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  1. Rational Versus Anti-Rational Interpretations of Science: An Ape-Language Case-Study.Robert P. Farrell - 2006 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 37 (1):83-100.
    Robert Nola has argued that anti-rationalist interpretations of science fail to adequately explain the process of science, since objective reasons can be causal factors in belief formation. While I agree with Nola that objective reasons can be a cause of belief, in this paper I present a version of the strong programme in the sociology of knowledge, the Interests Thesis, and argue that the Interests Thesis provides a plausible explanation of an episode in the history of ape-language research. Specifically, I (...)
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Behavioral Biology
  1. Radical Embodiment in Two Directions.Anthony Chemero & Edward Baggs - 2018 - Synthese 198 (Suppl 9):2175-2190.
    Radical embodied cognitive science is split into two camps: the ecological approach and the enactive approach. We propose that these two approaches can be brought together into a productive synthesis. The key is to recognize that the two approaches are pursuing different but complementary types of explanation. Both approaches seek to explain behavior in terms of the animal–environment relation, but they start at opposite ends. Ecological psychologists pursue an ontological strategy. They begin by describing the habitat of the species, and (...)
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  2. History of Behavioral Neurology.Sergio Barberis & Cory Wright - forthcoming - Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Psychology.
    This chapter provides a brief overview of the history of behavioral neurology, dividing it roughly into six eras. In the ancient and classical eras, emphasis is placed on two transitions: firstly, from descriptions of head trauma and attempted neurosurgical treatments to the exploratory dissections during the Hellenistic period and the replacement of cardiocentrism; and secondly, to the more systematic investigations of Galenus and the rise of pneumatic ventricular theory. In the medieval through post-Renaissance eras, the scholastic consolidation of knowledge and (...)
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  3. Peer Review Report: Ontologies Relevant to Behaviour Change Interventions, Version 3.Robert M. Kelly, David Limbaugh & Barry Smith - 2021 - Human Behaviour Change Project.
    In the present review we focus on what we take to be some remaining issues with the Behaviour Change Intervention Ontology (BCIO). We are in full agreement with the authors’ endorsement of the principles of best practice for ontology development In particular, we agree that an ontology should be “logically consistent and having a clear structures [sic], preferably a well-organised hierarchical structure,” and that “Maximising the new ontology’s interoperability with existing ontologies by reusing entities from existing ontologies where appropriate” is (...)
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  4. The Ontology of Organismic Agency: A Kantian Approach.Hugh Desmond & Philippe Huneman - 2020 - In Andrea Altobrando & Pierfrancesco Biasetti (eds.), Natural Born Monads: On the Metaphysics of Organisms and Human Individuals. De Gruyter. pp. 33-64.
    Biologists explain organisms’ behavior not only as having been programmed by genes and shaped by natural selection, but also as the result of an organism’s agency: the capacity to react to environmental changes in goal-driven ways. The use of such ‘agential explanations’ reopens old questions about how justified it is to ascribe agency to entities like bacteria or plants that obviously lack rationality and even a nervous system. Is organismic agency genuinely ‘real’ or is it just a useful fiction? In (...)
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  5. Peer Review Report: Ontologies Relevant to Behaviour Change Interventions, Version 1.Robert M. Kelly, David Limbaugh & Barry Smith - 2020 - Human Behaviour Change Project.
    In “Ontologies Relevant to behaviour change interventions: A Method for their Development” Wright, et al. outline a step by step process for building ontologies of behaviour modification – what the authors call the Refined Ontology Developmental Method (RODM) – and demonstrate its use in the development of the Behaviour Change Intervention Ontology (BCIO). RODM is based on the principles of good ontology building used by the Open Biomedical Ontology (OBO) Foundry in addition to those outlined in (Arp, Smith, and Spear (...)
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  6. Primate Orphans.Maria Botero - 2020 - In Todd Shackelford & Jennifer Vonk (eds.), Encyclopedia of Animal Cognition and Behavior.
    In infancy, all primates require a caregiver who meets their physical needs, such as food and protection (among many others), and their affective, cognitive, and social needs (in some species, this requirement extends until the primate is a juvenile). The caregiver is essential for primate infant survival and social and cognitive development. For that reason, infants are greatly affected if they lose their caregivers; the effects of becoming an orphan range from being unable to survive to behavioral and physiological consequences (...)
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  7. From Allostatic Agents to Counterfactual Cognisers: Active Inference, Biological Regulation, and the Origins of Cognition.Andrew W. Corcoran, Giovanni Pezzulo & Jakob Hohwy - 2020 - Biology and Philosophy 35 (3):1-45.
    What is the function of cognition? On one influential account, cognition evolved to co-ordinate behaviour with environmental change or complexity. Liberal interpretations of this view ascribe cognition to an extraordinarily broad set of biological systems—even bacteria, which modulate their activity in response to salient external cues, would seem to qualify as cognitive agents. However, equating cognition with adaptive flexibility per se glosses over important distinctions in the way biological organisms deal with environmental complexity. Drawing on contemporary advances in theoretical biology (...)
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  8. The Umwelt of Uexküll and Merleau-Ponty.Agustin Ostachuk - 2013 - Ludus Vitalis 21 (39):45-65.
    The organism against its environment. The organism against other organisms, competing and struggling for life. Antagonism and confrontment as the only possible relation in nature. The tendency to anthropomorphize nature and explain it using concepts and facts from the human sphere. A stroll through the worlds of Uexküll and Merleau-Ponty in the search of alternative knowledge that allow us to understand relation from another point of view. A counterpoint and identification of common tonalities between the research programs from both thinkers (...)
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  9. The Untenable Omission of Touch in Maternal Sensitivity and Attachment Research.Maria Botero, Langley Hillary & Venta Amanda - 2019 - Infant and Child Development:early view.
