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  1. The Role of Moral Values in Evaluation of the Use of Non-Human Animals in Research.Maria Botero & Donna Desforges - forthcoming - Society and Animals:1-18.
    One of the requirements for the formation of Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees (IACUC) is that they include someone from the community who embodies the values of the general population. The aim of this study is to investigate whether community members use moral arguments when deliberating a case of animals used in experimentation. To this end we tested the answers of community members in a situation similar to those confronting members of IACUC. The results show first that the participants’ (...)
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  2. The Ethics of Animal Research: Exploring the Controversy.Jeremy Garrett (ed.) - forthcoming - MIT Press.
  3. Review of Tom L. Beauchamp and David DeGrazia PRINCIPLES OF ANIMAL RESEARCH ETHICS. [REVIEW]Nathan Nobis - forthcoming - Bioethics.
    . . Tom Beauchamp and David DeGrazia's principles do improve upon the 3Rs which don’t mention the need for benefits from animal experimentation, the need to compare these benefits to animal harms, and provide no hard limits on experimentation. -/- However, they present their principles as “useful” for people engaged in animal research and as a “philosophically sound” (p. 4) framework for a new ethic for animal research. Regrettably, I have doubts about both these overall claims and so am pessimistic (...)
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  4. A., Animal Use in Scientific Research and Alternatives.I. Ozgiir - forthcoming - Bioethics Congress.
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  5. The Case Against Animal Research.Tom Regan - forthcoming - Contemporary Issues in Bioethics. Belmont, California: Wadsworth.
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  6. Ethical and Political Approaches to Nonhuman Animal Issues: Towards an Undivided Future.Andrew Woodhall & Gabriel Garmendia da Trindade (eds.) - forthcoming - London: Palgrave MacMillan.
    This book offers ethical and political approaches to issues that nonhuman animals face. The recent ‘political turn’ in interspecies ethics, from ethical to political approaches, has arisen due to the apparent lack of success of the nonhuman animal movement and dissatisfaction with traditional approaches. Current works largely present general positions rather than address specific issues and principally rely on mainstream approaches. This book offers alternative positions such as cosmopolitan, libertarian, and left humanist thought, as well as applying ethical and political (...)
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  7. The Potency of the Butterfly: The Reception of Richard B. Goldschmidt’s Animal Experiments in German Sexology Around 1920.Ina Linge - 2021 - History of the Human Sciences 34 (1):40-70.
    This article considers the sexual politics of animal evidence in the context of German sexology around 1920. In the 1910s, the German-Jewish geneticist Richard B. Goldschmidt conducted experiments on the moth Lymantria dispar, and discovered individuals that were no longer clearly identifiable as male or female. When he published an article tentatively arguing that his research on ‘intersex butterflies’ could be used to inform concurrent debates about human homosexuality, he triggered a flurry of responses from Berlin-based sexologists. In this article, (...)
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  8. Animal Rights and the Duty to Harm: When to Be a Harm Causing Deontologist.C. E. Abbate - 2020 - Journal for Ethics and Moral Philosophy 3 (1):5-26.
    An adequate theory of rights ought to forbid the harming of animals (human or nonhuman) to promote trivial interests of humans, as is often done in the animal-user industries. But what should the rights view say about situations in which harming some animals is necessary to prevent intolerable injustices to other animals? I develop an account of respectful treatment on which, under certain conditions, it’s justified to intentionally harm some individuals to prevent serious harm to others. This can be compatible (...)
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  9. The Emergence and Development of Animal Research Ethics: A Review with a Focus on Nonhuman Primates.Gardar Arnason - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (4):2277-2293.
    The ethics of using nonhuman animals in biomedical research is usually seen as a subfield of animal ethics. In recent years, however, the ethics of animal research has increasingly become a subfield within research ethics under the term “animal research ethics”. Consequently, ethical issues have become prominent that are familiar in the context of human research ethics, such as autonomy or self-determination, harms and benefits, justice, and vulnerability. After a brief overview of the development of the field and a discussion (...)
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  10. Principles of Animal Research Ethics.Tom L. Beauchamp & David DeGrazia - 2020 - Oup Usa.
