This category needs an editor. We encourage you to help if you are qualified.
Volunteer, or read more about what this involves.
Related categories

148 found
Order:
1 — 50 / 148
  1. Behavior, Body Types and the Irreversibility of Evolution.Francisco Aboitiz - 1990 - Acta Biotheoretica 38 (2):91-101.
    A functional approach to evolutionary morphology is emphasized in this paper. This perspective differs from the current structuralist trend, which emphasizes the constraining role of developmental paths. In addition, the present approach agrees with the adaptationist paradigm. It is further argued that three types of phenomena are better understood in this light: i.- the existence of evolutionary trends, ii.- the maintenance of certain structural features within a given taxon, and iii.- the irreversibility of evolution.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  2. The Tragedy of a Priori Selectionism: Dennett and Gould on Adaptationism. [REVIEW]Jeremy C. Ahouse - 1998 - Biology and Philosophy 13 (3):359-391.
    In his recent book on Darwinism, Daniel Dennett has offered up a species of a priori selectionism that he calls algorithmic. He used this view to challenge a number of positions advocated by Stephen J. Gould. I examine his algorithmic conception, review his unqualified enthusiasm for the a priori selectionist position, challenge Dennett's main metaphors (cranes vs. skyhooks and a design space), examine ways in which his position has lead him to misunderstand or misrepresent Gould (spandrels, exaptation, punctuated equilibrium, contingency (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   4 citations  
  3. Two Concepts of Constraint: Adaptationism and the Challenge From Developmental Biology.Ron Amundson - 1994 - Philosophy of Science 61 (4):556-578.
    The so-called "adaptationism" of mainstream evolutionary biology has been criticized from a variety of sources. One, which has received relatively little philosophical attention, is developmental biology. Developmental constraints are said to be neglected by adaptationists. This paper explores the divergent methodological and explanatory interests that separate mainstream evolutionary biology from its embryological and developmental critics. It will focus on the concept of constraint itself; even this central concept is understood differently by the two sides of the dispute.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   24 citations  
  4. Adaptationism, Exaptationism, and Evolutionary Behavioral Science.Paul W. Andrews, Steven W. Gangestad & Dan Matthews - 2002 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (4):534-547.
    In our target article, we discussed the standards of evidence that could be used to identify adaptations, and argued that building an empirical case that certain features of a trait are best explained by exaptation, spandrel, or constraint requires the consideration, testing, and rejection of adaptationist hypotheses. We are grateful to the 31 commentators for their thoughtful insights. They raised important issues, including the meaning of “exaptation”; whether Gould and Lewontin's critique of adaptationism was primarily epistemological or ontological; the necessity, (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   2 citations  
  5. Adaptationism – How to Carry Out an Exaptationist Program.Paul W. Andrews, Steven W. Gangestad & Dan Matthews - 2002 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (4):489-504.
    1 Adaptationism is a research strategy that seeks to identify adaptations and the specific selective forces that drove their evolution in past environments. Since the mid-1970s, paleontologist Stephen J. Gould and geneticist Richard Lewontin have been critical of adaptationism, especially as applied toward understanding human behavior and cognition. Perhaps the most prominent criticism they made was that adaptationist explanations were analogous to Rudyard Kipling's Just So Stories. Since storytelling is an inherent part of science, the criticism refers to the acceptance (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   14 citations  
  6. Natural Selection Doesn't Work That Way: Fodor on Adaptationism.A. Ariew - 2003 - Mind and Language 18 (5):447-477.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  7. Following Form and Function: A Philosophical Archaeology of Life Science.Stephen Asma - 1996 - Northwestern University Press.
    The concepts of form and function have traditionally been defined in terms of biology and then extended to other disciplines. Stephen T. Asma examines the various interpretations of form and function in science and philosophy, reflecting on the philosophical presuppositions underlying the work of Geoffroy, Cuvier, Darwin, and others. -/- In the continental tradition of Canguilhem and Foucault, Asma's treatment of the historical form/function dispute analyzes the complex interactions among ideologies, metaphysical commitments, and research programs. Following Form and Function is (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  8. Following Form and Function: A Philosophical Archeology of Life Science.Stephen Asma - 1996 - Northwestern University Press.
