About this topic
Summary

Broadly construed, animal ethics is an area of inquiry and debate that focuses on a variety of approaches to assessing the moral status of nonhuman animals. One of the main approaches in contemporary scholarship is deontological and argues for strict rights for animals on the grounds that they are subjects-of-a-life (Tom Regan) and thus possess inherent worth; such views often seek to expand Kant's ascription of inherent worth to rational agents so that it applies to all sentient beings. Other views, including those of some secular naturalists, seek to ascribe moral status to animals not on the basis of inherent worth but on the basis of capacities shared by all sentient beings. Another main approach encompasses a variety of views that tend to be "welfarist" in the sense that they do not seek to ascribe strict right to animals but instead argue that certain actions performed against animals (such as killing them or using them as sources of milk or eggs) are permissible as long as human beings perform them in a humane manner. Welfarist views are generally utilitarian in character, being based on calculations of the quantity of harm that can be done to a given living being, and they tend to assert hierarchies in which beings that are cognitively more sophisticated can be harmed in ways in which beings that are cognitively less sophisticated cannot; on the basis of such hierarchization, welfarist views typically ascribe moral superiority to human beings over nonhuman animals, although they also tend to avoid a speciesistic privileging of all human beings over all nonhuman animals on the grounds that some nonhuman animals are cognitively superior to some human beings. Thus thinkers such as Peter Singer argue that self-conscious beings have a stronger claim to life than non-self-conscious beings, where self-conscious beings are defined as those that can conceptualize the past, present, and future of their lives as one coherent whole. (Summary written by Gary Steiner and Erwin Lengauer)

Key works

Armstrong, Susan /  Botzler, Richard (ed.) ²2008. The Animal Ethics Reader - (AER). 2nd Edition. London; New York, NY, Routledge. 

Beauchamp, Tom L. / Frey, Raymond G. (eds.) 2011. The Oxford Handbook of Animal Ethics. Oxford, Oxford University Press.

Bekoff, Marc (ed.) 2010. Encyclopedia of Animal Rights and Animal Welfare. 2 Volume Set. Santa Barbara, CA, Greenwood Press, Imprint of ABC - Clio. 

Cavalieri, Paola 2001. The Animal Question: Why Non-Human Animals Deserve Human Rights. Oxford, Oxford University Press. 

Chapouthier, Georges (ed.) 1998. The Universal Declaration of Animal Rights: Comments and Intentions. Paris, Ligue Francaise des Droit de l´Animal.

DeGrazia, David (1996). Taking Animals Seriously. Mental Life and Moral Status. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Dombrowski, Daniel A. 1997. Babies and Beasts: The Argument from Marginal Cases. Urbana, IL, University of Illinois Press.

Francione, Gary  2008. Animals as Persons: Essays on the Abolition of Animal Exploitation. New York, NY, Columbia University Press.

Garner, Robert 2005. The Political Theory of Animal Rights (Perspectives on Democratization). Manchester, Manchester University Press.

Kalof, Linda / Fitzgerald, Amy (eds.). 2007. The Animals Reader: The Essential Classic and Contemporary Writings. Oxford, Berg.  

Munro, Lyle 2005. Confronting Cruelty. Moral Orthodoxy and the Challenge of the Animal Rights Movement. Human-Animal Studies.  (Dissertation). Leiden, Brill Academic.     

Palmer, Clare (ed.) 2008. Animal Rights. Clare Palmer. Series: The International Library of Essays on Rights. Aldershot, GB, Ashgate Publishing Company.

Pluhar, Evelyn 1995. Beyond Prejudice. The Moral Significance of Human and Nonhuman Animals. Durham, NC, Duke University Press.

Regan, Tom 1983. The Case for Animal Rights. Berkeley, CA, University of California Press.

Rollin, Bernard  ²1992. Animal Rights and Human Morality. Amherst, Prometheus.