    This volume presents a framework of general principles for animal research ethics together with an analysis of the principles' meaning and moral requirements. Tom L. Beauchamp and David DeGrazia's comprehensive framework addresses ethical requirements pertaining to societal benefit and features a thorough, ethically defensible program of animal welfare. The book also features commentaries on the framework of principles by eminent figures in animal research ethics from an array of relevant disciplines: veterinary medicine, biomedical research, biology, zoology, comparative psychology, primatology, law, (...)
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  11. Institutionalized Ethical Assessments of Animal Experiments.B. Bovenkerk & Lonneke Poort - 2020 - In B. Fischer (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Animal Ethics.
    In order to safeguard animal welfare, in many countries, researchers have to apply for a permit to carry out animal experiments, and this application is assessed by an animal experimentation committee. In this chapter, we zoom in on the assessment made by such committees. How do they weigh the justification of the goal of the experiments against the harm to the animals? What sort of moral dilemmas and institutional challenges do they face?
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  12. Extrapolating From Laboratory Behavioral Research on Nonhuman Primates Is Unjustified.Parker Crutchfield - 2020 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 37 (4):628-645.
    Conducting research on animals is supposed to be valuable because it provides information on how human mechanisms work. But for the use of animal models to be ethically justified, it must be epistemically justified. The inference from an observation about an animal model to a conclusion about humans must be warranted for the use of animals to be moral. When researchers infer from animals to humans, it’s an extrapolation. Often non-human primates are used as animal models in laboratory behavioral research. (...)
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  13. Reevaluating Benefits in the Moral Justification of Animal Research: A Comment on “Necessary Conditions for Morally Responsible Animal Research”.Matthias Eggel, Carolyn P. Neuhaus & Herwig Grimm - 2020 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 29 (1):131-143.
    :In a recent paper in Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics on the necessary conditions for morally responsible animal research David DeGrazia and Jeff Sebo claim that the key requirements for morally responsible animal research are an assertion of sufficient net benefit, a worthwhile-life condition, and a no-unnecessary-harm condition. With regards to the assertion of sufficient net benefit, the authors claim that morally responsible research offers unique benefits to humans that outweigh the costs and harms to humans and animals. In this (...)
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  14. A Belmont Report for Animals?—Erratum.Hope Ferdowsian, L. Syd M. Johnson, Jane Johnson, Andrew Fenton, Adam Shriver & John Gluck - 2020 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 29 (1):163-163.
    :Human and animal research both operate within established standards. In the United States, criticism of the human research environment and recorded abuses of human research subjects served as the impetus for the establishment of the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research, and the resulting Belmont Report. The Belmont Report established key ethical principles to which human research should adhere: respect for autonomy, obligations to beneficence and justice, and special protections for vulnerable individuals and (...)
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  15. How the Suffering of Nonhuman Animals and Humans in Animal Research is Interconnected.Nina Kranke - 2020 - Journal of Animal Ethics 10 (1):41.
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  16. Why IACUCs Need Ethicists.Nathan Nobis - 2020 - ILAR 1.
    Some animal research is arguably morally wrong, and some animal research is morally bad but could be improved. Who is most likely to be able to identify wrong or bad animal research and advocate for improvements? I argue that philosophical ethicists have the expertise that makes them the likely best candidates for these tasks. I review the skills, knowledge and perspectives that philosophical ethicists tend to have which makes them ethical experts. I argue that, insofar as IACUCs are expected to (...)
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  17. Principles of Animal Research Ethics Tom L. Beauchamp and David DeGrazia Oxford University Press: New York, 2020. 176 Pp. Isbn 9780190939120. Us$34.95. [REVIEW]Nathan Nobis - 2020 - Bioethics 34 (9):998-999.
    In Principles of Animal Research Ethics, Tom Beauchamp and David DeGrazia (hereafter B&D) aim to replace the well-known “3Rs”—Replacing animal research with non-animal methods, Reducing the numbers of animals, and Refining experiments to reduce harms and improve welfare—as the guiding principles regulating animal research. . . B&D present their principles as “useful” for people engaged in animal research and as a “philosophically sound” (p. 4) framework for a new ethic for animal research. Regrettably, I have doubts about both these overall (...)