    The concepts of form and function have traditionally been defined in terms of biology and then extended to other disciplines. Stephen T. Asma examines the various interpretations of form and function in science and philosophy, reflecting on the philosophical presuppositions underlying the work of Geoffroy, Cuvier, Darwin, and others. -/- In the continental tradition of Canguilhem and Foucault, Asma's treatment of the historical form/function dispute analyzes the complex interactions among ideologies, metaphysical commitments, and research programs. Following Form and Function is (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  9. Strong Versus Weak Adaptationism in Cognition and Language.Scott Atran - 2005 - In Peter Carruthers, Stephen Laurence & Stephen Stich (eds.), The Innate Mind: Structure and Contents. New York: Oxford University Press New York.
    This chapter focuses on the issue of methodological usefulness of a strong versus weak adaptationist position in attempting to gain significant insight and to make scientifically important advances and discoveries in human cognition. Strong adaptationism holds that complex design is best explained by task-specific adaptations to particular ancestral environments; whereas weak adaptationism claims that we should not assume that complex design is the result of such narrowly determined task- or niche-specific evolutionary pressures in the absence of substantial corroborating evidence. It (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  10. Adaptationism for Human Cognition: Strong, Spurious, or Weak?Scott Atran - 2004 - Mind and Language 20 (1):39-67.
    Strong adaptationists explore complex organic design as taskspecific adaptations to ancestral environments. This strategy seems best when there is evidence of homology. Weak adaptationists don't assume that complex organic (including cognitive and linguistic) functioning necessarily or primarily represents taskspecific adaptation. This approach to cognition resembles physicists' attempts to deductively explain the most facts with fewest hypotheses. For certain domainspecific competencies (folkbiology) strong adaptationism is useful but not necessary to research. With grouplevel belief systems (religion) strong adaptationism degenerates into spurious notions (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (11 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   4 citations  
  11. Adaptationism for Human Cognition: Strong, Spurious or Weak?Scott Atran - unknown
    Strong adaptationists explore complex organic design as task-specific adaptations to ancestral environments. Its strategy seems best when there is evidence of homology. Weak adaptationists don't assume that complex organic functioning necessarily or primarily represents task-specific adaptation. Its approach to cognition resembles physicists' attempts to deductively explain the most facts with fewest hypotheses. For certain domain-specific competencies strong adaptationism is useful but not necessary to research. With group-level belief systems strong adaptationism degenerates into spurious notions of social function and cultural selection. (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  12. Modest Adaptationism: Muddling Through Cognition and Language.Scott Atran - 2002 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (4):504-506.
    Strong adaptationists would explain complex organic designs as specific adaptations to particular ancestral environments. Weak adaptationists don't assume that complex organic functioning represents evolutionary design in the sense of niche-specific adaptation. For some domain-specific competencies (folkbiology) strong adaptationism is useful, not necessary. With group-level belief systems (religion), strong adaptationism can become spurious pseudo-adaptationism. In other cases (language), weak adaptationism proves productive.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (8 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   2 citations  
  13. Adaptivity: From Metabolism to Behavior.Xabier Barandiaran & Alvaro Moreno - 2008 - Adaptive Behavior 16 (5):325-344.
  14. Biological Levers and Extended Adaptationism.Gillian Barker - 2007 - Biology and Philosophy 23 (1):1-25.
    Two critiques of simple adaptationism are distinguished: anti-adaptationism and extended adaptationism. Adaptationists and anti-adaptationists share the presumption that an evolutionary explanation should identify the dominant simple cause of the evolutionary outcome to be explained. A consideration of extended-adaptationist models such as coevolution, niche construction and extended phenotypes reveals the inappropriateness of this presumption in explaining the evolution of certain important kinds of features—those that play particular roles in the regulation of organic processes, especially behavior. These biological or behavioral ‘levers’ are (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   5 citations  
  15. Adaptive Mutation: A General Phenomenon or Special Case?Spencer Benson - 1997 - Bioessays 19 (1):9-11.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  16. Adaptation, Science de la Durabilité Et Pensée Planificatrice.Vincent Berdoulay & Olivier Soubeyran - 2014 - Natures Sciences Sociétés 22 (2):114-123.
    Remove from this list  
    Translate
      Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  17. Hamilton's Two Conceptions of Social Fitness.Jonathan Birch - 2016 - Philosophy of Science 83 (5):848-860.
