About this topic
Summary Academic skepticism was one of the two major ancient skeptical traditions. The skeptical Academic movement arose out of both the epistemological debate between Academics and Stoics and the return to Socrates’ dialectical style of philosophizing. The skeptical phase of the Academy ranges from Arcesilaus (316/5–241/0 BC), through Carneades (214–129/8 BC) and his student Clitomachus (187–10 BC), to Philo of Larissa (159/8–84/3 BC), to name only the most important figures.
Key works Hankinson 1995 and Thorsrud 2009 offer detailed presentations of the skeptical phase of the Academy.
Introductions Machuca 2011
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  1. Hume's Scepticism: Pyrrhonian and Academic by Peter S. Fosl. [REVIEW]Charles Goldhaber - 2020 - Hume Studies 46 (1):171-174.
    Peter Fosl's new monograph offers a bold reading of Hume as a "radical," "coherent," and "hybrid" skeptic, who draws influence from both the Pyrrhonian and Academic skeptical traditions. I press some concerns about whether Fosl's reading of Hume can accommodate his scientific ambitions.
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  2. J. P. F. Wynne Cicero on the Philosophy of Religion: On the Nature of the Gods and On Divination. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2019). Pp. 308. £75.00 (Hbk). ISBN 978 1 107 07048 6. [REVIEW]John Sellars - 2022 - Religious Studies 58 (2):468-470.
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  3. Just War Thinkers: From Cicero to the 21st Century.Daniel R. Brunstetter & Cian O'Driscoll - 2017 - Routledge.
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  4. Cicero: The Philosophy of a Roman Sceptic.Raphael Woolf - 2014 - Routledge.
    Cicero's philosophical works introduced Latin audiences to the ideas of the Stoics, Epicureans and other schools and figures of the post-Aristotelian period, thus influencing the transmission of those ideas through later history. While Cicero's value as documentary evidence for the Hellenistic schools is unquestioned, Cicero: The Philosophy of a Roman Sceptic explores his writings as works of philosophy that do more than simply synthesize the thought of others, but instead offer a unique viewpoint of their own. In this volume Raphael (...)
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  5. Malcolm Schofield: Cicero: Political Philosophy.Gavin M. Stewart - forthcoming - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice:1-3.
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  6. Cicero and Hobbes on the Person of the State.Marko Simendic - 2022 - Filozofija I Društvo 33 (1):247-262.
    The importance of Thomas Hobbes?s account of personation and representation can hardly be overstated. And his intellectual debt to one of his classical foes, Marcus Tullius Cicero, can hardly be ignored. This paper compares Hobbes?s ideas on personhood of the state with Cicero?s notion of persona civitatis, and attempts to describe how Hobbes reshaped Cicero?s guidelines for presenting legitimate authority into a prop for defending any effective authority. Hobbes absorbs Cicero?s influential argument and builds on the idea of civic representation (...)
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  7. Cicero and the Evolution of Philosophical Dialogue.Matthew Fox - 2021 - In Myrto Garani, David J. Konstan & Gretchen Reydams-Schils (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Roman Philosophy.
  8. Cicero, Academica 1.45: Interpreting Academic History.Charles E. Snyder - forthcoming - Bochumer Philosophisches Jahrbuch Fur Antike Und Mittelalter.
    Focused on the reference to Socrates’ confession of ignorance at Academica 1.45, this paper challenges the common assumption that this passage transmits Arcesilaus’ conception of Socrates. This paper develops in two steps a more plausible reading of the passage. According to this reading, Cicero presents an interpretation of Arcesilaus’ historical relation to Socrates. In conclusion, the paper argues that traditional readings of Acad. 1.45 underestimate not only Cicero’s originality as an historical thinker, but also his clever reconstruction of Academic history, (...)
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  9. The Modern‐Day Cicero: An Alternative Interpretation of the Work of Ronald Dworkin.Arthur Dyevre & Wessel Wijtvliet - 2022 - Ratio Juris 34 (4).
    Ratio Juris, Volume 34, Issue 4, Page 356-385, December 2021.
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  10. The Modern‐Day Cicero: An Alternative Interpretation of the Work of Ronald Dworkin.Arthur Dyevre & Wessel Wijtvliet - 2021 - Ratio Juris 34 (4):356-385.
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  11. Review of M. Schofield (2021) Cicero: Political Philosophy (Oxford University Press)’. [REVIEW]Sean McConnell - 2021 - Bryn Mawr Classical Review 2021.