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  18. Advancing Ethical Principles for Non-Invasive, Respectful Research with Nonhuman Animal Participants.Lauren E. Van Patter & Charlotte Blattner - 2020 - Society and Animals 28 (2):171-190.
    Animal studies scholars are increasingly engaging with nonhuman animals firsthand to better understand their lifeworlds and interests. The current 3R framework is inadequate to guide respectful, non-invasive research relations that aim to encounter animals as meaningful participants and safeguard their well-being. This article responds to this gap by advancing ethical principles for research with animals guided by respect, justice, and reflexivity. It centers around three core principles: non-maleficence ; beneficence ; and voluntary participation. We discuss three areas that merit further (...)
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  19. A Moderate Buddhist Animal Research Ethics.Andrew Fenton - 2019 - Developing World Bioethics 19 (2):106-115.
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  20. Collecting Insects to Conserve Them: A Call for Ethical Caution.Bob Fischer & Brendon Larson - 2019 - Insect Conservation and Biodiversity 12 (3):173–182.
    1. Insect sampling for the purpose of measuring biodiversity – as well as entomological research more generally – largely assumes that insects lack consciousness. Here, we briefly present some arguments that insects are conscious and encourage entomologists to revisit their ethical codes in light of them. 2. Specifically, we adapt the Three Rs, guidelines proposed in 1959 by WMS Russell and RL Burch that have become the dominant way of thinking about the ethics of using animals in research. 3. The (...)
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  21. To Regulate or Not to Regulate? The Future of Animal Ethics in Experimental Research with Insects.Christopher Freelance - 2019 - Science and Engineering Ethics 25 (5):1339-1355.
    Regulatory ethical frameworks governing animal experimentation are a hallmark of modern biology. While most countries have ethical standards regarding the use of animals for scientific purposes, experiments involving insects are not included in these standards. With studies in recent years suggesting that insects may possess faculties akin to emotive states, there is growing discussion surrounding the ethical implications of scientific experimentation involving insects. This paper explores some of the current evidence for the ability of insects to experience emotive states and (...)
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  22. Animal Experimentation: Working Towards a Paradigm Change.Kathrin Herrmann & Kimberley Jayne (eds.) - 2019 - Brill.
    _Animal Experimentation: Working Towards a Paradigm Change_ critically appraises current animal use in science and discusses ways in which we can contribute to a paradigm change towards human-biology based approaches.
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  23. Animal Models in Forensic Science Research: Justified Use or Ethical Exploitation?Calvin Gerald Mole & Marise Heyns - 2019 - Science and Engineering Ethics 25 (4):1095-1110.
    A moral dilemma exists in biomedical research relating to the use of animal or human tissue when conducting scientific research. In human ethics, researchers need to justify why the use of humans is necessary should suitable models exist. Conversely, in animal ethics, a researcher must justify why research cannot be carried out on suitable alternatives. In the case of medical procedures or therapeutics testing, the use of animal models is often justified. However, in forensic research, the justification may be less (...)
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  24. Discussing the Use of Animal Models in Biomedical Research Via Role Play Simulation.Alessandro Siani - 2019 - International Journal of Ethics Education 4 (1):43-55.
    Educational institutions have a responsibility not only to provide a solid theoretical background on scientific phenomena, but to also frame them within the wider social context and highlight their numerous ethical implications. It is fundamental that tomorrow’s scientists be encouraged to develop an informed and critical approach towards scientific issues that, as in the case of animal experimentation, bring undeniable advantages to our society while carrying highly controversial moral implications. However, despite the considerable social and scientific relevance of the use (...)
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  25. Rapamycin: Risking Harm for Canine Longevity.C. E. Abbate - 2018 - American Journal of Bioethics 18 (10):60-61.
  26. Suffering for Science and How Science Supports the End of Animal Experiments.Aysha Akhtar - 2018 - In Andrew Linzey & Clair Linzey (eds.), The Palgrave Handbook of Practical Animal Ethics. Palgrave Macmillan Uk. pp. 475-491.
