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  1. Jay Allman (2001). Metaphor and Davidson's Theory of Interpretation. Southern Journal of Philosophy 39 (1):1-22.
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  2. Monroe C. Beardsley (1978). Languages of Art and Art Criticism. Erkenntnis 12 (1):95 - 118.
    What implications does goodman's "languages of art" have for the theory and practice of art criticism? to account for the cognitive value of pictorial representations, It apparently requires to be supplemented by a concept of depiction, Or indefinite reference. For goodman's theory of expression to be convincing, Criteria are needed to discriminate exemplification in goodman's sense from the mere possession of labels. Some of the fundamental criteria of evaluation very widely used by art critics do not seem to be those (...)
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  3. Jiri Benovsky (2016). Depiction and Imagination. SATS 17 (1):61-80.
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  4. Alessandro Bertinetto (2006). Arte como desrealización. Daimon: Revista de Filosofia 39:175-185.
    The paper recognizes the failure of contemporary non-aesthetic theories of art and aims at recovering the phenomenological notion of derealization – which re-emerges in A. Dantoʼs idea of the ʻbracketting effectʼ of art –, in order to explain art and art-experience. The main point is that art makes us free from the ʻreal worldʼ through an act of derealization that leads to the establishment of possible or fictional worlds different from the one we live in. Artworks are primarly imaginary, unreal (...)
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  5. Victoria Burke (1997). Carolyn Bailey Gill, Ed., Maurice Blanchot: The Demand of Writing. [REVIEW] Philosophy in Review 17:409-411.
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  6. H. G. Callaway (1986). Beardsley on Metaphor. Restant 14, Text, Literature and Aesthetics 14:73-88.
    Monroe C. Beardsley has made seminal contributions to the on-going discussions of metaphor, contributions of continuing relevance and influence. His "Verbal Opposition Theory," like Max Black's "Interaction Theory," is a classic document of the contemporary semantic approach to metaphor, and has placed special emphasis upon the recognition of metaphor --the problem of the metaphorical warrant--which has lead to a deeper understanding of the complexities of this problem.
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  7. T. S. Champlin (1994). Hyman on Naturalism and the Ram Jug. British Journal of Aesthetics 34 (2):146-150.
  8. Kim Chong Chong (2006). Zhuangzi and the Nature of Metaphor. Philosophy East and West 56 (3):370-391.
    : While it is well known that Zhuangzi uses metaphor extensively, there is much less appreciation of the role that it plays in his thought—a topic that is investigated in this essay. At the same time, this investigation is closely concerned with questions about the nature of metaphor. Comparisons are made between a central metaphorical structure in the Zhuangzi on the one hand and contemporary views of the nature of metaphor by Donald Davidson and by Lakoff and Johnson on the (...)
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  9. George Dickie (1999). Evaluating Art: Reprise. British Journal of Aesthetics 39 (3):288-296.
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  10. Fabio Fossa (2015). Vision, Image and Symbol. Aisthesis. Pratiche, Linguaggi E Saperi Dell’Estetico 8 (2):165-174.
    During the Fifties and the Early Sixties Hans Jonas developed a theory of man based on a series of concepts as separation of form from matter, image and symbol. By reflecting on these themes, Jonas seems to refer to the aesthetic abilities man embodies as the essence of human life. In this article I try to analyse Jonas’ thoughts on man and to determine to what extent it is possible to consider his theory as an aesthetic anthropology. Eventually, I discuss (...)
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  11. George Dickie (1985). Evaluating Art. British Journal of Aesthetics 25 (1):3-16.
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  12. Alan Goldman (2004). Evaluating Art. In Peter Kivy (ed.), The Blackwell Guide to Aesthetics. Blackwell. pp. 93--108.
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  13. N. G. E. Harris (1973). Goodman's Account of Representation. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 31 (3):323-327.
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  14. Iii Emilio Roma (1966). The Scope of the Intentional Fallacy. The Monist 50 (2):250 - 266.