Rowlands, Mark ²2009. Animal Rights. Moral Theory and Practice. London, Macmillan Press.

Sapontzis, Steve F. 1987, ²1992. Morals, Reason and Animals. Philadelphia, PA, Temple University Press.

Singer, Peter 1975, ²1990. Animal Liberation. A New Ethics for our Treatment of Animals. New York, NY, New York Review of Book.

Singer, Peter (ed.) 2006. In Defense of Animals. The Second Wave. Malden, Blackwell.

Steiner, Gary 2008. Animals and the Moral Community: Mental Life, Moral Status, and Kinship. New York, NY, Columbia University Press.

Steiner, Gary. 2013. Animals and the Limits of Postmodernism. New York: Columbia University Press.

Introductions Regan, Tom 2001. Animals, treatment of. In: Becker, Lawrence (ed.). Encyclopedia of Ethics. New York, Routledge: 70-74 (on page 72 about Inherentism)

Regan, Tom ³2004. Animal Welfare and Rights. In:  Post, Stephen (ed.). Encyclopedia of Bioethics. 3. edition. New York, NY, Macmillan. E-Book Version

Wilson, Scott 2010. Animals and Ethics In: Fieser, James (ed.). Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Martin, TN, The University of Tennessee at Martin. –

Wise, Steve M. 2011. animal rights. Encyclopaedia Britannica: Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/25760/animal-rights 

