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1 — 50 / 130
  1. added 2020-04-22
    Alzheimer, Dementia and the Living Will: A Proposal.Claudia Burlá, Guilhermina Rego & Rui Nunes - 2014 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 17 (3):389-395.
    The world population aged significantly over the twentieth century, leading to an increase in the number of individuals presenting progressive, incapacitating, incurable chronic-degenerative diseases. Advances in medicine to prolong life prompted the establishment of instruments to ensure their self-determination, namely the living will, which allows for an informed person to refuse a type of treatment considered unacceptable according to their set of values. From the knowledge on the progression of Alzheimer disease, it is possible to plan the medical care, even (...)
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  2. added 2020-02-17
    Evidence, Errors, and Ethics.Franklin G. Miller, Steven Joffe & Aaron S. Kesselheim - 2014 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 57 (3):299-307.
    Novel therapeutics enter human testing after they show promise in animal and in vitro studies. They then begin a life cycle that extends from early phase trials without control groups, to randomized trials, to approval by regulatory authorities, to coverage by payers, to use in clinical practice. At each stage, scientific evidence is critical to determining whether to progress to the next step in this life cycle. Each of these decisions also implicitly involves issues of value and ethical norms based (...)
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  3. added 2020-02-09
    Increased Performance and Better Patient Attendance in an Hospital with the Use of Smart Agendas.Ângelo Costa, Paulo Novais, Juan M. Corchado & José Neves - 2012 - Logic Journal of the IGPL 20 (4):689-698.
    Hospital environments tend to be very ineffective, resulting in the lost of valuable resources at all times. Current approaches that address this problem tend to ignore the patient, looking only at the economics. In our view, these systems must be patient centred, and for that reason, we look at the development of tools that can improve the use of timely resources in such environments. The solution presented in this work consists in the use of personal memory assistants to monitor single (...)
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  4. added 2020-02-09
    Justifying Research Risks in a Clinical Trial for Treatment of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis.Charles Heilig - 2011 - IRB: Ethics & Human Research 33 (4):10-17.
    This article demonstrates a step-by-step component analysis of the LiMiT Study, a phase I–II randomized controlled trial designed to evaluate once-daily linezolid plus optimized background therapy versus placebo plus optimized background therapy for the first 16 weeks of study therapy for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. This study represents a fairly complex, early-stage trial that we, as investigators, wanted to ensure met criteria for appropriate justification of research risks. Our analytic framework helped to isolate and clarify a few subtle issues that arise from (...)
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  5. added 2020-02-06
    Commentary On: Tone Kvernbekk's "Evidence-Based Practice , Means-End Reasoning and Goal Directed Theories".Tracy Bowell - unknown
  6. added 2020-02-05
    Health Behavior Change and Treatment Adherence: Evidence-Based Guidelines for Improving Healthcare.Leslie Martin, Kelly Haskard-Zolnierek & M. Robin DiMatteo - 2010 - Oxford University Press USA.
    Relationships, jobs, and health behaviors-these are what New Year's resolutions are made of. Every year millions resolve to adopt a better diet, exercise more, become fit, or lose weight but few put into practice the health behaviors they aspire to. For those who successfully begin, the likelihood that they will maintain these habits is low. Healthcare professionals recognize the importance of these, and other, health behaviors but struggle to provide their patients with the tools necessary for successful maintenance of their (...)
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  7. added 2020-01-20
    Technology in the Hospital: Transforming Patient Care in the Early Twentieth Century by Joel Howell.John Lantos - 1997 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 40 (3):457-459.
  8. added 2020-01-12
    Cognitive Factors in Student Nurses' Clinical Problem Solving.Krystyna M. Cholowski & Lorna K. S. Chan - 2004 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 10 (1):85-95.
  9. added 2020-01-12
    Improving the Scientific Base of Clinical Research by Facilitating Collaboration Among Academia, the Pharmaceutical Industry, and Government.Sidney Udenfriend - 1980 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 23 (2-2):S83-S88.