  12. Walter Benjamin, L’opera d’arte nel tempo della sua riproducibilità tecnica (1935/36). Testo tedesco a fronte, a cura di Salvatore Caria-ti, Vincenzo Cicero e Luciano Tripepi, Bompiani, Milano 2017. [REVIEW]Marina Montanelli & Massimo Palma - 2018 - Aisthesis: Pratiche, Linguaggi E Saperi Dell’Estetico 11 (2):301-306.
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  13. Cicero on the Emotions and the Soul.Sean McConnell - 2021 - In The Cambridge Companion to Cicero’s Philosophy. Cambridge, UK: pp. 150–165.
    This chapter provides a critical account of Cicero’s discussion of the nature of the soul and the emotions in the Tusculan Disputations. The first two sections trace the key steps of Cicero’s argumentation as he critically evaluates the strengths and weaknesses of various competing views in the Greek philosophical tradition. Cicero ultimately purports to favor Plato’s position on the immortality of the soul and the Stoics’ cognitivist account of the emotions. The final section draws attention to the ways in which (...)
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  14. Cicero and the Golden Age Tradition.Sean McConnell - 2021 - In Utopias in Ancient Thought. Berlin, Germany: pp. 213–230.
    This paper examines Cicero’s engagement with the golden age tradition of utopian thinking, which is prominent not only in Greek literature but also in Plato and the Peripatetic and Stoic philosophical traditions. It makes the case that in De re publica and later philosophical works such as the Tusculan Disputations Cicero draws on philosophical accounts of the golden age—most significantly that of the Peripatetic Dicaearchus of Messana (c.350–c.285 BC)—in his analysis of the Roman res publica and the nature of Roman (...)
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  15. Cicero and Socrates.Sean McConnell - 2019 - In Brill’s Companion to the Reception of Socrates. Leiden, Netherlands: pp. 347-366.
    Much has been written on Cicero’s deployment of the Socratic method of in utramque partem argument, his use of Plato’s Socratic dialogues as literary models, and so forth. There has been less attention given to the nature of Cicero’s reception of ‘Socrates the man’. In this chapter I consider Cicero’s reception of ‘Socrates the man’ and argue that essentially he saw Socrates as an important model for ‘philosophy in practical life’.
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  16. Philosophy in Cicero's Speeches.Catherine Steel - 2021 - In Jed W. Atkins & Thomas Bénatouïl (eds.), The Cambridge Companion to Cicero's Philosophy. pp. 59-70.
    The most obvious use of philosophy within Cicero’s speeches is as a source of invective: Stoicism against Cato in the Pro Murena, Epicureanism in In Pisonem. However, even here Cicero is careful to show that philosophical adherence itself is not a fault; but only faulty adherence. Elsewhere in the speeches, Cicero draws on Stoic theories of society in constructing his views of the relationship between the res publica, crisis, and tyranny and in articulating the justification for tyrant killing: this line (...)
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  17. Self-Fashioning in Political Turmoil: Power, Truth and Rhetoric in Cicero.Johnson Segun Ige - 2002 - Quest - and African Journal of Philosophy 16 (1-2):94-107.
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  18. The Starting-Points for Knowledge: Chrysippus on How to Acquire and Fortify Insecure Apprehension.Simon Shogry - 2022 - Phronesis: A Journal for Ancient Philosophy 67 (1):62-98.
    This paper examines some neglected Chrysippean fragments on insecure apprehension (κατάληψις). First, I present Chrysippus’ account of how non-Sages can begin to fortify their insecure apprehension and upgrade it into knowledge (ἐπιστήμη). Next, I reconstruct Chrysippus’ explanation of how sophisms and counter-arguments lead one to abandon one’s insecure apprehension. One such counter-argument originates in the sceptical Academy and targets the Stoic claim that insecure apprehension can be acquired on the basis of custom (συνήθεια). I show how Chrysippus could defend the (...)
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  19. Augustine and the Dialogue.Erik Kenyon - 2012 - Dissertation,
    One cannot understand the literary form of a dialogue without understanding its philosophical project and vice versa. This dissertation seeks to establish how Augustine's Cassiciacum dialogues work as dialogues. Each of these works, Contra Academicos, De beata vita and De ordine, pursues two streams of inquiry: one dialectical, one self-reflexive. The first uses aporetic debates to identify problems with individuals' current beliefs. The second reflects on the act of debate as an instance of rational activity and through this draws attention (...)
