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Summary Adam Smith (1723-1790) is one of the key philosophical figures of the Scottish Enlightenment. Best known for his An Inquiry of into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (1776), considered the first work in modern political economy, his philosophical contribution lies mainly with his Theory of Moral Sentiments (1759). Here he develops a sentimentalist view of moral judgment as based on sympathy, and which includes the central regulative concept of an impartial spectator - a notion that much subsequent moral philosophy will build on (or critically oppose). The main issues covered in the category, besides editions of Smith's works, relate mainly to (1) the relation between his economical theory and his moral philosophy (known as the "Adam Smith problem"); (2) scholarly work on his moral philosophy, and its relation to other major figures such as David Hume, on whom Smith heavily draws but also crucially differs from.
Key works Some editions of Smith's main works: Smith 2002 (1759), Smith 1976 (1776), Smith 1978. For a classical 20th century meta-ethical reprisal (with significant differences) of Smith's impartial spectator, see Firth 1951. In recent years Smith's philosophy has received a great deal of attention. Key scholarly works include: Raphael 2007, a well-rounded exposition of Smith's moral philosophy; Montes 2003, centering on the notion of sympathy and Smith's methodology. Still relevant is Haakonssen 1981, an extended comparison between Smith and Hume on justice. On the 'Adam Smith problem', key works are Otteson 2002 and Fleischacker 2004: both originally and exhaustively connect Smith's economical theory with his moral philosophy and psychology.
Introductions On Smith's moral and political philosophy Fleischacker 2013 is a good starting point. Depending on focus, various essays contained in Brown & Fleischacker 2010 and in Berry et al 2013 can provide comprehensive guidance on different aspects of Smith's work, his context, and his influence.
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  1. Fraternity from Smith to Tawney.Colin Bird - manuscript
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  2. Chapter one of Adam Smith’s The Wealth of Nations again: a pin factory assumption.Terence Rajivan Edward - manuscript
    This paper argues that Adam Smith’s attempt to use the pin factory example to illustrate a general phenomenon – the value of the division of labour – seems to depend on an assumption. Put simply, the assumption is that the skills and knowledge involved in one task are not relevant to doing another task, or if they are relevant they would just be developed by specializing in the other task.
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  3. Father McKenzie level? Adam Smith on the effects of specialization on character: a solution.Terence Rajivan Edward - manuscript
    I propose a solution to a problem raised by E.G. West’s paper “Adam Smith’s Two Views on the Division of Labour.” Smith seems committed to the views that the division of labour makes people more and less intelligent.
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  4. Has everything on Adam Smith been written? A model and a counterargument.Terence Rajivan Edward - manuscript
    I respond to Nuno Palma’s suggestion, made in 2008, that we are approaching the day in which nothing new can be said about Adam Smith. I think that is unlikely. The paper presents a model to support the suggestion. To illustrate my counterargument, I focus on the problem of Adam Smith’s apparently contradictory claims about the effects of the division of labour on character.
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  5. Surrogacy: a letter to the Scottish nation?Terence Rajivan Edward - manuscript
    How old is the distinction between the genetic and the gestational parent? Anca Gheaus “suggests” it is quite new, but I believe people have made a distinction along these lines for centuries in their imaginations. I present a problem related to the distinction and to the Scottish enlightenment.
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  6. Federalism and The unity of Early Liberalism: Bentham and Kant’s reception of Adam Smith’s ‘New Imperialism’.Eric Schliesser - manuscript
    I argue that Smith proposed a new kind of imperialism, which we would describe as a species of ‘federalism,’ and that his plan influenced Bentham and Kant in their federal projects, although they seem to have been unaware of each other’s proposals. In what follows, I outline Smith’s position. I then describe Kant’s and Bentham’s debts to Smith in turn. This will also allow for greater clarity about the nature of early liberalism.
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  7. The judgment of Adam.Wayne Martin - manuscript
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  8. Smith, Adam.Author unknown - manuscript
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  9. Adam Smith's Theory of the Impartial Spectator as Distinct from Ideal Observer Theories: A Reply to Allan Gibbard?Jon Petty - unknown - Proceedings of the Heraclitean Society 20.
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  10. The affective extension of ‘family’ in the context of changing elite business networks.Zografia Bika & Michael L. Frazer - forthcoming - Human Relations.