  10. added 2020-01-11
    Doctors' Compliance with National Guidelines and Clinical Pathway on the Treatment of Tuberculosis Inpatients in Hubei, China.Xiaofei Zheng, Fangying Zhong & Xinping Zhang - 2014 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 20 (3):288-293.
    The Ministry of Health in China has enacted a revised National Tuberculosis Control Program (NTP) guidelines and clinical pathway (CP) on new smear‐positive pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) inpatients to improve the quality of TB care and asked doctors' compliance to them on the treatment of TB inpatients. However, it remains unknown whether doctors adhere to them well. So this study focuses on evaluating the doctors' compliance with them in one representative TB hospital for medical quality improvement.
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  11. added 2020-01-11
    Implementation of Evidence-Based Falls Prevention in Clinical Services for High-Risk Clients.Lesley Day, Margaret J. Trotter, Keith D. Hill, Terry P. Haines & Catherine Thompson - 2014 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 20 (3):255-259.
    The extent to which best practice for falls prevention is being routinely delivered by health care providers for community‐dwelling older adults is unclear. We investigated falls prevention practice among Hospital Admission Risk Programs (HARP) that provide and coordinate specialized health care for people at high risk of hospitalization.
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  12. added 2020-01-11
    Why Patients Have a Moral Obligation to Give Care to Clinicians.Stephen Buetow - 2014 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 20 (6):890-895.
    Progress is being made in transitioning from clinicians who are torn between caring for patients and populations, to clinicians who are partnering with patients to care for patients as people. However, the focus is still on what patients and others can do for patients, however defined. For clinicians whose interests must be similarly respected for their own sake and because they are integrally related to those of patients, what can and should patients do? Patients can be exempted from some normal (...)
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  13. added 2019-12-12
    Combining Efficiency and Concerns About Integrity When Using Human Biobanks.Mats G. Hansson - 2006 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 37 (3):520-532.
    In the debate about human bio-sampling the interests of patients and other sample donors are believed to stand against the interests of scientists and of their freedom of research. Scientists want efficient access to and use of human biological samples. Patients and other donors of blood or tissue materials want protection of their integrity. This dichotomy is reflected in the Swedish law on biobanks, which came into effect 1 January 2003. In this article I argue that if the basic interest (...)
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  14. added 2019-12-06
    Advancing the Synergy Between Pediatric Bioethics and Child Rights.Alissa Swota, Jeffrey Goldhagen & Cheryl D. Lew - 2015 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 58 (3):247-251.
    The manuscripts in this issue of Perspectives in Biology and Medicine reflect the work of an international group of pediatric bioethicists and child rights advocates who convened in March 2014 to pursue several questions related to the intersection of pediatric bioethics and child rights. The prequel for the Symposium involved several years of dialogue between the editors of this volume—dialogue through which it became clear that there was much to be learned about our respective disciplines and how they might inform (...)
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  15. added 2019-10-28
    Consent’s Dominion: Dementia and Prior Consent to Sexual Relations.Samuel Director - 2019 - Bioethics 33 (9):1065-1071.
    In this paper, I answer the following question: suppose that two individuals, C and D, have been in a long-term committed relationship, and D now has dementia, while C is competent; if D agrees to have sex with C, is it permissible for C to have sex with D? Ultimately, I defend the view that, under certain conditions, D can give valid consent to sex with C, rendering sex between them permissible. Specifically, I argue there is compelling reason to endorse (...)
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  16. added 2019-10-21
    Should Aggregate Patient Preference Data Be Used to Make Decisions on Behalf of Unrepresented Patients?Nathaniel Sharadin - 2019 - AMA Journal of Ethics 21 (7):566-574.
    Patient preference predictors aim to solve the moral problem of making treatment decisions on behalf of incapacitated patients. This commentary on a case of an unrepresented patient at the end of life considers 3 related problems of such predictors: the problem of restricting the scope of inputs to the models (the “scope” problem), the problem of weighing inputs against one another (the “weight” problem), and the problem of multiple reasonable solutions to the scope and weight problems (the “multiple reasonable models” (...)