    Experimentation that uses non-human animals is justified by its defenders on the basis of the two-fold premise that: a) non-human animals make sufficient models of human biology and diseases, and b) non-human animals lack cognitive and emotional abilities that would require higher moral consideration. The irony with this defense is that experiments that use non-human animal subjects actually reveal how the opposite is in fact true. Medical experiments conducted on non-human animals reveal how similar they are to humans in their (...)
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  27. Animal Research Is an Ethical Issue for Humans as Well as for Animals.Kathy Archibald - 2018 - Journal of Animal Ethics 8 (1):1.
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  28. The Ethical Justification for the Use of Non-Human Primates in Research: The Weatherall Report Revisited.Gardar Arnason - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (5):328-331.
    The Weatherall report on the use of non-human primates in research was published in 2006. Its main conclusion was that there is a strong scientific case for the use of non-human primates in some cases, but the report stressed the importance of evaluating each case in the light of the availability of alternatives. In addition to arguing for the scientific necessity of using non-human primates in research, the report also provided an ethical justification. As could be expected, the report was (...)
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  29. Can We Use Social Policy to Enhance Compliance with Moral Obligations to Animals?John Basl & Gina Schouten - 2018 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 21 (3):629-647.
    Those who wish to abolish or restrict the use of non-human animals in so-called factory farming and/or experimentation often argue that these animal use practices are incommensurate with animals’ moral status. If sound, these arguments would establish that, as a matter of ethics or justice, we should voluntarily abstain from the immoral animal use practices in question. But these arguments can’t and shouldn’t be taken to establish a related conclusion: that the moral status of animals justifies political intervention to disallow (...)
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  30. Ethical Questions for Research Ethics: Animal Research in China.Deborah Cao - 2018 - Journal of Animal Ethics 8 (2):138.
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  31. Bioengineering, Animal Advocacy, and the Ethics of Control.Jodey Castricano - 2018 - In Andrew Linzey & Clair Linzey (eds.), The Palgrave Handbook of Practical Animal Ethics. Palgrave Macmillan Uk. pp. 125-143.
    While many attitudes towards animals changed in regard to cruelty in the eighteenth century, the question of animal experimentation and the exploitation of animals used in research continued to resonate well into the nineteenth century and continues unabated today. Historical legislative victories notwithstanding, cruelty to animals, including their treatment in factory farming, “entertainment” and their use in laboratory experiments and medical procedures continues to be the focus of animal rights and animal activism. This chapter examines the use of animals in (...)
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  32. The Use of Non-Human Primates in Research.Kate Chatfield & David Norton - 2018 - In D. Schroeder, J. Cook, F. Hirsch, S. Fenet & V. Muthuswamy (eds.), Ethics Dumping: Case Studies from North-South Research Collaborations. Springer.
    The use of non-human primates in biomedical research is a contentious issue that raises serious ethical and practical concerns. In the European Union, where regulations on their use are very tight, the number of non-human primates used in research has been in decline over the past decade. However, this decline has been paralleled by an increase in numbers used elsewhere in the world, with less regard for some of the ethical issues. There is evidence that researchers from high-income countries, where (...)
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  33. A Flimsy Case for the Use of Non-Human Primates in Research: A Reply to Arnason.Catia Faria - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (5):332-333.
    The Weatherall Report claims that research on non-human primates is permitted and morally required. The argument rests on the following thought experiment: > The hospital fire : A hospital is on fire. Some of the residents are humans and others are non-human animals. You can only save one group. What do you do? Some people have the intuition that we should rescue the humans. According to the report, if we accept that human lives have priority over non-human lives in this (...)
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  34. Balancing Animal Welfare and Assisted Reproduction: Ethics of Preclinical Animal Research for Testing New Reproductive Technologies.Verna Jans, Wybo Dondorp, Ellen Goossens, Heidi Mertes, Guido Pennings & Guido de Wert - 2018 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 21 (4):537-545.
    In the field of medically assisted reproduction, there is a growing emphasis on the importance of introducing new assisted reproductive technologies only after thorough preclinical safety research, including the use of animal models. At the same time, there is international support for the three R’s, and the European Union even aims at the full replacement of animals for research. The apparent tension between these two trends underlines the urgency of an explicit justification of the use of animals for the development (...)