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  20. Michael Foley, Against the Academics: St. Augustine’s Cassiciacum Dialogues, Volume 1. [REVIEW]Erik Kenyon - 2020 - Bryn Mawr Classical Review 1:36.
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  21. Beyond Hellenistic Epistemology: Arcesilaus and the Destruction of Stoic Metaphysics.Charles E. Snyder - 2021 - Bloomsbury Publishing.
    Charles E. Snyder considers the New Academy's attacks on Stoic epistemology through a critical re-assessment of the 3rd century philosopher, Arcesilaus of Pitane. Arguing that the standard epistemological framework used to study the ancient Academy ignores the metaphysical dimensions at stake in Arcesilaus's critique, Snyder explores new territory for the historiography of Stoic-Academic debates in the early Hellenistic period. Focusing on the dispute between the Old and New Academy, reveals the metaphysical dimensions of Arcesilaus' arguments as essential to grasping what (...)
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  22. Of Dreams, Demons, and Whirlpools: Doubt, Skepticism, and Suspension of Judgment in Descartes's Meditations.Jan Forsman - 2021 - Dissertation, Tampere University
    I offer a novel reading in this dissertation of René Descartes’s (1596–1650) skepticism in his work Meditations on First Philosophy (1641–1642). I specifically aim to answer the following problem: How is Descartes’s skepticism to be read in accordance with the rest of his philosophy? This problem can be divided into two more general questions in Descartes scholarship: How is skepticism utilized in the Meditations, and what are its intentions and relation to the preceding philosophical tradition? -/- I approach the topic (...)
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  23. The Stoic Appeal to Expertise: Platonic Echoes in the Reply to Indistinguishability.Simon Shogry - 2021 - Apeiron 54 (2):129-159.
    One Stoic response to the skeptical indistinguishability argument is that it fails to account for expertise: the Stoics allow that while two similar objects create indistinguishable appearances in the amateur, this is not true of the expert, whose appearances succeed in discriminating the pair. This paper re-examines the motivations for this Stoic response, and argues that it reveals the Stoic claim that, in generating a kataleptic appearance, the perceiver’s mind is active, insofar as it applies concepts matching the perceptual stimulus. (...)
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  24. Cicero philosophus. Ciceros philosophische Schriften im Lateinunterricht.Magnus Frisch - 2020 - In Cicero als Bildungsautor der Gegenwart (Ars Didactica – Alte Sprachen lehren und lernen; Bd. 6). Heidelberg: pp. 9-33.
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  25. Ancient Theories of Freedom and Determinism.Tim O'Keefe - 2020 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy:00-00.
    A fairly long (~15,000 word) overview of ancient theories of freedom and determinism. It covers the supposed threat of causal determinism to "free will," i.e., the sort of control we need to have in order to be rightly held responsible for our actions. But it also discusses fatalistic arguments that proceed from the Principle of Bivalence, what responsibility we have for our own characters, and god and fate. Philosophers discussed include Aristotle, Epicurus, the Stoics, Carneades, Alexander of Aphrodisias, and Plotinus. (...)
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  26. Introduction.Oren Hanner - 2020 - In Buddhism and Scepticism: Historical, Philosophical, and Comparative Perspectives. Freiburg/Bochum: pp. 15-20.
  27. Beyond Reasonable Doubt? A Note on Dharmakīrti and Scepticism.Vincent Eltschinger - 2020 - In Oren Hanner (ed.), Buddhism and Scepticism: Historical, Philosophical, and Comparative Perspectives. Freiburg/Bochum: pp. 37-53.
  28. The School of Doubt: Skepticism, History, and Politics in Cicero's Academica, Written by Orazio Cappello. [REVIEW]Peter Osorio - 2020 - Bryn Mawr Classical Review.
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  29. Augustine's Defence of Knowledge Against the Sceptics.Tamer Nawar - 2019 - Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 56:215-265.
    In his Contra Academicos, Augustine offers one of the most detailed responses to scepticism to have come down to us from antiquity. In this paper, I examine Augustine’s defence of the existence of infallible knowledge in Contra Academicos 3. I challenge a number of established views (including those of Myles Burnyeat, Gareth Matthews, and Christopher Kirwan) concerning the nature and merit of Augustine’s defence of knowledge and propose a new understanding of Augustine’s response to scepticism (including his semantic response to (...)
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  30. Arcesilao di Pitane. L’origine del platonismo neoaccademico, written by Simone Vezzoli.Bianca Falcioni - 2019 - International Journal of the Platonic Tradition 13 (2):203-205.