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  17. added 2019-07-29
    The Patient Self-Determination Act and Advance Directives: Snapshots of Activities in a Tertiary Health Care Center: Gregory Kane, Deborah L. Jones, Debra Lynn-McHale, Martha Swartz, Paul Durbin, Don Klingen.John Engel, Gregory Kane, Deborah Jones, Debrah Lynne-McHale & Martha Swartz - 1997 - Journal of Medical Humanities 18 (2):193-208.
    This study describes the results of a retrospective review of patients' charts who had an advanced directive and who were hospitalized in a tertiary, acute care teaching hospital. The purpose of the review was to understand from clinical, sociological, ethical and legal perspectives the nature and utility of ADs. Findings and implications of the review are discussed in terms of: patient demographics; diagnoses; quality of ADs; influence of ADs on clinical decisions; and legal aspects of ADs.
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  18. added 2019-06-06
    End‐of‐Life Care in the 21st Century: Advance Directives in Universal Rights Discourse.Violeta Beširević - 2010 - Bioethics 24 (3):105-112.
    ABSTRACTThis article explores universal normative bases that could help to shape a workable legal construct that would facilitate a global use of advance directives. Although I believe that advance directives are of universal character, my primary aim in approaching this issue is to remain realistic. I will make three claims. First, I will argue that the principles of autonomy, dignity and informed consent, embodied in the Oviedo Convention and the UNESCO Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights, could arguably be regarded (...)
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  19. added 2019-06-06
    Advance Directives in Spain. Perspectives From a Medical Bioethicist Approach: Country Report.Pablo Simon-Lorda - 2008 - Bioethics 22 (6):346-354.
    Spain is one of the most advanced European countries in terms of the legislative and administrative development of ADs. Article 11 of Law 41/2002, concerning Patient Autonomy, regulates 'advance directives' and has prompted various Autonomous Regions to develop legislation in this area. Nevertheless, whilst the variety of legislations in different territories presents advantages, the disparity of criteria also presents problems. Despite significant legislative development, only 23,000 Spanish citizens have filled in an AD. Clearly, AD use is confined to a minority. (...)
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  20. added 2019-06-06
    The Impact of Roman Catholic Moral Theology on End-of-Life Care Under the Texas Advance Directives Act.David Zientek - 2006 - Christian Bioethics 12 (1):65-82.
    This essay reviews the Roman Catholic moral tradition surrounding treatments at the end of life together with the challenges presented to that tradition by the Texas Advance Directives Act. The impact on Catholic health care facilities and physicians, and the way in which the moral tradition should be applied under this statute, particularly with reference to the provision dealing with conflicts over end-of-life treatments, will be critically assessed. I will argue, based on the traditional treatment of end-of-life issues, that Catholic (...)
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  21. added 2019-06-06
    Personal Identity, Autonomy and Advance Directives.Michael F. Patton Jr - 2002 - Southwest Philosophy Review 18 (1):65-72.
  22. added 2019-06-06
    Advance Directives and Surrogate Decision Making in Health Care. United States, Germany and Japan: Edited by H-M Sass, R M Veatch and R Kimura, Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998, 311 Pages, US$48. [REVIEW]Ann Sommerville - 2000 - Journal of Medical Ethics 26 (5):414-415.
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  23. added 2019-06-06
    Making Sense of Advance Directives. [REVIEW]Ann Sommerville - 1997 - Journal of Medical Ethics 23 (3):195-196.
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  24. added 2019-06-06
    Making Sense of Advance Directives. [REVIEW]Evan G. DeRenzo - 1996 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 24 (2):156-157.
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  25. added 2019-06-06
    Planning for Mental Disorder: Buchanan and Brock on Advance Directives in Psychiatry.Jennifer Radden - 1992 - Social Theory and Practice 18 (2):165-186.