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  15. Alex Kiefer (2005). The Intentional Model in Interpretation. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 63 (3):271–281.
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  16. Sacha Loeve (2011). Sensible Atoms: A Techno-Aesthetic Approach to Representation. [REVIEW] NanoEthics 5 (2):203-222.
    This essay argues that nano-images would be best understood with an aesthetical approach rather than with an epistemological critique. For this aim, I propose a ‘techno-aesthetical’ approach: an enquiry into the way instruments and machines transform the logic of the sensible itself and not just the way by which it represents something else. Unlike critical epistemology, which remains self-evidently grounded on a representationalist philosophy, the approach developed here presents the advantage of providing a clear-cut distinction between image-as-representation and other modes (...)
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  17. John Michael McGuire (2003). Davidson on Metaphorical Meaning: A Reply to Stainton. Dialogue 42 (02):355-.
    That the central thesis of Donald Davidson’s classic article on metaphor “What Metaphor Means” (WMM) is ambiguous between a weak and a strong interpretation is the primary claim that I sought to establish in my article “Sentence Meaning, Speaker Meaning, and Davidson’s Denial of Metaphorical Meaning.” In addition to this, I argued that the weak claim is trivially true and the strong claim is obviously false. Therefore, I concluded that when the central thesis of WMM is disambiguated, it is insignificant. (...)
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  18. Jennifer A. McMahon (1996). Aesthetic Perception. Communication and Cognition: An Interdisciplinary Quarterly Journal 29 (1):37-64.
    In this paper I suggest ways in which vision theory and psychology of perception may illuminate our understanding of beauty. I identify beauty as a phenomenon which is (i) ineffable, (ii) subjectively universal (intersubjective), and (iii) manifested in objects as formal structure. I present a model of perception by which I can identify a representation whose underlying principles would explain these features of beauty. The fact that these principles underlie the representation rather than constitute the content of representation, provides an (...)
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  19. Anna Mudde (2011). Finn Fordham, I Do, I Undo, I Redo: The Textual Genesis of Modernist Selves in Hopkins, Yeats, Conrad, Forster, Joyce, and Woolf. [REVIEW] Symposium: Canadian Journal of Continental Philosophy/Revue canadienne de philosophie continentale 15 (2):234-236.
  20. Dennis Potter (2006). Diagrammatic Representation in Geometry. Dialectica 60 (4):369–382.
    In this paper I offer a theory about the nature of diagrammatic representation in geometry. On my view, diagrammatic representaiton differs from pictorial representation in that neither the resemblance between the diagram and its object nor the experience of such a resemblance plays an essential role. Instead, the diagrammatic representation is arises from the role the components of the diagram play in a diagramatic practice that allows us to draws inferences based on them about the ojbects they represent.
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  21. Ron Shiro Saito (2000). From Instructional Social Computer Simulation to Heidegger's Aesthetics. Dissertation, Indiana University
    Using Schon's conception of reflection-in-action as an organizing structure, the author examines instructional social computer simulation by designing and reflecting upon computer prototypes and linking this analysis to appropriate literature. ;The author begins his study by examining the theoretical antecedents of model and location simulations. However, eventually agreeing with Dilthey's critique that society cannot be represented via scientific, law-like generalizations, he decides that model/location simulation reflects the "standard view of science" approach to the representation of society. ;Drawing from the interpretivist (...)
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  22. Anthony Savile (1971). Nelson Goodman's ‘Languages of Art’: A Study. British Journal of Aesthetics 11 (1):3-27.
    Reviews goodman's claims about representation, Expression and identity of works of art. Claims that the underlying nominalist logic effectively prohibits our understanding of these notions (pace goodman) and leaves everything which is of specific artistic and aesthetic interest out of account.
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  23. Eva Schaper (1989). In Memoriam Flint Schier: 22 December 1953 – 28 May 1988. British Journal of Aesthetics 29 (1):72-72.