    Drawing on 49 oral-history interviews with Scottish family business owner-managers, six key-informant interviews, and secondary sources, this interdisciplinary study analyses the decline of kinship-based connections and the emergence of new kinds of elite networks around the 1980s. As the socioeconomic context changed rapidly during this time, cooperation built primarily around literal family ties could not survive unaltered. Instead of finding unity through bio-legal family connections, elite networks now came to redefine their ‘family businesses’ in terms of affectively loaded ‘family values’ (...)
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  11. Adam Smith's Model of Man.Manfred J. Holler, Juhana Lemetti & Eva Piirimae - forthcoming - Acta Philosophica Fennica: Human Nature as the Basis of Morality and Society in Early Modern Philosophy.
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  12. Adam Smith: 18th Century Sentimentalist or 20th Century Rationalist?Matthias Hühn - forthcoming - Business Ethics Journal Review:22-27.
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  13. The Historical Adam.A. McIntyre - forthcoming - Perspectives on Science And.
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  14. Adam Smith on the public provision of education.J. L. Z. Rauwald - forthcoming - History of European Ideas.
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  15. Adam Smith as sociologist.Albert Salomon - forthcoming - Social Research: An International Quarterly.
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  16. A diagrammatic presentation of Adam Smith's growth model.William O. Thweatt - forthcoming - Social Research: An International Quarterly.
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  17. Mental footnotes in Capitalism: The current social validity of the concept of price from the Adam Smith’s “An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations”.Jose L. Vilchez & Cristina Sacaquirin Rivadeneira - forthcoming - Evolutionary Studies in Imaginative Culture:47-61.
    The main aim of the present study is to identify which mental footnotes (related to Adam Smith’s Capitalism) have more weight in the current cognitive processing of participants. We used the “Wealth of Nations” as the main source of the concepts from this author. An experimental design (based on a previous qualitative research) was carried out to test the influence of mental footnotes on the citizens’ decision on the validity of the concepts. The findings point out that there are strong, (...)
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  18. Adam Smith on Aesthetic Imagination and Scientific Enquiry.Rachel Zuckert - forthcoming - British Journal of Aesthetics:ayad023.
    In two posthumously published essays, ‘History of Astronomy’ and ‘Of the Nature of that Imitation which takes place in what are called The Imitative Arts’, Adam Smith suggests provocatively that philosophy is an ‘art of imagination’ and that we take the same ‘very high intellectual pleasure’ in appreciating systematic scientific theories and in listening to musical ‘systems’, i.e., complex works of non-programmatic instrumental music. In this paper, I reconstruct the view of imagination, as the cognitive faculty primarily responsible for perception (...)
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  19. Human Nature, Mind and the Self in Adam Smith's Moral Philosophy: What Does it Mean to Be Human?Riccardo Bonfiglioli - 2024 - Springer Nature Switzerland.
    This book investigates the problematisation in Adam Smith's moral philosophy of a classical question: what makes us human beings from a moral standpoint? To do this, Riccardo Bonfiglioli explores the relationship between the concepts of ‘human nature’, ‘mind’ and ‘the self’ in order to reconstruct Smith’s theory of subjectivity. After providing a systematic reconstruction of Adam Smith’s conceptions of ‘human nature’, ‘mind’ and ‘the self’ – exploring some aspects of Smith’s philosophy (nature, philosophy of history, sympathy and imagination) and their (...)
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  20. Adam Smith Reconsidered: History, Liberty, and the Foundations of Modern Politics by Paul Sagar (review).James A. Harris - 2024 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 62 (2):323-325.
    In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content:Reviewed by:Adam Smith Reconsidered: History, Liberty, and the Foundations of Modern Politics by Paul SagarJames A. HarrisPaul Sagar. Adam Smith Reconsidered: History, Liberty, and the Foundations of Modern Politics. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2022. Pp. xii + 229. Hardback, $37.00.Paul Sagar's invigorating book is a reconsideration of Adam Smith in the sense that it challenges much that is received wisdom in current scholarship. First and foremost, it rejects (...)