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  1. Towards an Epistemology of ‘Speciesist Ignorance’.Emnée van den Brandeler - forthcoming - Res Publica:1-21.
    The literature on the epistemology of ignorance already discusses how certain forms of discrimination, such as racism and sexism, are perpetuated by the ignorance of individuals and groups. However, little attention has been given to how speciesism—a form of discrimination on the basis of species membership—is sustained through ignorance_._ Of the few animal ethicists who explicitly discuss ignorance, none have related this concept to speciesism as a form of discrimination. However, it is crucial to explore this connection, I argue, as (...)
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  2. The Ranking Argument – Challenging Favourable Comparative Rhetoric about Animal Welfare Law.Christian Rodriguez Perez, Nico Dario Müller, Kirsten Persson & David M. Shaw - 2023 - Leoh - Journal of Animal Law, Ethics and One Health 1.
    This article captures and critiques a recurring and prominent political argument against animal welfare improvements in Switzerland which we term the “ranking argument”. This states that Swiss animal welfare law ranks among the strictest in the world, therefore no improvements are called for. This argument was advanced three times by Swiss government authorities in 2022 alone, but also in a case dating back to 1984, to advise the electorate on popular initiatives aiming at animal welfare improvements. We argue that, while (...)
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  3. On the fundamental incompatibility between wildlife conservation and animal ethics.Carla Turner - 2023 - South African Journal of Philosophy 42 (4):261-269.
    Wildlife conservation aims to protect the natural world, plant and animal species, and the habitats they form part of and rely on for survival. More particularly, it focuses on species that are considered important, be it from economic, ecological and other perspectives, and preventing harm to these species. While conservation activities, based on common conservation values such as species fitness and biodiversity, are no doubt beneficial to animals in general, there seems to be a fundamental disjoint between this approach and (...)
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  4. Book Review: Wild Animal Ethics: The Moral and Political Problem of Wild Animal Suffering by Johannsen Kyle. [REVIEW]B. V. E. Hyde - forthcoming - Environmental Values.
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  5. Relational Animal Ethics (and why it isn’t easy).Josh Milburn - 2024 - Food Ethics 9 (1):1-11.
    In Just Fodder: The Ethics of Feeding Animals, I explore a range of overlooked practical questions in animal ethics and the philosophy of food, developing a new approach to animal ethics. According to the position I defend, animals have negative rights based on their possession of normatively significant interests, and we have positive obligations towards (and concerning) animals based on our normatively salient relationships with them. Gary O’Brien, Angie Pepper, Clare Palmer, and Leon Borgdorf offer a range of insightful challenges (...)
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  6. Three Revisionary Implications of Buddhist Animal Ethics.Calvin Baker - forthcoming - Philosophy East and West.
    Many accept the following three theses in animal ethics. First, although animal welfare should not be—or at least, need not be—our top moral priority, it is not a trivial one either. Second, if an animal is sentient, then it is a moral patient. Third, the extinction of an animal species is a tragic outcome that we have moral reason to prevent. I argue that a traditional (i.e., pre-modern) Buddhist perspective pushes against the first thesis and that a naturalized Buddhist perspective (...)
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  7. Animal labour in a post-work society.Sue Donaldson & Will Kymlicka - 2019 - In Charlotte E. Blattner, Kendra Coulter & Will Kymlicka (eds.), Animal Labour: A New Frontier of Interspecies Justice? Oxford University Press.
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  8. The working day : animals, capitalism, and surplus time.Dinesh J. Wadiwel - 2019 - In Charlotte E. Blattner, Kendra Coulter & Will Kymlicka (eds.), Animal Labour: A New Frontier of Interspecies Justice? Oxford University Press.
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  9. Down on the farm : status, exploitation, and agricultural exceptionalism.Jessica Eisen - 2019 - In Charlotte E. Blattner, Kendra Coulter & Will Kymlicka (eds.), Animal Labour: A New Frontier of Interspecies Justice? Oxford University Press.
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  10. Alienation and animal labour.Omar Bachour - 2019 - In Charlotte E. Blattner, Kendra Coulter & Will Kymlicka (eds.), Animal Labour: A New Frontier of Interspecies Justice? Oxford University Press.