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  24. Anita Silvers (1977). The Looking Backward Fallacy. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 35 (3):355-357.
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  25. Ondřej Sládek (2016). Jan Mukařovský: The Semiology of Art. Estetika: The Central European Journal of Aesthetics 53 (2):184-235.
    An introduction to an English translation of Jan Mukařovský´s lecture The Semiology of Art. In this lecture Mukařovský, a Czech aesthetician, literary historian, theorist, and leading proponent of Czech structuralism, develops his interpretation of the semiotics of art from a detailed explanation of the basic functions of the artistic sign. He emphasizes the role of the aesthetic function, which is dominant but latently and potentially contained in all the other functions of the linguistic and the artistic sign. He then defines (...)
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  26. Lynne Tirrell (1991). Seeing Metaphor as Seeing-As: Davidson's Positive View of Metaphor. Philosophical Investigations 14 (2):143-154.
    Davidson suggests that metaphor is a pragmatic (not a semantic) phenomenon; it prompts its audience to see one thing as another. Davidson rightly attacks speaker-intentionalism as the source of metaphorical meaning, but settles for an account that depends on audience intentions. A better approach would undermine intentionalism per se, replacing it with a social practice analysis based on patterns of extending the metaphor. This paper shows why Davidson’s perceptual model fails to stave off semantic analysis, and argues that the professed (...)
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  27. David Topper (1990). The Parallel Fallacy: On Comparing Art and Science. British Journal of Aesthetics 30 (4):311-317.
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  28. Kenneth R. Westphal (1997). ‘‘‘Hegel, Formalism, and Robert Turner’s Ceramic Art’. Jahrbuch für Hegelforschung 3:259–283.
    Hegel’s aesthetic ideal is the perfect integration of form and content within a work of art. This ideal is incompatible with the predominant 20th-century principle of formalist criticism, that form is the sole important factor in a work of art. Although the formalist dichotomy between form and content has been criticized on philosophical grounds, that does not suffice to justify Hegel’s ideal. Justifying Hegel’s ideal requires detailed art criticism that shows how form and content are, and why they should be, (...)
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  29. Fay Zika (2005). Tactile Relief: Reconsidering Medium and Modality Specificity. British Journal of Aesthetics 45 (4):426-437.
    My aim is to show that dissatisfaction with the term ‘tactile pictures’ and the proposal for ‘a multisensory pictorial aesthetic’ introduced by Dominic Lopes is due to an ambiguity of ‘picture’ between visual and spatial representation in-volving more than one sense. In order to avoid this ambiguity, I propose another term in its place and I investigate some of the directions that a richer multimedia and multimodal aesthetic can take.
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Aesthetic Symbol Systems
  1. Guy Bennett-Hunter (2010). Christmas Mythologies: Sacred and Secular. In Scott C. Lowe (ed.), Christmas: Philosophy For Everyone. Wiley-Blackwell.
    On the 24th and 25th of December every year two very different stories are told: one in people’s homes, by the fireplace or Christmas tree, to pyjamaed but excited and sleepless children; the other to people of all ages in the more imposing setting of candlelit churches and cathedrals. I want to ask, in this essay: Does the telling of these two stories have anything in common? What can we learn by comparing them? The first one, the one I call (...)
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  2. Ben Blumson (2014). Symbol Systems. In Resemblance and Representation. Open Book Publishers. pp. 85-98.
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  3. Ben Blumson (2011). Depictive Structure? Philosophical Papers 40 (1):1-25.
    This paper argues against definitions of depiction in terms of the syntactic and semantic properties of symbol systems. In particular, it is argued that John Kulvicki's definition of depictive symbol systems in terms of relative repleteness, semantic richness, syntactic sensitivity and transparency is susceptible to similar counterexamples as Nelson Goodman's in terms of syntactic density, semantic density and relative repleteness. The general moral drawn is that defining depiction requires attention not merely to descriptive questions about syntax and semantics, but also (...)
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  4. Ben Blumson (2008). Depiction and Convention. Dialectica 62 (3):335-348.