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  26. added 2019-04-11
    Epistemic Burdens and the Incentives of Surrogate Decision-Makers.Parker Crutchfield & Scott Scheall - 2019 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 22 (4):613-621.
    We aim to establish the following claim: other factors held constant, the relative weights of the epistemic burdens of competing treatment options serve to determine the options that patient surrogates pursue. Simply put, surrogates confront an incentive, ceteris paribus, to pursue treatment options with respect to which their knowledge is most adequate to the requirements of the case. Regardless of what the patient would choose, options that require more knowledge than the surrogate possesses (or is likely to learn) will either (...)
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  27. added 2019-04-11
    Why Letting Die Instead of Killing? Choosing Active Euthanasia on Moral Grounds.Evangelos D. Protopapadakis - 2018 - Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy.
    Ever since the debate concerning euthanasia was ignited, the distinction between active and passive euthanasia – or, letting die and killing – has been marked as one of its key issues. In this paper I will argue that a) the borderline between act and omission is an altogether blurry one, and it gets even vaguer when it comes to euthanasia, b) there is no morally significant difference between active and passive euthanasia, and c) if there is any, it seems to (...)
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  28. added 2019-04-06
    The Medical Surrogate as Fiduciary Agent.Dana Howard - 2017 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 45 (3):402-420.
    Within bioethics, two prevailing approaches structure how we think about the role of medical surrogates and the decisions that they must make on behalf of incompetent patients. One approach views the surrogate primarily as the patient's agent, obediently enacting the patient's predetermined will. The second approach views the surrogate as the patient's custodian, judging for herself how to best safeguard the patient's interests. This paper argues that both of these approaches idealize away some of the ethically relevant features of advance (...)
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  29. added 2019-01-31
    Respecting Autonomy in Difficult Medical Settings: A Questionnaire Study in Japan.Toshinori Kitamura, Hisao Katoh, Mika Takeuchi, Masaaki Murakami, Fusako Kitamura, Chieko Hasui & Miki Hayashi - 2000 - Ethics and Behavior 10 (1):51-63.
    Some people in Japan are still comfortable with the paternalistic role of doctors, but others wish that their own decisions would receive a greater amount of respect. A total of 747 students of universities and colleges and 114 parents of these students participated in a questionnaire survey. Most of the participants thought that autonomy should be respected in situations involving death with dignity and euthanasia, whereas it should not be respected in attempted suicide and involuntary admission of individuals with mental (...)
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  30. added 2019-01-02
    Authority Without Identity: Defending Advance Directives Via Posthumous Rights Over One’s Body.Govind Persad - 2019 - Journal of Medical Ethics 45 (4):249-256.
    This paper takes a novel approach to the active bioethical debate over whether advance medical directives have moral authority in dementia cases. Many have assumed that advance directives would lack moral authority if dementia truly produced a complete discontinuity in personal identity, such that the predementia individual is a separate individual from the postdementia individual. I argue that even if dementia were to undermine personal identity, the continuity of the body and the predementia individual’s rights over that body can support (...)
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  31. added 2018-06-14
    Some Ethical Considerations About the Use of Biomarkers for the Classification of Adult Antisocial Individuals.Marko Jurjako, Luca Malatesti & Inti Brazil - 2019 - International Journal of Forensic Mental Health 18 (3):228-242.
    It has been argued that a biomarker-informed classification system for antisocial individuals has the potential to overcome many obstacles in current conceptualizations of forensic and psychiatric constructs and promises better targeted treatments. However, some have expressed ethical worries about the social impact of the use of biological information for classification. Many have discussed the ethical and legal issues related to possibilities of using biomarkers for predicting antisocial behaviour. We argue that prediction should not raise the most pressing ethical worries. Instead, (...)
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  32. added 2017-09-04
    Advance Directives and the Descendant Argument.Jukka Varelius - 2018 - HEC Forum 30 (1):1-11.