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  31. Carneades: The One and Only.Kilian Fleischer - forthcoming - Journal of Hellenic Studies:1-9.
    The Academic scholarch Carneades of Cyrene withdrew from active lecturing several years before his death. He handed the Academy over – either formally or informally – to a successor, who remained in charge for six years and passed away in Carneades’ own lifetime. Philodemus reports this episode three times in the Index Academicorum. Since 1869 scholars have never questioned the notion that Carneades’ lifetime-successor was a namesake: Carneades, son of Polemarchus. Now, new readings of several lines in all three passages (...)
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  32. Arcesilaus and the Ontology of Stoic Cognition.Charles E. Snyder - 2020 - Review of Metaphysics 73 (March):455-493.
    The focus of this paper is the dispute between the Academic Arcesilaus of Pitane (ca. 316–240 BC) and the philosophy of Zeno of Citium. Scholars typically claim that Arcesilaus set out to attack Zeno’s epistemology or theory of knowledge. The framework of epistemology prevails in the modern reconstruction of Arcesilaus’s arguments. Proponents of this framework usually contend that the epistemic possibility of Stoic “cognition” or “apprehension” (κατάληψις) is the principal aim of Arcesilaus’s attack. The aim of this article is to (...)
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  33. On the Teaching of Ethics From Polemo to Arcesilaus.Charles E. Snyder - 2018 - Études Platoniciennes 14.
    Less than a century after Plato’s death, the Academy’s scholarch Arcesilaus of Pitane inaugurates a peculiar oral phase of Academic philosophy, deciding not to write philosophical works or openly teach his own doctrines. Scholars often attribute a radical change of direction to the school under his headship, taking early Stoic epistemology to be the primary target of the New Academy’s attack on Stoic philosophy. This paper defends a rival view of Arcesilaus’ Academic revolution. Shifting the focus of that attack from (...)
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  34. Tarrant Scepticism or Platonism? The Philosophy of the Fourth Academy. Cambridge, Etc.: University Press. 1985. Pp. Ix + 182. £19.50. [REVIEW]John Glucker - 1989 - Journal of Hellenic Studies 109:272-273.
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  35. Scepticisme, apraxia et rationalité.Diego E. Machuca - 2019 - In Diego E. Machuca & Stéphane Marchand (eds.), Les raisons du doute: études sur le scepticisme antique. Paris: Classiques Garnier. pp. 53-87.
    La présente étude a deux objectifs. Le premier est d’examiner les différentes formulations de l’objection de l’ἀπραξία telle qu’elle fut soulevée contre le scepticisme académicien et le pyrrhonisme, ainsi que les réponses à cette objection proposées par Arcésilas et Sextus Empiricus. Le second objectif consiste à évaluer la force de la version de l’objection de l’ἀπραξία selon laquelle le sceptique ne peut réaliser les actions rationnelles propres à l’être humain.
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  36. The Hellenistic Philosophers - A. A. Long, D. N. Sedley: The Hellenistic Philosophers, Vol. 1: Translations of the Principal Sources with Philosophical Commentary, Vol. 2: Greek and Latin Texts with Notes and Bibliography. Pp. Xv + 512, X + 512; 1 Line Drawing. Cambridge University Press, 1987. Vol. 1 , Vol. 2. [REVIEW]G. B. Kerferd - 1989 - The Classical Review 39 (1):49-51.
  37. Les raisons du doute: études sur le scepticisme antique.Diego E. Machuca & Stéphane Marchand (eds.) - 2019 - Paris: Classiques Garnier.
    Le scepticisme est une véritable constante de l’histoire de la philosophie depuis l’Antiquité. En se nourrissant des désaccords philosophiques, il ne cesse de se transformer pour mieux remettre en cause les certitudes du dogmatisme. Ce volume présente des contributions en langue française de spécialistes de la pensée sceptique dans l’antiquité, domaine qui s’est considérablement développé ces dernières années. Les études ici présentées portent aussi bien sur le pyrrhonisme que sur la nouvelle Académie ou l’empirisme médical ; elles utilisent une variété (...)
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  38. The Sceptics - Thorsrud Ancient Scepticism. Pp. Xvi + 248. Stocksfield: Acumen, 2009. Paper, £14.99 . ISBN: 978-1-84465-131-3. [REVIEW]Suzanne Obdrzalek - 2010 - The Classical Review 60 (2):376-378.