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  11. Part II. The Dilemmas of Animal Labour. Animal labour: toward a prohibition of forced labour and a right to freely choose one's work.Charlotte E. Blattner - 2019 - In Charlotte E. Blattner, Kendra Coulter & Will Kymlicka (eds.), Animal Labour: A New Frontier of Interspecies Justice? Oxford University Press.
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  12. Conservation canines : exploring dog roles, circumstances, and welfare status.Renée D'Souza, Alice Hovorka & Lee Niel - 2019 - In Charlotte E. Blattner, Kendra Coulter & Will Kymlicka (eds.), Animal Labour: A New Frontier of Interspecies Justice? Oxford University Press.
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  13. Good work for animals.Alasdair Cochrane - 2019 - In Charlotte E. Blattner, Kendra Coulter & Will Kymlicka (eds.), Animal Labour: A New Frontier of Interspecies Justice? Oxford University Press.
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  14. Part I. The Promise of Good Work. Toward humane jobs and work-lives for animals.Kendra Coulter - 2019 - In Charlotte E. Blattner, Kendra Coulter & Will Kymlicka (eds.), Animal Labour: A New Frontier of Interspecies Justice? Oxford University Press.
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  15. Introduction : animal labour and the quest for interspecies justice.Charlotte E. Blattner, Kendra Coulter & Will Kymlicka - 2019 - In Charlotte E. Blattner, Kendra Coulter & Will Kymlicka (eds.), Animal Labour: A New Frontier of Interspecies Justice? Oxford University Press.
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  16. Tierwürde: Leben in Übereinstimmung mit dem Selbstbild.Bettina Huber - 2022 - Basel: Schwabe Verlag.
    Was ist Wurde? Konnen auch nichtmenschliche Tiere Wurde haben? Bettina Huber geht diesen Fragen nach, indem sie sich mit verschiedenen Auffassungen von Wurde befasst und davon ausgehend genauer auf das Verstandnis von Wurde als einer Haltung eingeht: Uber Wurde als Haltung zu verfugen bedeutet, mit dem eigenen Selbstbild in Ubereinstimmung zu leben. Die Autorin zeigt, inwiefern bestimmte nichtmenschliche Tiere die notwendigen Fahigkeiten besitzen, um ein Selbstbild zu entwickeln und damit ubereinzustimmen. Anschliessend beschaftigt sie sich mit den Bedingungen, die fur ein (...)
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  17. Expanding the critical animal studies imagination: essays in solidarity and total liberation.Nathan Poirier, Sarah Tomasello & Amber E. George (eds.) - 2024 - New York: Peter Lang.
    Expanding the Critical Animal Studies Imagination: Essays in Solidarity and Total Liberation pushes critical animal studies forward and outward by making new connections to movements and ideas that have been little engaged with in publication to the present. This book challenges critical animal studies adherents to expand their efforts of solidarity, mutual aid, and activism. Contributors to this volume extend invitations to those not familiar with critical animal studies to welcome them in with gestures of solidarity towards total liberation. Expanding (...)
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  18. Heart culture.Emma E. Page - 1897 - San Francisco,: The Whitaker & Ray co..
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  19. Book Review: Animal Ethics in Context. [REVIEW]Elizabeth Cripps - 2012 - Environmental Values 21 (2):238-240.
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  20. Book Review: Animal Ethics: Past and Present Perspectives. [REVIEW]Robert Garner - 2013 - Environmental Values 22 (3):420-421.
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  21. Otro paso adelante en defensa de los animales. [REVIEW]Mat Rozas - 2023 - Isegoría: Revista de Filosofía Moral y Política 69 (res02):1-3.
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  22. Catia Faria: Animal Ethics in the Wild. [REVIEW]Tristan David Katz - 2023 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 26 (5):833-835.
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  23. Review: The Routledge handbook of animal ethics. [REVIEW]Gloria Sansò - 2021 - Metapsychology Online Reviews 25 (10).
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  24. The End of Animal Farming: How Scientists, Entrepreneurs, and Activists Are Building an Animal-Free Food System.B. V. E. Hyde - 2023 - Journal of Animal Ethics 13 (2):226-228.
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  25. Game: Animals, Video Games, and Humanity.Randy Malamud - 2023 - Journal of Animal Ethics 13 (2):223-226.
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  26. Gender and Sexuality in Critical Animal Studies.Aaron Neber - 2023 - Journal of Animal Ethics 13 (2):219-222.
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  27. An Ethical View of Human-Animal Relations in the Ancient Near East.Alastair Harden - 2023 - Journal of Animal Ethics 13 (2):217-219.
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  28. Was fehlt uns, wenn uns die Tiere fehlen? Eine theologische Spurensuche[What Do We Lack When We Lack Animals? A Theological Search for Traces].Kurt Remele - 2023 - Journal of Animal Ethics 13 (2):215-217.
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  29. Antiracism in Animal Advocacy: Igniting Cultural Transformation.Cini Bretzlaff-Holstein - 2023 - Journal of Animal Ethics 13 (2):213-215.