    By defining both depictive and linguistic representation as kinds of symbol system, Nelson Goodman attempts to undermine the platitude that, whereas linguistic representation is mediated by convention, depiction is mediated by resemblance. I argue that Goodman is right to draw a strong analogy between the two kinds of representation, but wrong to draw the counterintuitive conclusion that depiction is not mediated by resemblance.
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  5. Jochen Briesen (2014). Pictorial Art and Epistemic Aims. In Harald Klinke (ed.), Art Theory as Visual Epistemology. Cambridge Scholars Press. pp. 11-28.
    The question whether art is of any epistemic value is an old question in the philosophy of art. Whereas many contemporary artists, art-critics, and art-historians answer this question affirmatively, many contemporary philosophers remain skeptical. If art is of epistemic significance, they maintain, then it has to contribute to our quest of achieving our most basic epistemic aim, namely knowledge.Unfortunately, recent and widely accepted analyses of knowledge make it very hard to see how art might significantly contribute to the quest of (...)
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  6. Andrew Chignell (2007). Kant on the Normativity of Taste: The Role of Aesthetic Ideas. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 85 (3):415 – 433.
    For Kant, the form of a subject's experience of an object provides the normative basis for an aesthetic judgement about it. In other words, if the subject's experience of an object has certain structural properties, then Kant thinks she can legitimately judge that the object is beautiful - and that it is beautiful for everyone. My goal in this paper is to provide a new account of how this 'subjective universalism' is supposed to work. In doing so, I appeal to (...)
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  7. Andrew Chignell (2006). Beauty as a Symbol of Natural Systematicity. British Journal of Aesthetics 46 (4):406-415.
    I examine Kant's claim that a relation of symbolization links judgments of beauty and judgments of ‘systematicity’ in nature (that is, judgments concerning the ordering of natural forms under hierarchies of laws). My aim is to show that the symbolic relation between the two is, for Kant, much closer than many commentators think: it is not only the form but also the objects of some of our judgments of taste that symbolize the systematicity of nature. -/- .
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  8. Rory J. Conces (2011). Using Public Evocative Objects to Support a Multiethnic Democractic Society in Kosovo (II) Fields of Existence Vs. Fields of Battle. Bosnia Daily:9-10.
  9. Rory J. Conces (2011). Using Public Evocative Objects to Support a Multiethnic Democratic Society in Kosovo (I) Friendly and Enemy Images. Bosnia Daily.
  10. Gregory Currie (2016). Aesthetic Explanation and the Archaeology of Symbols. British Journal of Aesthetics 56 (3):233-246.
    I argue that aesthetic ideas should play a significant role in archaeological explanation. I sketch an account of aesthetic interests which is appropriate to archaeological contexts. I illustrate the role of aesthetics through a discussion of the transition from signals to symbols. I argue that the opposition in archaeological debate between explanation and interpretation is one we should reject.
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  11. Saul Fisher (2000). Architectural Notation and Computer Aided Design. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 58 (3):273-289.
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  12. Nelson Goodman (1968). Languages of Art. Bobbs-Merrill.
    . . . Unlike Dewey, he has provided detailed incisive argumentation, and has shown just where the dogmas and dualisms break down." -- Richard Rorty, The Yale Review.
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  13. Gaetano Iaia (2011). Rappresentazione dell’inimmaginabile: l’immagine sacra, silenzioso “segno messianico”. Capys 2 (2):255-267.
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  14. Steven A. Knowlton (2013). Evocation and Figurative Thought in Tennessee Flag Culture. Raven 20:23-54.
    The popularity of logos derived from the Tennessee flag can be explained by its obvious and relevant symbolism, but also by the phenomenon of pragmatic unity through which the Tennessee flag evokes the Confederate flag, as well as by the phenomenon of visual synecdoche, which allows observers to associate the three-star element with the entire flag and its associated meanings.