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  21. Adam Smith reconsidered: history, liberty, and the foundations of modern politics Adam Smith reconsidered: history, liberty, and the foundations of modern politics, by Paul Sagar. New Jersey/Oxford, Princeton University Press, 2022, 248 pp., $35.00(hardcover), ISBN 9780691210834. [REVIEW]Eveline Campos Hauck - 2024 - Intellectual History Review 34 (2):509-511.
    In 2023 we celebrate the tricentenary of Adam Smith’s birth with the publication of an amazing amount of critical work, even though the story of Smith’s reading and reception is rather uneven. From...
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  22. The ideas of the Scottish Enlightenment in Russia: Adam Smith and Semyon Efimovich Desnitskii on the philosophy of history.Ondrej Marchevský & Sandra Zákutná - 2024 - Studies in East European Thought 76 (2):289-304.
    The paper focuses on the mutual interaction as well as the impact of the Scottish Enlightenment on the formation of the Enlightenment in Russia during the reign of Catherine the Great. It focuses on the relationship between the work of Adam Smith and Semyon Efimovich Desnitskii, who, thanks to Desnitskii’s studies at the University of Glasgow, got to know each other as teacher and student. The central point of their interaction is the issues of the philosophy of history based on (...)
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  23. The Moral Value of Social Shame in Adam Smith's The Theory of Moral Sentiments.Şule Ozler - 2024 - Journal of Scottish Philosophy 22 (1):37-55.
    Central to the debate on the moral relevance of shame is whether we take others’ assessments of our moral shortcomings seriously. Some argue that viewing shame as a social emotion undermines the moral standing of shame; for a moral agent, what is authoritative are his own moral values, not the mere disapproval of others. Adam Smith's framework sheds some light on the contemporary debates in philosophy on the moral value of shame. Shame is mostly a social emotion but has moral (...)
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  24. Adam Smith’s Virtue of Prudence in E-Commerce: A Conceptual Framework for Users in the E-Commercial Society.Martin Schlag, Marta Rocchi & Richard Turnbull - 2024 - Business and Society 63 (6):1462-1502.
    As founder of modern political economics and prominent theorist of the commercial society, Adam Smith’s importance is universally recognized. Little, however, has been done so far to develop Adam Smith’s virtue ethics in the context of modern business, characterized by digitalization. This article aims to rediscover Adam Smith’s virtue of prudence and its relevance for the “e-commercial society”: It presents a framework that considers the central place of prudence in the relationship between a prosperous e-commercial system and societal flourishing. In (...)
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  25. David Hume and Adam Smith: A Japanese Perspective by Tatsuya Sakamoto (review).Estrella Trincado - 2024 - Hume Studies 49 (1):163-169.
    In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content:Reviewed by:David Hume and Adam Smith: A Japanese Perspective by Tatsuya SakamotoEstrella TrincadoTatsuya Sakamoto. David Hume and Adam Smith: A Japanese Perspective. London and New York: Routledge, 2021. Pp. 297. ISBN 9780367683023. Hardback. £130.This book is a collection of essays and articles by the Japanese scholar Tatsuya Sakamoto. In the foreword, Ryu Susato, professor of the Faculty of Economics at Keio University, Tokyo, notes that in Japanese society Marxism (...)
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  26. Human Nature as the Foundation of Adam Smith’s International Theory.Edwin van de Haar - 2024 - In Benjamin Bourcier & Mikko Jakonen (eds.), British Modern International Thought in the Making: Politics and Economy from Hobbes to Bentham. Springer Verlag. pp. 119-139.
    In this chapter, Edwin van de Haar argues that Smith’s international theory offers a unified view of politics and economics, based on Smith’s views on human nature. Smith's political economy covers many topics, such as the nation, war, the balance of power, military organisation, empire, and of course free trade. Contrary to alleged academic wisdon, he did not see a relation between free trade and peace.
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  27. Adam Smith.Jan van Vliet - 2024 - Phillipsburg, New Jersey: P&R Publishing Company.
    Adam Smith's religion drove his prescriptions for a virtuous humanity and a free and flourishing society. Jan Van Vliet examines how the practical implications of these strike a common chord with Scripture.
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  28. Colonization, Commerce and Global History: Adam Smith and Raynal’s Histoire des Deux Indes.Benoît Walraevens - 2024 - In Benjamin Bourcier & Mikko Jakonen (eds.), British Modern International Thought in the Making: Politics and Economy from Hobbes to Bentham. Springer Verlag. pp. 141-166.