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  35. Fellow Creatures: Our Obligations to the Other Animals.Christine M. Korsgaard - 2018 - Oxford University Press.
    Christine M. Korsgaard presents a compelling new view of our moral relationships to the other animals. She offers challenging answers to such questions as: Are people superior to animals, and does it matter morally if we are? Is it all right for us to eat animals, experiment on them, make them work for us, and keep them as pets?
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  36. Discussions of Animal Research Ethics in Introductory Psychology Textbooks.Stacy M. Lopresti-Goodman & Justin R. Goodman - 2018 - Journal of Animal Ethics 8 (1):39.
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  37. Mapping French Laypeople’s Views on Nonhuman Animal Experimentation.Maria Teresa Muñoz Sastre, Paul Clay Sorum & Etienne Mullet - 2018 - Society and Animals 28 (3):272-290.
    French positions regarding nonhuman animal experimentation were examined. A total of 163 participants were presented with 72 vignettes depicting an experimental protocol. They were composed according to a five-factor design: the fate of the animal, environment in which the animal was raised, main objective of the experiment, degree of pain inflicted, and species involved. Through cluster analysis of participants’ acceptability judgments, six qualitatively different positions were found. Four had already been described by observation of the functioning of animal ethics committees: (...)
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  38. Xenotransplantation, Subsistence Hunting and the Pursuit of Health: Lessons for Animal Rights-Based Vegan Advocacy.Nathan Nobis - 2018 - Between the Species 21 (1).
    I argue that, contrary to what Tom Regan suggests, his rights view implies that subsistence hunting is wrong, that is, killing animals for food is wrong even when they are the only available food source, since doing so violates animal rights. We can see that subsistence hunting is wrong on the rights view by seeing why animal experimentation, specifically xenotransplanation, is wrong on the rights view: if it’s wrong to kill an animal to take organs to save a human life, (...)
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  39. Meaning in the Lives of Humans and Other Animals.Duncan Purves & Nicolas Delon - 2018 - Philosophical Studies 175 (2):317-338.
    This paper argues that contemporary philosophical literature on meaning in life has important implications for the debate about our obligations to non-human animals. If animal lives can be meaningful, then practices including factory farming and animal research might be morally worse than ethicists have thought. We argue for two theses about meaning in life: that the best account of meaningful lives must take intentional action to be necessary for meaning—an individual’s life has meaning if and only if the individual acts (...)
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  40. Non-Human Animals as Research Participants: Ethical Practice in Animal Assisted Interventions and Research in Aotearoa/New Zealand.Catherine M. Smith, Emma Tumilty, Peter Walker & Gareth J. Treharne - 2018 - In Catriona Ida Macleod, Jacqueline Marx, Phindezwa Mnyaka & Gareth J. Treharne (eds.), The Palgrave Handbook of Ethics in Critical Research. Springer Verlag. pp. 99-115.
    In this chapter we outline the need to develop ethical frameworks to guide research on the role of animal-orientated health, therapeutic, and service interventions. We discuss findings from our research on uses of animals in therapeutic settings and benefits of human–canine interactions for human health. These stories from the field reveal that current ethics review processes do not recognise the animal as an equal partner in the potential reciprocal benefits and risks of therapeutic human–animal relationships. We explore how these review (...)
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  41. A Randomized Trial of Rapamycin to Increase Longevity and Healthspan in Companion Animals: Navigating the Boundary Between Protections for Animal Research and Human Subjects Research.Holly A. Taylor, Christian Morales, Liza-Marie Johnson & Benjamin S. Wilfond - 2018 - American Journal of Bioethics 18 (10):58-59.
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  42. Animal Models in Translational Research: Rosetta Stone or Stumbling Block?Jessica A. Bolker - 2017 - Bioessays 39 (12):1700089.
    Leading animal models are powerful tools for translational research, but they also present obstacles. Poorly conducted preclinical research in animals is a common cause of translational failure, but even when such research is well-designed and carefully executed, challenges remain. In particular, dominant models may bias research directions, elide essential aspects of human disease, omit important context, or subtly shift research targets. Recognizing these stumbling blocks can help us find ways to avoid them: employing a wider range of models, incorporating more (...)