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  15. Jennifer A. McMahon (2006). Symposium on Pictorial Realism : Introduction. Contemporary Aesthetics 4.
    The participants in this Symposium gathered for a two-day conference on Pictorial Realism at the University of Adelaide. Our aim was to analyse the notion of pictorial realism with a view to its relevance for the way in which art history is conceived and appreciated. Specifically, we examined the extent to which the representational content of artworks can be ascertained independently of preconceived theoretical knowledge about the representational system within which the artwork is made. Papers focus in particular on the (...)
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  16. Joseph Nechvatal (2005). Immersive Excess in the Apse of Lascaux. Technoetic Arts 3 (3):181-192.
    This paper will investigate the anonymous collective of skilled artists which created an immersive work of art of a high order in the Abside (Apse) of the Grotte de Lascaux. The Apse is a roundish, semi-spherical, penumbra-like chamber (like those adjacent to romanesque basiliques) approximately 4.5 metres in diameter (about 5 yards) covered on every wall surface (including the ceiling) with thousands of entangled, overlapping, engraved drawings (Leroi-Gourhan, 1968, p. 315) for which, on request, I received a very unique privilege (...)
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  17. Oliver Robert Scholz (2000). A Solid Sense of Syntax. Erkenntnis 52 (2):199-212.
    Every materially adequate explication of the concepts ``picture''and ``the pictorial'' has to appeal to syntactical properties.From the available definitions, a conception of syntax is extractedthat is applicable to symbol systems of any sort. Against thisbackground, it is shown that a non-semantical characterization ofthe pictorial is mandatory. Finally, specific syntactical featuresare explicated that recommend themselves as necessary conditions forthe application of the concept of a picture.
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  18. Mark Textor (2008). Samples as Symbols. Ratio 21 (3):344-359.
    Nelson Goodman and, following him, Catherine Z. Elgin and Keith Lehrer have claimed that sometimes a sample is a symbol that stands for the property it is a sample of. The relation between the sample and the property it stands for is called 'exemplification' (Goodman, Elgin) or 'exemplarisation' (Lehrer). Goodman and Lehrer argue that the notion of exemplification sheds light on central problems in aesthetics and the philosophy of mind. However, while there seems to be a phenomenon to be captured, (...)
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  19. V. Kulvicki John (2006). On Images: Their Structure and Content. Oxford University Press UK.
    What makes pictures different from all of the other ways we have of representing things? Why do pictures seem so immediate? What makes a picture realistic or not? Against prevailing wisdom, Kulvicki claims that what makes pictures special is not how we perceive them, but how they relate to one another. This not only provides some new answers to old questions, but it shows that there are many more kinds of pictures out there than many have thought.
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  20. Servaas de V. van der Berg (2012). Towards Defending a Semantic Theory of Expression in Art: Revisiting Goodman. South African Journal of Philosophy 30 (3):600-612.
    Nelson Goodman’s attempt to analyse the expressiveness of artworks in semantic terms has been widely criticised. In this paper I try to show how the use of an adapted version of his concept of exemplification, as proposed by Mark Textor, can help to alleviate the worst problems with his theory of expression. More particularly I argue that the recognition of an intention, which is central to Textor’s account of exemplification, is also fundamental to our understanding of expressiveness in art. Moreover (...)
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  21. Inga Vermeulen, Georg Brun & Christoph Baumberger (2009). Five Ways of (Not) Defining Exempliflcation. In G. Ernst, J. Steinbrenner & O. Scholz (eds.), From Logic to Art: Themes From Nelson Goodman. Ontos. pp. 7--219.
    The notion of exemplification is essential for Goodman’s theory of symbols. But Goodman’s account of exemplification has been criticized as unclear and inadequate. He points out two conditions for an object x exemplifying a label y: (C1) y denotes x and (C2) x refers to y. While (C1) is uncontroversial, (C2) raises the question of how “refers to” should be interpreted. This problem is intertwined with three further questions that consequently should be discussed together with it. Are the two necessary (...)
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