    In this chapter, Benoît Walraevens investigates the possible “dialogue” between two eighteenth-century masterpieces on international politics and trade: Wealth of Nations (Smith 1776) and Histoire des Deux Indes (Raynal 1770). Although many differences appear in their treatment of colonies, properties, and occupation, they share a similar defense of “doux commerce” and free trade.
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  29. An Adam Smithian Account of Humanity.Nir Ben-Moshe - 2023 - Ergo: An Open Access Journal of Philosophy 10 (32):908-936.
    In The Sources of Normativity, Korsgaard argues for what can be called “The Universality of Humanity Claim” (UHC), according to which valuing humanity in one’s own person entails valuing it in that of others. However, Korsgaard’s reliance on the claim that reasons are essentially public in her attempt to demonstrate the truth of UHC has been repeatedly criticized. I offer a sentimentalist defense, based on Adam Smith’s moral philosophy, of a qualified, albeit adequate, version of UHC. In particular, valuing my (...)
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  30. Being Me Being You: Adam Smith & Empathy. [REVIEW]Nir Ben-Moshe - 2023 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 101 (1):243-246.
    Samuel Fleischacker’s Being Me Being You: Adam Smith & Empathy offers a new interpretation of Adam Smith’s conception of empathy—or ‘sympathy’, as Smith referred to the phenomenon in The Theory of...
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  31. The Active Powers of the Human Mind.Ruth Boeker - 2023 - In Aaron Garrett & James A. Harris (eds.), Scottish Philosophy in the Eighteenth Century, Volume II: Method, Metaphysics, Mind, Language. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 255–292.
    This essay traces the development of the philosophical debates concerning active powers and human agency in eighteenth-century Scotland. I examine how and why Scottish philosophers such as Francis Hutcheson, George Turnbull, David Hume, and Henry Home, Lord Kames, depart from John Locke’s and other traditional conceptions of the will and how Thomas Reid and Dugald Stewart reinstate Locke’s distinction between volition and desire. Moreover, I examine what role desires, passions, and motives play in the writings of these and other Scottish (...)
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  32. La rencontre de Karl Marx et d'Adam Smith : travail salarié et lutte de classes.Daniel Diatkine - 2023 - In Laurent Jaffro, Pierre-Marie Morel & Jean Salem (eds.), Matière, plaisir, bonheur: en mémoire de Jean Salem. Paris: Honoré Champion éditeur.
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  33. Adam Smith’s Theory of Moral Sentiments.Elias L. Khalil - 2023 - Topoi 42 (5):1257-1262.
    This review identifies at least six different kinds of fellow-feeling in Adam Smith’s Theory of Moral Sentiments. The six kinds are (i) the mirroring of emotions; (ii) altruism; (iii) judgment of pitch of emotions/actions; (iv) judgment of merit of emotions/actions; (v) friendship-and-love; and (vi) aspiration that leads to admiration. Smith does not list them side-by-side. This side-by-side listing promises to help thinkers to see how to assemble them to construct a coherent and systematic framework on how to amalgamate three moments (...)
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  34. 'Much Better Instructors' Adam Smith and the Role of Literature in Moral Education.Lauren Kopajtic - 2023 - In Paul Sagar (ed.), Interpreting Adam Smith: Critical Essays. Cambridge University Press. pp. 194-213.
    In the final edition of the Theory of Moral Sentiments (TMS), Smith recommends several literary authors—Racine and Voltaire, Richardson, Marivaux, and Riccoboni—as “much better instructors than Zeno, Chrysippus, or Epictetus,” specifically in their illustrations of relationships of love and friendship as well as the “private and domestic affections,” like “parental tenderness” and “filial piety” (III.3.13-4). Smith does not here explain how literature performs this instructive function, and his remarks on the function of literature are scattered across TMS and the Lectures (...)
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  35. Mary Wollstonecraft and Adam Smith on Gender and Self-Control.Lauren Kopajtic - 2023 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 61 (4):627-648.
    abstract: Mary Wollstonecraft is an early and important critic of Adam Smith, engaging with his Theory of Moral Sentiments in her Vindication of the Rights of Woman. Given Wollstonecraft's arguments against moralists who "give a sex to virtue," what did she make of Smith's use of gender-coded language and the oft-cited passage where he claims that "humanity is the virtue of a woman, generosity of a man" ( TMS IV.2.10)? This paper revisits the scholarly debate over gender essentialism in Smith, (...)