  39. Os céticos gregos: radicalização do exame filosófico.Jaimir Conte - 2010 - Critica (Misc) 1 (1).
    Apresentação da tradução do livro Os Céticos Gregos, de Victor Brochard. São Paulo: Odysseus Editora, 2010, 464 pp. [ISBN: 8578760034].
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  40. Arcesilaus: Socratic Skepticism in Plato's Academy.Harald Thorsrud - 2018 - Lexicon Philosophicum: Hellenistic Theories of Knowledge.
    The fundamental issue regarding Arcesilaus’ skepticism is whether it should be understood as a philosophical position or as a strictly dialectical practice with no doctrinal content. In this paper I argue that it is both by providing an account of the epistemic principles informing his practice along with a positive doxastic attitude that he may consistently take towards those principles. I further show how Arcesilaus may have reasonably derived his Socratic project, including the epistemic principles and his distinctive cognitive attitude, (...)
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  41. Carneades.Harald Thorsrud - 2018 - In Diego E. Machuca & Baron Reed (eds.), Skepticism: From Antiquity to the Present. London, UK: pp. 51-66.
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  42. Creating a Mind Fit for Truth.Simon Shogry - 2018 - Ancient Philosophy 38 (2):357-381.
    This paper offers a new defense of the externalist interpretation of the kataleptic impression. My strategy is to situate the kataleptic impression within the larger context of the Stoic account of expertise. I argue that, given mastery in recognizing the limitations of her own state of mind, the subject can restrict her assent to kataleptic impressions, even if they are phenomenologically indistinguishable from those which are not kataleptic.
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  43. ‘Cicero's’ Philosophical Views - Altman the Revival of Platonism in Cicero's Late Philosophy. Platonis Aemulus and the Invention of Cicero. Pp. XXXII + 350. Lanham, Boulder, New York and London: Lexington Books, 2016. Cased, £70, Us$100. Isbn: 978-1-4985-2711-8. [REVIEW]Malcolm Schofield - 2017 - The Classical Review 67 (2):391-393.
  44. Plato and the Freedom of the New Academy.Charles E. Snyder - 2017 - In Harold Tarrant, François Renaud, Dirk Baltzly & Danielle A. Layne (eds.), Brill’s Companion to the Reception of Plato in Antiquity. Leiden/Boston: Brill. pp. 58–71.
    Scholars of Greek and Roman antiquity advance a variety of reasons to explain why the study of Hellenistic philosophy remains dependent on fragments and testimonies. Mansfeld observes such dependence in his use of the premise that philosophers of late antiquity based philosophical instruction and school curricula on a core set of writings from the classical period. On this basis, Mansfeld infers that schools of late antiquity continually transcribed and preserved writings of instructional significance. The schools routinely excluded other classical and (...)
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  45. Cicero’s Skepticism and His Recovery of Political Philosophy.William H. F. Altman - 2018 - Ancient Philosophy 38 (1):225-229.
  46. Cicero’s De Finibus.Julia Annas & Gábor Betegh (eds.) - 2016 - Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Cicero is increasingly recognised as a highly intelligent contributor to the ongoing ethical debates between Epicureans, Stoics and other schools. In this work on the fundamentals of ethics his learning as a scholar, his skill as a lawyer and his own passion for the truth result in a work which dazzles us in its presentation of the debates and at the same time exhibits the detachment of the ancient sceptic. Many kinds of reader will find themselves engaged with Cicero as (...)
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  47. Las respuestas académicas a la objeción de apraxia.Christian F. Pineda-Pérez - 2018 - Praxis Filosófica 46:221-42.
    En este artículo reconstruyo y analizo las respuestas de los escépticos académicos a la objeción de apraxia. Esta objeción afirma que el escepticismo es una doctrina imposible de practicar puesto que sus tesis conducen a la apraxia, esta es, un estado de privación o imposibilidad de acción. Las respuestas a la objeción se dividen en dos clases. La primera prueba que el asentimiento no es una condición necesaria para realizar acciones, por lo que la recomendación escéptica de suspender global y (...)
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  48. Ciceronian Academic Skepticism, Augustinian Anti-Skepticism, and the Argument From Second Place.Scott F. Aikin - 2017 - Ancient Philosophy 37 (2):387-405.
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  49. Learned and Wise: Cotta the Sceptic in Cicero's On the Nature of the Gods.J. P. F. Wynne - 2014 - Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 47:245-273.
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  50. Plutarch on the Difference Between the Pyrrhonists and the Academics.Mauro Bonazzi - 2012 - Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 43:271-298.
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