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  43. The European Politics of Animal Experimentation: From Victorian Britain to ‘Stop Vivisection’.Pierre-Luc Germain, Luca Chiapperino & Giuseppe Testa - 2017 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 64:75-87.
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  44. Islamic Bioethics and Animal Research: The Case of Iran.Robert Tappan - 2017 - Journal of Religious Ethics 45 (3):562-578.
    Despite growing interest in Islamic bioethics, little work has been done on research ethics in Islam, and even less on animal research ethics. This essay explores religious and scientific insights into the lives of animals used as research subjects, particularly in Iran. The inner lives of animals and their relationship to their Creator as relayed by the Qur'an, ethological research on animal minds, and neuroethical reflection on painience are brought together to question the current, relatively unrestricted use of research animals (...)
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  45. Liberty for Corvids.Mark Wells, Scott Simmons & Diana Klimas - 2017 - Public Affairs Quarterly 31 (3):231-254.
    We argue that at least some corvids morally ought to be granted a right to bodily liberty in the US legal system and relevantly similar systems. This right would grant immunity to frivolous captivity and extermination. Implementing this right will require new legislation or the expansion of existing legislation including the elimination of various "pest" clauses. This paper proceeds in three parts. First, we survey accounts of the moral grounds of legal rights. Second, to establish an overlapping consensus supporting corvid (...)
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  46. Blinded by Conventional Science: Animal Experiments and Homeopathy.Delny L. Britton - 2016 - Journal of Animal Ethics 6 (2):123.
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  47. How Do Human-Animal Emotional Relationships Influence Public Perceptions of Animal Use?Cox Laura & Montrose Tamara - 2016 - Journal of Animal Ethics 6 (1):44-53.
    Human-animal emotional relationships have a complicated interplay with public perceptions of the morality of animal use. Humans may build emotional relationships with companion species. These species are not usually intensively farmed in the United Kingdom, but they may be utilized during animal experimentation. From a relational ethical standpoint, the public may therefore perceive animal experimentation as being less acceptable than intensive farming. This study aimed to determine whether human-animal emotional relationships affect public attitudes regarding use of animals in intensive farming (...)
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  48. The Three Rs of Animal Research: What They Mean for the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee and Why.Howard J. Curzer, Gad Perry, Mark C. Wallace & Dan Perry - 2016 - Science and Engineering Ethics 22 (2):549-565.
    The Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee is entrusted with assessing the ethics of proposed projects prior to approval of animal research. The role of the IACUC is detailed in legislation and binding rules, which are in turn inspired by the Three Rs: the principles of Replacement, Reduction, and Refinement. However, these principles are poorly defined. Although this provides the IACUC leeway in assessing a proposed project, it also affords little guidance. Our goal is to provide procedural and philosophical clarity (...)
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  49. Nonhuman Primates, Human Need, and Ethical Constraints.David DeGrazia - 2016 - Hastings Center Report 46 (4):27-28.
    “The Ethics of Infection Challenges in Primates,” by Anne Barnhill, Steven Joffe, and Franklin Miller, is an exceptionally timely contribution to the literature on animal research ethics. Animal research has long been both a source of high hopes and a cause for moral concern. When it comes to infection challenge studies with nonhuman primates, neither the hope—to save thousands of human lives from such diseases as Ebola and Marburg—nor the concern—the conviction that primates deserve especially strong protections—could be much higher. (...)
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  50. Establishing the First Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee in Egypt.Sohair R. Fahmy & Khadiga Gaafar - 2016 - Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 11:1-6.
    BackgroundAlthough animal research ethics committees are well established in Western countries, this field is weakly developed and its concept is poorly understood in the Middle East and North Africa region.ObjectiveOur main objective was to introduce the concept and requirements of ethical approaches in dealing with experimental animal in research and teaching in Egypt.MethodsDue to its very recent inception, Cairo University, Faculty of Science IACUC decided to operate in accordance with Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals 8th Edition (...)
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