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  36. Tatsuya Sakamoto, David Hume and Adam Smith: A Japanese Perspective.Hansong Li - 2023 - Journal of Scottish Philosophy 21 (3):302-307.
  37. Sophie de Grouchy as an Activist Interpreter of Adam Smith.Kathleen McCrudden Illert - 2023 - In Paul Sagar (ed.), Interpreting Adam Smith: Critical Essays. Cambridge University Press. pp. 214-231.
    Every edition of the French translation of Adam Smith’s Theory of Moral Sentiments published between 1798 and 1981 was accompanied by the Letters on Sympathy: the philosophical text of Smith’s French translator and interlocutor, Sophie de Grouchy (1763–1822). Grouchy declared that she intended to massage the message delivered in TMS for a French audience. Yet there has been little attempt to analyse the political motivations for the changes she made to Smith’s theory. This chapter describes two key critiques that Grouchy (...)
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  38. Alasdair MacIntyre and Adam Smith on markets, virtues and ends in a capitalist economy.Paul Oslington - 2023 - Business Ethics, the Environment and Responsibility 32 (4):1126-1138.
    In recent decades, Alasdair MacIntyre has developed a style of moral philosophy and an argument for Neo-Aristotelian virtue ethics that has deeply influenced business ethics. Most of the work inspired by MacIntyre has dealt with individual and organisational dimensions of business ethics rather than the market economic environment in which individuals and organisations operate. MacIntyre has been a fierce critic of capitalism and economics. He has read Adam Smith an advocate of selfish individualism, rule-based ethics and the banishment of teleology. (...)
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  39. Adam Smith and Sympathetic Individualism.Maria Pia Paganelli - 2023 - In Nathalie Bulle & Francesco Di Iorio (eds.), The Palgrave Handbook of Methodological Individualism: Volume I. Springer Verlag. pp. 17-29.
    Adam Smith vigorously uses methodological individualism, but his individuals are radically social and entangled with each other. All social phenomena and institutions, for Smith, are not the product of any human wisdom, nor are they motivated by public spirit, but they are the unintended and unpredicted consequences of individual actions. Yet, those individuals can be defined only through how others see them, and are motivated by the approbation that (either real or imaginary) others may give them. Others are the mirror (...)
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  40. Dialogue Between African Agrarian Philosophy and Adam Smith on Underdevelopment and Resource Dependence in Africa.M. Rathbone - 2023 - In Mbih Jerome Tosam & Erasmus Masitera (eds.), African Agrarian Philosophy. Springer Verlag. pp. 85-101.
    The purpose of this chapter is to highlight principles for agrarian economics in Africa based on the dialogue between agrarian philosophy in Africa and agrarian traces in Adam Smith’s work The nature and causes of the wealth of nations [1776]. I will argue that the importance of community and society in the work of Smith is a vital point of departure for dialogue between agrarian philosophy in Africa and classic economics. The dialogue attempts to provide perspective on the issues of (...)
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  41. Life, death and commodification: Fear of death in the work of Adam Smith.Mark Rathbone - 2023 - South African Journal of Philosophy 42 (1):37-50.
    The purpose of this article is to analyse Adam Smith’s view of death in The Theory of Moral Sentiments for commercial society to determine whether the current commodification of goods (e.g. pharmaceuticals) and services (e.g. cryogenics) to assist people to deal with the fear of death was what Smith envisioned for meaningful existence and to find out what he proposed as a means to manage the fear of death in existence. The investigation revealed that Smith’s book contains many references to (...)
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  42. Precis of Recasting Hume and Early Modern Philosophy. SKEPSIS Book Symposium: Paul Russell, Recasting Hume and Early Modern Philosophy, With replies to critics: Peter Fosl (pp. 77-95), Claude Gautier (pp. 96-111) , and Todd Ryan (pp.112-122).Paul Russell - 2023 - Skepsis: A Journal for Philosophy and Interdisciplinary Research 14 (26):71-73.