    Hamilton introduced two conceptions of social fitness, which he called neighbour-modulated fitness and inclusive fitness. Although he regarded them as formally equivalent, a re-analysis of his own argument for their equivalence brings out two important assumptions on which it rests: weak additivity and actor's control. When weak additivity breaks down, neither fitness concept is appropriate in its original form. When actor's control breaks down, neighbour-modulated fitness may be appropriate, but inclusive fitness is not. Yet I argue that, despite its more (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  18. Has Grafen Formalized Darwin?Jonathan Birch - 2014 - Biology and Philosophy 29 (2):175-180.
    One key aim of Grafen’s Formal Darwinism project is to formalize ‘modern biology’s understanding and updating of Darwin’s central argument’. In this commentary, I consider whether Grafen has succeeded in this aim.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   2 citations  
  19. The Adaptation Theory of Science.Richard J. Blackwell - 1973 - International Philosophical Quarterly 13 (3):319-334.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   3 citations  
  20. The Mismeasure of Machine: Synthetic Biology and the Trouble with Engineering Metaphors.Maarten Boudry & Massimo Pigliucci - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 44 (4):660-668.
    The scientific study of living organisms is permeated by machine and design metaphors. Genes are thought of as the ‘‘blueprint’’ of an organism, organisms are ‘‘reverse engineered’’ to discover their functionality, and living cells are compared to biochemical factories, complete with assembly lines, transport systems, messenger circuits, etc. Although the notion of design is indispensable to think about adaptations, and engineering analogies have considerable heuristic value (e.g., optimality assumptions), we argue they are limited in several important respects. In particular, the (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  21. From Developmental Constraint to Evolvability: How Concepts Figure in Explanation and Disciplinary Identity.Ingo Brigandt - 2015 - In Alan C. Love (ed.), Conceptual Change in Biology: Scientific and Philosophical Perspectives on Evolution and Development. Dordrecht: Springer. pp. 305-325.
    The concept of developmental constraint was at the heart of developmental approaches to evolution of the 1980s. While this idea was widely used to criticize neo-Darwinian evolutionary theory, critique does not yield an alternative framework that offers evolutionary explanations. In current Evo-devo the concept of constraint is of minor importance, whereas notions as evolvability are at the center of attention. The latter clearly defines an explanatory agenda for evolutionary research, so that one could view the historical shift from ‘developmental constraint’ (...)
    Remove from this list  
    Translate
      Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   2 citations  
  22. The Innate Mind.Peter Carruthers, Stephen Laurence & Stephen P. Stich (eds.) - 2005 - Oxford University Press.
    This is the first volume of a projected three-volume set on the subject of innateness. The extent to which the mind is innate is one of the central questions in the human sciences, with important implications for many surrounding debates. By bringing together the top nativist scholars in philosophy, psychology, and allied disciplines these volumes provide a comprehensive assessment of nativist thought and a definitive reference point for future nativist inquiry. The Innate Mind: Structure and Content, concerns the fundamental architecture (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   7 citations  
  23. Adaptiveness and Adaptation: A New Autonomy-Theoretic Analysis and Critique.W. D. Christensen, J. D. Collier & C. A. Hooker - forthcoming - Biology and Philosophy.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  24. Adaptiveness and Adaptation: There's More Than Selection.W. D. Christensen, John Collier & C. A. Hooker - forthcoming - Biology and Philosophy. Submitted.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  25. The General Adaptation Syndrome in the Study of Animal Populations.John R. Clarke - 1952 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 3 (12):350-352.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (11 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  26. What is Menstruation For? On the Projectibility of Functional Predicates in Menstruation Research.S. Clough - 2002 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 33 (4):719-732.
    In 1993, biologist Margie Profet captured the attention of the popular press with the publication of her radical thesis: menstruation has a function. Traditional theories, she claims, typically view menstruation as a functionless by-product of cyclic flux. The details of Profet's functional account are similarly radical: she argues that menstruation has been naturally selected to defend the female reproductive tract from sperm-borne pathogens. There are a number of weaknesses in Profet's evolutionary analysis. However, I focus on a set of pragmatic (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  27. Information Increase in Biological Systems: How Does Adaptation Fit?John Collier - unknown
    Progress has become a suspect concept in evolutionary biology, not the least because the core concepts of neo-Darwinism do not support the idea that evolution is progressive. There have been a number of attempts to account for directionality in evolution through additions to the core hypotheses of neo-Darwinism, but they do not establish progressiveness, and they are somewhat of an ad hoc collection. The standard account of fitness and adaptation can be rephrased in terms of information theory. From this, an (...)