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  30. Regarding Animals. Second Edition.Clifton P. Flynn - 2023 - Journal of Animal Ethics 13 (2):211-213.
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  31. Unnatural Companions: Rethinking Our Love of Pets in an Age of Wildlife Extinction.Joan E. Schaffner - 2023 - Journal of Animal Ethics 13 (2):208-211.
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  32. Ethical Veganism as Quiet Resistance.Nancy M. Williams - 2023 - Journal of Animal Ethics 13 (2):184-194.
    In this article, I will argue that ethical veganism can be understood as a form of quietism, as a quiet retreat from a world burdened by human moral failings and animal suffering. I will also show how this retreat, although quiet in nature, is both a legitimate and valuable form of genuine resistance to animal oppression. Positing ethical veganism as a form of sociopolitical resistance to animal exploitation is not new, but thinking of it as a quietist retreat and a (...)
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  33. Red Gold: The Managed Extinction of the Giant Bluefin Tuna.Rebecca Jenkins - 2023 - Journal of Animal Ethics 13 (2):203-205.
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  34. Art, Ethics and the Human-Animal Relationship.Keri Cronin - 2023 - Journal of Animal Ethics 13 (2):205-208.
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  35. Animals and Business Ethics.Maris Beck - 2023 - Journal of Animal Ethics 13 (2):195-202.
    Animals and Business Ethics is an edited book that applies business ethical theory to nonhuman animals. It explores the ethics of commodifying animals in a business context, how stakeholder and social contract theories relate to animals, how business can be regulated to improve conditions for animals, how to create more humane jobs for humans and animals, and the linkages between human and animal well-being, in the context of human workers and consumers who interact with animals in business. Business ethics literature (...)
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  36. Sustainability Policy and the Stage of Divine Play: Hindu Philosophy at the Nexus of Animal Welfare, Environment, and Sustainable Development.Wolf Gordon Clifton - 2023 - Journal of Animal Ethics 13 (2):169-183.
    International policy frameworks can influence values and ideals by promoting a common conception of societal good, a domain overlapping with the traditional concerns of religion. Animal welfare has begun to receive attention in the UN environmental and sustainable development policy. This article explores the potential for Hindu religious communities and organizations to contribute to the creation and implementation of policy on animal welfare and the environment. The article centers on a discussion of the UN Environment Assembly's March 2022 resolution on (...)
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  37. How Artificial Intellegence Can Support Veganism: An Exploratory Analysis.Thilo Hagendorff - 2023 - Journal of Animal Ethics 13 (2):142-149.
    This article explores the potential ways in which artificial intelligence (AI) can support veganism, a lifestyle that aims to promote the protection of animals and also avoids the consumption of animal products for environmental and health reasons. The first part of the article discusses the technical requirements for utilizing AI technologies in the mentioned field. The second part provides an overview of potential use cases, including facilitating consumer change with the help of AI, technologically augmenting undercover investigations in factory farms, (...)
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  38. Wagner's Animal Ethics and Its Debt to Schopenhauer.Laura Langone - 2023 - Journal of Animal Ethics 13 (2):160-168.
    Richard Wagner's animal ethics is an underresearched issue within Wagner scholarship. In this article, I aim to fill this gap. In particular, I will demonstrate that, by drawing on Schopenhauer's philosophy, Wagner indicated a path to elaborate an animal ethics. First, I will reconstruct Schopenhauer's animal ethics, showing how it was deeply imbued with tenets of Brahmanism and Buddhism. Second, I will deal with Wagner's animal ethics, illustrating its indebtedness to Schopenhauer.
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  39. Augustine of Hippo on Nonhuman Animals.Christina Hoenig - 2023 - Journal of Animal Ethics 13 (2):122-134.
    This article presents a cross-contextual examination of St. Augustine's views concerning nonhuman animals. It aligns seemingly disparate conclusions of previous studies by considering both material and metaphorical nonhuman animals across Augustine's writings and by integrating the role he assigns to them into his broader metaphysical framework. While Augustine is found to assign instrumental value to all aspects of material creation, nonhuman animals are shown to carry a particularly complex significance due to their proximity to humans in his hierarchical account of (...)