    Recasting Hume and Early Modern Philosophy is a collection of essays that are all concerned with major figures and topics in the early modern philosophy. Most of the essays are concerned, more specifically, with the philosophy of David Hume (1711-1776). The sixteen essays included in this collection are divided into five parts. These parts are arranged under the headings of: (1) Metaphysics and Epistemology; (2) Free Will and Moral Luck; (3) Ethics, Virtue and Optimism; (4) Skepticism, Religion and Atheism; and (...)
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  43. Responses to Ryan, Fosl and Gautier: SKEPSIS Book Symposium on 'Recasting Hume and Early Modern Philosophy', by Paul Russell.Paul Russell - 2023 - Skepsis: A Journal for Philosophy and Interdisciplinary Research 14 (26):121-139.
    In the replies to my critics that follow I offer a more detailed account of the specific papers that they discuss or examine. The papers that they are especially concerned with are: “The Material World and Natural Religion in Hume’s Treatise” (Ryan) [Essay 3], “Hume’s Skepticism and the Problem of Atheism” (Fosl) [Essay 12], and “Hume’s Philosophy of Irreligion and the Myth of British Empiricism (Gautier) [Essay 16].
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  44. Interpreting Adam Smith: Critical Essays.Paul Sagar (ed.) - 2023 - Cambridge University Press.
    A fresh look at Adam Smith - and why he matters - from some of the leading scholars in the field.
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  45. Language.Joseph Shieber - 2023 - In Aaron Garrett & James A. Harris (eds.), Scottish Philosophy in the Eighteenth Century, Volume 2: Method, Metaphysics, Mind, Language. Oxford University Press. pp. 327-364.
  46. Adam Smith reconsidered. History, liberty, and the foundations of modern politics Adam Smith reconsidered. History, liberty, and the foundations of modern politics, by Paul Sagar, Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press, 2022, 248 pp., $35.00/£28.00(hb), ISBN 9780691210834. [REVIEW]Thiago Vargas - 2023 - Intellectual History Review 33 (4):773-776.
    A key part of scholarship on Adam Smith has been devoted to reconciling or seeking unity between the moral theory presented in The Theory of Moral Sentiments and the economic insights found in The...
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  47. Exploring the Feasibility of a Good and Rich Nation - Focusing on the Philosophies of Xunzi and Adam Smith -. 배기호 - 2023 - Journal of the New Korean Philosophical Association 114:119-138.
    이 글은 순자와 애덤 스미스의 사상을 중심으로 선한 부자 국가 실현 가능성에 관해 알아보는 데 목적을 둔다. 여기서 말하는 선한 부자 국가는 국가의 부유함이 구성원 모두에게 긍정적 영향을 두루 미치는 나라다.BR 그들에 의하면 선한 부자 국가를 만들기 위해서는 개인적인 차원에서 예(禮)를 잣대로 한 욕구 조절과 공정한 관찰자에 의한 지나친 자애심의 통제가 필요했다. 그리고 사회적 차원에서는 분업이라는 형식을 빌린 협업을 통해 생산율을 높이고 생산량을 늘려야 한다. 마지막으로 국가적 차원에서는 개인과 사회가 안정적이고 자유롭게 경제생활을 할 수 있는 법과 제도 마련, 조세 정책, (...)
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  48. Empathy and the Value of Humane Understanding.Olivia Bailey - 2022 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 104 (1):50-65.
    Empathy is a form of emotionally charged imaginative perspective‐taking. It is also the unique source of a particular form of understanding, which I will call humane understanding. Humane understanding consists in the direct apprehension of the intelligibility of others’ emotions. This apprehension is an epistemic good whose ethical significance is multifarious. In this paper, I focus on elaborating the sense in which humane understanding of others is non‐instrumentally valuable to its recipients. People have a complex but profound need to be (...)
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  49. A survey of Adam Smith's theological sources.Jordan J. Ballor - 2022 - In Jordan J. Ballor & Cornelis van der Kooi (eds.), Theology, morality and Adam Smith. New York, NY: Routledge.
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  50. Introduction: Exploring Adam Smith's theological contexts, sources, and significance.Jordan J. Ballor & Cornelis van der Kooi - 2022 - In Jordan J. Ballor & Cornelis van der Kooi (eds.), Theology, morality and Adam Smith. New York, NY: Routledge.
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