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   2 citations  
  28. Adaptation: A Critique of Some Current Evolutionary Thought.Helena Cronin - unknown
    Remove from this list  
    Translate
      Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  29. Selection Type Theories.Lindley Darden & Joseph A. Cain - 1989 - Philosophy of Science 56 (1):106-129.
    Selection type theories solve adaptation problems. Natural selection, clonal selection for antibody production, and selective theories of higher brain function are examples. An abstract characterization of typical selection processes is generated by analyzing and extending previous work on the nature of natural selection. Once constructed, this abstraction provides a useful tool for analyzing the nature of other selection theories and may be of use in new instances of theory construction. This suggests the potential fruitfulness of research to find other theory (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   28 citations  
  30. Rethinking Adaptation: The Niche-Construction Perspective.Rachel L. Day, Kevin N. Laland & F. John Odling-Smee - 2003 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 46 (1):80-95.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   8 citations  
  31. Reflexions Sur l'„Adaptation” Des Organismes Dans Les Grottes.Gabriel De Kolosváry - 1936 - Acta Biotheoretica 2 (1):19-22.
    The phenomena of adaptation, observed on cave-dwelling organisms, fitting themselves to the particular conditions of the caves, must not be explained in lamarckistish sense. They are phenomena of general organical reductions. As primary inducements, they compel some species, which have been made helpless in consequence of happening reductions to retire themselves spontaneously in caves. Trogloditism is therefore no cause of the peculiar decay of notorious cave-dwellers, on the contrary, it is the last stage of incessant phenomena, induced by reductions . (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  32. The Interpretation of Texts, People and Other Artifacts.Daniel C. Dennett - 1990 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 50:177-194.
    I want to explore four different exercises of interpretation: (1) the interpretation of texts (or hermeneutics), (2) the interpretation of people (otherwise known as "attribution" psychology, or cognitive or intentional psychology), (3) the interpretation of other artifacts (which I shall call artifact hermeneutics), (4) the interpretation of organism design in evolutionary biology--the controversial interpretive activity known as adaptationism.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (9 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   27 citations  
  33. Evolutionary Psychology.Stephen M. Downes - 2014 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  34. Neither Adaptive Thinking nor Reverse Engineering: Methods in the Evolutionary Social Sciences.Catherine Driscoll - 2015 - Biology and Philosophy 30 (1):59-75.
    In this paper I argue the best examples of the methods in the evolutionary social sciences don’t actually resemble either of the two methods called “Adaptive Thinking” or “Reverse Engineering” described by evolutionary psychologists. Both AT and RE have significant problems. Instead, the best adaptationist work in the ESSs seems to be based on and is aiming at a different method that avoids the problems of AT and RE: it is a behavioral level method that starts with information about both (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  35. Review of Steven Pinker, How the Mind Works. [REVIEW]John Dupré - 1999 - Philosophy of Science 66:489-493.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   2 citations  
  36. How to Bring Psychology and Biology Together.Mark Fedyk - 2014 - Philosophical Studies 1 (4):949-967.
    Evolutionary psychologists often try to “bring together” biology and psychology by making predictions about what specific psychological mechanisms exist from theories about what patterns of behaviour would have been adaptive in the EEA for humans. This paper shows that one of the deepest methodological generalities in evolutionary biology—that proximate explanations and ultimate explanations stand in a many-to-many relation—entails that this inferential strategy is unsound. Ultimate explanations almost never entail the truth of any particular proximate hypothesis. But of course it does (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  37. Apes and Angels: Adaptationism Versus Panglossianism.Aurelio José Figueredo, Mark J. Landau & Jon A. Sefcek - 2004 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (3):334-335.
    The “straw man” prior expectation of the dominant social psychology paradigm is that humans should behave with perfect rationality and high ethical standards. The more modest claim of evolutionary psychologists is that humans have evolved specific adaptations for adaptive problems that were reliably present in the ancestral environment. Outside that restricted range of problems, one should not expect optimal behavior.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  38. The Notion of Limited Perfect Adaptedness in Darwin's Principle of Divergence.Leonore Fleming - 2013 - Perspectives on Science 21 (1):1-22.