    By issuing an advance treatment directive, an autonomous person can formally express what kinds of treatment she wishes and does not wish to receive in case she becomes ill or injured and unable to autonomously decide about her treatment. While many jurisdictions and medical associations endorse them, advance treatment directives have also been criticized. According to an important criticism, when a person irreversibly loses her autonomy what she formerly autonomously desired ceases to be of importance in deciding about her treatment. (...)
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  33. added 2017-03-27
    Animals, Advance Directives, and Prudence: Should We Let the Cheerfully Demented Die?David Limbaugh - 2016 - Ethics, Medicine and Public Health 2 (4):481-489.
    A high level of confidence in the identity of individuals is required to let them die as ordered by an advance directive. Thus, if we are animalists, then we should lack the confidence required to apply lethal advance directives to the cheerfully demented, or so I argue. In short, there is consensus among animalists that the best way to avoid serious objections to their account is to adopt an ontology that denies the existence of brains, hands, tables, chairs, iced-tea, and (...)
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  34. added 2017-03-03
    Advance Directives for Euthanasia.Eric Vogelstein - 2017 - In Michael J. Cholbi (ed.), Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide: Global Views on Choosing to End Life. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger. pp. 327-350.
  35. added 2017-03-03
    Deciding for the Incompetent.Eric Vogelstein - 2017 - In John K. Davis (ed.), Ethics at the End of Life: New Issues and Arguments. New York: Routledge. pp. 108-125.
    This chapter discusses the moral framework for surrogate decision-making for incompetent medical patients. The chapter focuses on the question of how we can respect the autonomy of those who are no longer competent to make such decisions. The standard counterfactual account of how to respect the autonomy of the incompetent is evaluated, along with accounts that ground respect for autonomy on the patient’s most recent desires and values (regardless of whether the patient still possesses those desires and values) as well (...)
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  36. added 2016-12-08
    Scientific Dishonesty—a Nationwide Survey of Doctoral Students in Norway.Bjørn Hofmann, Anne Ingeborg Myhr & Søren Holm - 2013 - BMC Medical Ethics 14 (1):3-.
    Background: The knowledge of scientific dishonesty is scarce and heterogeneous. Therefore this study investigates the experiences with and the attitudes towards various forms of scientific dishonesty among PhD-students at the medical faculties of all Norwegian universities.MethodAnonymous questionnaire distributed to all post graduate students attending introductory PhD-courses at all medical faculties in Norway in 2010/2011. Descriptive statistics. Results: 189 of 262 questionnaires were returned (72.1%). 65% of the respondents had not, during the last year, heard or read about researchers who committed (...)
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  37. added 2016-12-08
    The Attitude of Canadian Nurses Towards Advance Directives.D. Blondeau, M. Lavoie, P. Valois, E. W. Keyserlingk, M. Hebert & I. Martineau - 2000 - Nursing Ethics 7 (5):399-411.
    This article seeks to shed light on the beliefs that influence nurses’ intention of respecting or not respecting an advance directive document, namely a living will or a durable power of attorney. Nurses’ beliefs were measured using a 44-statement questionnaire. The sample was made up of 306 nurses working either in a long-term care centre or in a hospital centre offering general and specialized care in the province of Québec. The results indicate that nurses have a strong intention of complying (...)
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  38. added 2016-09-14
    Autonomy and the Moral Authority of Advance Directives.Eric Vogelstein - 2016 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 41 (5):500-520.
    Although advance directives are widely believed to be a key way to safeguard the autonomy of incompetent medical patients, significant questions exist about their moral authority. The main philosophical concern involves cases in which an incompetent patient no longer possesses the desires on which her advance directive was based. The question is, does that entail that prior expressions of medical choices are no longer morally binding? I believe that the answer is “yes.” I argue that a patient’s autonomy is not (...)
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  39. added 2016-09-09
    The Problem of Counterfactuals in Substituted Judgement Decision-Making.Anthony Wrigley - 2011 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 28 (2):169-187.
    The standard by which we apply decision-making for those unable to do so for themselves is an important practical ethical issue with substantial implications for the treatment and welfare of such individuals. The approach to proxy or surrogate decision-making based upon substituted judgement is often seen as the ideal standard to aim for but suffers from a need to provide a clear account of how to determine the validity of the proxy's judgements. Proponents have responded to this demand by providing (...)