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  40. “Mad Madge”: The Contribution of Margaret Cavendish to Animal Ethics.Lauren Bestwick - 2023 - Journal of Animal Ethics 13 (2):150-159.
    In this article, I will be looking at the person and works of Margaret Cavendish (1623–1673), an aristocrat and author whose philosophical texts and poetry defended the rational capacity of nonhuman animals. Generally, society in 17th-century England did not consider nonhuman animals to have any intelligence or emotional capacity and treated them accordingly. In her works, Cavendish sheds a light on these commonly accepted views, providing arguments against them and indicating their inconsistencies.
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  41. “The New Superstition, the New Tyranny”: The Ethics and Contexts of John Cowper Powys's Antivivisection.Felix Taylor - 2023 - Journal of Animal Ethics 13 (2):135-141.
    This article examines the antivivisectionist writings of British novelist and philosopher John Cowper Powys (1872–1963) during the 1930s and 1940s. Powys's opposition to the widespread practice of animal experimentation, both in his fiction and his contributions to activist newspapers, has been noted by critics to have prefigured the modern animal rights movement. On the surface, his writings on the subject display an unnuanced and impassioned outrage, yet on closer inspection, they form a logical piece of Powys's idiosyncratic worldview and to (...)
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  42. Overcoming the Fantasy of Human Supremacy: Towards a Murdochian Theory of Change in Nonideal Animal Ethics.Kristian Cantens - forthcoming - Journal of Animal Ethics.
    How may we change ourselves, our society so that animals are treated more justly? To answer this question, I turn to the account of moral change developed by the philosopher Iris Murdoch. The chief obstacle to becoming better, she believed, is an attachment to fantasy, from which we are liberated only through a loving attention directed at the reality of other beings. Building on this account, I argue that human supremacy is one such fantasy; that it acts as an impediment (...)
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  43. The Good It Promises, the Harm It Does: Critical Essays on Effective Altruism, edited by Carol J. Adams, Alice Crary, and Lori Gruen. [REVIEW]Daniel Weltman - 2023 - Teaching Philosophy 46 (4):594-598.
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  44. Xenotransplantation Clinical Trials and Equitable Patient Selection.Christopher Bobier & Daniel Rodger - forthcoming - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics:1-10.
    Xenotransplant patient selection recommendations restrict clinical trial participation to seriously ill patients for whom alternative therapies are unavailable or who will likely die while waiting for an allotransplant. Despite a scholarly consensus that this is advisable, we propose to examine this restriction. We offer three lines of criticism: (1) The risk–benefit calculation may well be unfavorable for seriously ill patients and society; (2) the guidelines conflict with criteria for equitable patient selection; and (3) the selection of seriously ill patients may (...)
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  45. Tierbilder und Tierethik in China [Images of the Animal and Animal Ethics in China].David Bartosch - 2018 - Coincidentia. Zeitschrift für Europäische Geistesgeschichte 9 (2):361-383.
  46. Tierethik in der chinesischen Tradition [Animal Ethics in the Chinese Tradition].David Bartosch - 2015 - Coincidentia. Zeitschrift für Europäische Geistesgeschichte 6 (2):449-468.
  47. Agenda exploratory.....:.....the gospel of Harry Carey. Connor - 2000 - [United States?]: [Connor].
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  48. The IACUC handbook.Jerald Silverman, Mark A. Suckow & Sreekant Murthy (eds.) - 2014 - Boca Raton: CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group.
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  49. Anecdotal information on dolphin-fisheries interactions based on empirical knowledge of fishers in the northeastern Mediterranean Sea.Androniki Pardalou & Athanassios C. Tsikliras - 2018 - Ethics in Science and Environmental Politics 18:1-8.
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  50. Tierethik als Ethik des Artenschutzes: Chancen und Grenzen.Clemens Wustmans - 2015 - Stuttgart: Verlag W. Kohlhammer.
    Gegenwartig vorherrschenden tierethischen Diskursen wird ein theologisch eigenstandiges, verantwortungsethisches Konzept entgegengestellt, das einen Richtungswechsel intendiert: Die Frage stellt sich dann nicht mehr nach der Personalitat des Tiers als Individuum, sondern nach Begrundungszusammenhangen und Moglichkeiten zum Erhalt von Biodiversitat. Ziel ist es somit, Bewahrung der Schopfung in dem Mass zu gestalten, dass Okosysteme und genetische Varianz in moglichst grosser Zahl erhalten bleiben. Anschliessend wird nach bereichsethischen Konkretionen gefragt und aufgezeigt, wie auf Grundlage des zuvor entwickelten Ansatzes eine Urteilsbildung in verschiedenen Konfliktsituationen (...)
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