    Darwin begins On the Origin of Species by asking the reader to “reflect on the vast diversity of the plants and animals which have been cultivated” (1859, p. 7); almost five-hundred pages later, he closes by having the reader consider the “endless forms most beautiful and wonderful” that have evolved (1859, p. 490). Darwin contemplates diversity throughout the Origin and presents the principle of divergence as a way to explain it. Darwin formulated the principle of divergence around 1857 (Browne 1980), (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  39. Introduction: A Primer on Adaptationism.Patrick Forber - 2009 - Biology and Philosophy 24 (2):155-159.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  40. Spandrels and a Pervasive Problem of Evidence.Patrick Forber - 2009 - Biology and Philosophy 24 (2):247-266.
  41. Adaptive Mutation: Implications for Evolution.Patricia L. Foster - 2000 - Bioessays 22 (12):1067-1074.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  42. Adaptation and Affect: Toward a Synthesis of Piagetian and Psychoanalytic Psychologies.Alfred P. French & Margaret S. Steward - 1975 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 18 (4):464-476.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  43. J. Monod, S. Spiegelman Et l'Adaptation Enzymatique. Programmes de Recherche, Cultures Locales Et Traditions Disciplinaires. [REVIEW]Jean-Paul Gaudillière - 1992 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 14 (1):23 - 71.
  44. On Semantic Pitfalls of Biological Adaptation.Michael T. Ghiselin - 1966 - Philosophy of Science 33 (1/2):147-.
    "Adaptation" has several meanings which have often been confused, including relations, processes, states, and intrinsic properties. It is used in comparative and historical contexts. "Adaptation" and "environment" may designate probabilistic concepts. Recognition of these points refutes arguments for the notions that: 1) all organisms are perfectly adapted; 2) organisms cannot be ill-adapted and survive or well-adapted and die; 3) adaptation is necessarily relative to the environment; 4) change in environment is necessary for evolution; 5) preadaptation implies teleology. Such notions are (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   75 citations  
  45. Evolutionary Theory and Psychopathy.Andrea Glenn, R. Kurzban & Adrian Raine - 2011 - Aggression and Violent Behavior 16:371-380.
    Psychopathy represents a unique set of personality traits including deceitfulness, lack of empathy and guilt, impulsiveness, and antisocial behavior. Most often in the literature, psychopathy is described as pathology — a disorder that has been linked to a variety of biological deficits and environmental risk factors. However, from an evolutionary perspective, psychopathy, while it could be a disorder, has been construed in the context of an adaptive strategy. In this article we will examine the strengths and weaknesses of two models (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  46. Three Kinds of Adaptationism.Peter Godfrey-Smith - unknown
    Debate about adaptationism in biology continues, in part because within “the” problem of assessing adaptationism, three distinct problems are mixed together. The three problems concern the assessment of three distinct adaptationist positions, each of which asserts the central importance of adaptation and natural selection to the study of evolution, but conceives this importance in a different way. As there are three kinds of adaptationism, there are three distinct "anti-adaptationist" positions as well. Or putting it more formally, there are three different (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   9 citations  
  47. Chapter Four. Adaptation, Construction, Function.Peter Godfrey-Smith - 2013 - In Philosophy of Biology. Princeton University Press. pp. 50-65.
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  48. Adaptationism and the Power of Selection.Peter Godfrey-Smith - 1999 - Biology and Philosophy 14 (2):181-194.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   5 citations  
  49. The Spandrels of San Marco and the Panglossian Paradigm: A Critique of the Adaptationist Programme.S. J. Gould & R. C. Lewontin - 1994 - In E. Sober (ed.), Conceptual Issues in Evolutionary Biology. The Mit Press. Bradford Books. pp. 73-90.
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   214 citations  
  50. The Exaptive Excellence of Spandrels as a Term and Prototype.Stephen Jay Gould - unknown
    In 1979, Lewontin and I borrowed the archi- tectural term “spandrel” (using the pendentives of San Marco in Venice as an example) to designate the class of forms and spaces that arise as necessary byproducts of another decision in design, and not as adaptations for direct utility in them- selves. This proposal has generated a large literature featur- ing two critiques: (i) the terminological claim that the span- drels of San Marco are not true spandrels at all and (ii) the (...)
    Remove from this list  
    Translate
      Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   6 citations  
1 — 50 / 148