consent, Communication, and Advance Directives for Cancer Disclosure: A Japanese Case and Discussion.A. Akabayashi, M. D. Fetters & T. S. Elwyn - 1999 - Journal of Medical Ethics 25 (4):296-301.
    The dilemma of whether and how to disclose a diagnosis of cancer or of any other terminal illness continues to be a subject of worldwide interest. We present the case of a 62-year-old Japanese woman afflicted with advanced gall bladder cancer who had previously expressed a preference not to be told a diagnosis of cancer. The treating physician revealed the diagnosis to the family first, and then told the patient: "You don't have any cancer yet, but if we don't treat (...)
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  46. added 2014-03-28
    Advance Directives, Autonomy and Unintended Death.Jim Stone - 1994 - Bioethics 8 (3):223–246.
    Advance directives typically have two defects. First, most advance directives fail to enable people to effectively avoid unwanted medical intervention. Second, most of them have the potential of ending your life in ways you never intended, years before you had to die.
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  47. added 2014-03-28
    Whose Will is It, Anyway? A Discussion of Advance Directives, Personal Identity, and Consensus in Medical Ethics.Mark G. Kuczewski - 1994 - Bioethics 8 (1):27–48.
    ABSTRACTI consider objections to the use of living wills based upon the discontinuity of personal identity between the time of the execution of the directive anbd the time the person becomes incompetent. Recent authors, following Derek Parfit's “Complex View” of personal identity, have argued that there is often not sufficient identity interests between the competent person who executes the living will and the incompetent patient to warrant the use of the advance directive. I argue that such critics err by seeking (...)
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  48. added 2014-03-27
    Hans-Martin Sass, Robert M. Veatch, Rihito Kimura (Eds.). Advance Directives and Surrogate Decision Making in Health Care. [REVIEW]Ben A. Rich - 2000 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 21 (4):367-373.
  49. added 2014-03-27
    Advance Directives and Surrogate Decision Making in Health Care. United States, Germany and Japan: Edited by H-M Sass, R M Veatch and R Kimura, Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998, 311 Pages, US$48. [REVIEW]A. Sommerville - 2000 - Journal of Medical Ethics 26 (5):414-415.
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  50. added 2014-03-27
    Prospective Autonomy and Critical Interests: A Narrative Defense of the Moral Authority of Advance Directives.Ben A. Rich - 1997 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 6 (2):138-.
    In the mid to late 1980s a debate arose over the moral and legal authority of advance medical directives. At the center of this debate were two point-counterpoint law journal articles by Rebecca Dresser and Nancy Rhoden. What appeared to have the makings of an ongoing critical dialogue ended with the untimely death of Nancy Rhoden. Rebecca Dresser, however, has continued her challenge of advance directives in numerous publications, most recently in a critique of Ronald Dworkin's Life's Dominion. Like Rhoden, (...)
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