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  40. added 2015-12-21
    Wanted Dead or Alive: Organ Donation and Ethical Limitations on Surrogate Consent for Non-Competent Living Donors.A. Wrigley - 2013 - In A. Wrigley (ed.), Ethics, Law and Society, Vol. V. Ashgate. pp. 209-234.
    People have understandable concerns over what happens to their bodies, both during their life and after they die. Consent to organ donation is often perceived as an altruistic decision made by individuals prior to their death so that others can benefit from use of their organs once they have died. More recently, live organ donation has also been possible, where an individual chooses to donate an organ or body tissue that will not result in their death (such as a kidney). (...)
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  41. added 2015-09-14
    The Impact of Personal Identity on Advance Directives.Nada Gligorov & Christine Vitrano - 2011 - Journal of Value Inquiry 45 (2):147-158.
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  42. added 2015-07-24
    Professional Ethics in Extreme Circumstances: Responsibilities of Attending Physicians and Healthcare Providers in Hunger Strikes.Nurbay Irmak - 2015 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 36 (4):249-263.
    Hunger strikes potentially present a serious challenge for attending physicians. Though rare, in certain cases, a conflict can occur between the obligations of beneficence and autonomy. On the one hand, physicians have a duty to preserve life, which entails intervening in a hunger strike before the hunger striker loses his life. On the other hand, physicians’ duty to respect autonomy implies that attending physicians have to respect hunger strikers’ decisions to refuse nutrition. International medical guidelines state that physicians should follow (...)
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  43. added 2015-06-25
    The Significance of a Wish.Felicia Ackerman - 1991 - Hastings Center Report 21 (4):27-29.
  44. added 2015-06-13
    Medicine & Well-Being.Daniel Groll - 2015 - In Guy Fletcher (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Well-Being. Routledge.
    The connections between medicine and well-being are myriad. This paper focuses on the place of well-being in clinical medicine. It is here that different views of well-being, and their connection to concepts like “autonomy” and “authenticity”, both illuminate and are illuminated by looking closely at the kinds of interactions that routinely take place between clinicians, patients, and family members. -/- In the first part of the paper, I explore the place of well-being in a paradigmatic clinical encounter, one where a (...)
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  45. added 2015-06-11
    A proposito del diritto di morire [On the right to die debate].Rosangela Barcaro - 1996 - Bioetica 4 (3):499-510.
    Analisi dei significati della locuzione "diritto di morire" nelle sue accezioni di diritto di porre termine alla propria vita e diritto di ricevere assistenza ed accompagnamento alla morte.
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  46. added 2015-04-30
    L'éthique et les professions de la santé [Ethics and the healthcare professionals].Rosangela Barcaro - 2014 - Arc En Ciel. La Revue de Nouveaux Droits de L’Homme (73):10.
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  47. added 2015-03-18
    Les Directives Anticipées En France.Véronique Fournier & Sophie Trarieux - 2005 - Médecine et Droit 2005 (74-75):146-148.
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  48. added 2015-03-18
    Directives aux Auteurs.Fernand van Steenberghen - 1991 - Revue Philosophique De Louvain 89 (3):515-516.
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  49. added 2014-04-03
    Communication About Advance Directives: Are Patients Sharing Information with Physicians?Suzanne B. Yellen, Laurel A. Burton & Ellen Elpern - 1992 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 1 (4):377.
    Historically, patients have deferred to physicians′ judgments about appropriate medical care, thereby limiting patient participation in treatment decisions. In this model of medical decision making, physicians typically decided upon the treatment plan. Communication with patients focused on securing their cooperation in accepting a treatment decision that essentially had already been made.
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  50. added 2014-04-02
    Advance Directives and the Pursuit of Death with Dignity.J. Saunders - 1995 - Journal of Medical Ethics 21 (2):126-126.
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