    Despite an increase in research examining maternal and infant touch, and documenting its public health impact, this mode of interaction has historically been omitted from related fields of developmental research in human and non‐human primates. The broad aim of this review is to examine to what extent mother–infant touch has been included in relational paradigms and research. We argue that although theoretical and empirical scholarship on attachment and maternal sensitivity conceptualizes touch as fundamental to caregiver–infant interactions and child development more (...)
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  10. Making Humanoid Robots More Acceptable Based on the Study of Robot Characters in Animation.Hadis Malekie & Zeinab Farhoudi - 2015 - International Journal of Robotics and Automation 4 (1).
    In this paper we take an approach in Humanoid Robots are not considered as robots who resembles human beings in a realistic way of appearance and act but as robots who act and react like human that make them more believable by people. Regarding this approach we will study robot characters in animation movies and discuss what makes some of them to be accepted just like a moving body and what makes some other robot characters to be believable as a (...)
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  11. How Are Humans Animals? The Human as a Subject of Behavioral Ecology Textbooks.Daisy Hildyard - forthcoming - Society and Animals:1-19.
    This article examines the presentation of humans as a subject of ecological and behavioral study in academic biology textbooks and essay collections. It aims to expand a channel of inquiry into the ways in which human relationships with other species are articulated in scientific discourse during an era of anthropogenic climate change. Both humans and nonhumans are subjects of behavioral ecology because they undergo evolutionary adaptation. However, the notion that biologists can use evolutionary adaptation to explain human behavior has been (...)
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  12. Language Origins Viewed in Spontaneous and Interactive Vocal Rates of Human and Bonobo Infants.D. Kimbrough Oller, Ulrike Griebel, N. Suneeti, Yuna Jhang, Anne S. Warlaumont, Rick Dale & Chris Callaway - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
    From the first months of life, human infants produce “protophones,” speech-like, non-cry sounds, presumed absent, or only minimally present in other apes. But there have been no direct quantitative comparisons to support this presumption. In addition, by 2 months, human infants show sustained face-to-face interaction using protophones, a pattern thought also absent or very limited in other apes, but again, without quantitative comparison. Such comparison should provide evidence relevant to determining foundations of language, since substantially flexible vocalization, the inclination to (...)
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  13. Methodological Considerations for Comparison of Cross-Species Use of Tactile Contact.K. M. Dudzinski, Hill Heather & Maria Botero - 2019 - International Journal of Comparative Psychology 32.
    Cross-species comparisons are benefited by compatible datasets; conclusions related to phylogenetic comparisons, questions on convergent and divergent evolution, or homologs versus analogs can only be made when the behaviors being measured are comparable. A direct comparison of the social function of physical contact across two disparate taxa is possible only if data collection and analyses methodologies are analogous. We identify and discuss the parameters, assumptions and measurement schemes applicable to multiple taxa and species that facilitate cross-species comparisons. To illustrate our (...)
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  14. The Mental Lives of Sheep and the Quest for a Psychological Taxonomy.Carrie Figdor - 2019 - Animal Sentience 25 (16):1-3.
    In this commentary on Marino and Merskin's "Intelligence, complexity, and individuality in sheep", I argue that their literature review provides further evidence of the fundamental theoretical shift in psychology towards a non-anthropocentric psychological taxonomy, in which cognitive capacities are classified in a structure that provides an overall understanding of the place of mind (including human minds) throughout nature.
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  15. The Active Inference Approach to Ecological Perception: General Information Dynamics for Natural and Artificial Embodied Cognition.Adam Linson, Andy Clark, Subramanian Ramamoorthy & Karl Friston - 2018 - Frontiers in Robotics and AI 5 (21):1-22.
    The emerging neurocomputational vision of humans as embodied, ecologically embedded, social agents—who shape and are shaped by their environment—offers a golden opportunity to revisit and revise ideas about the physical and information-theoretic underpinnings of life, mind, and consciousness itself. In particular, the active inference framework makes it possible to bridge connections from computational neuroscience and robotics/AI to ecological psychology and phenomenology, revealing common underpinnings and overcoming key limitations. AIF opposes the mechanistic to the reductive, while staying fully grounded in a (...)
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  16. Primates Are Touched by Your Concern: Touch, Emotion, and Social Cognition in Chimpanzees.Maria Botero - 2018 - In Kristin Andrews & Jacob Beck (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Animal Minds. London: Routledge. pp. p. 372-380.
    There is something important about the way human primates use touch in social encounters; for example, consider greetings in airports (hugs vs. handshakes) and the way children push each other in a playground (a quick push to warn, a really hard one when it is serious!). Human primates use touch as a way of conveying a wide range of social information. In this chapter I will argue that one of the best ways of understanding social cognition in non-human primates is (...)
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  17. How Primate Mothers and Infants Communicate, Characterizing Interaction in Mother-Infant Studies Across Species.Maria Botero - 2016 - In Marco Pina & Nathalie Gontier (eds.), The Evolution of Social Communication in Primates: A Multidisciplinary Approach. London, UK: pp. pp. 83-100.
    All methodologies used to characterize mother-infant interaction in non-human primates includes mother, infant, and other social factors. The chief difference is their understanding of how this interaction takes place. Using chimpanzees as a model, I will compare the different methodologies used to describe mother-infant interaction and show how implicit notions of communication and social interaction shape descriptions of this kind of interaction. I will examine the limitations and advantages of different approaches used in mother-infant studies and I will sketch an (...)
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  18. Bringing Touch Back to the Study of Emotions in Human and Non-Human Primates: A Theoretical Exploration.Maria Botero - 2018 - International Journal of Comparative Psychology 30 (10):1-17.
    This paper provides a theoretical exploration of how comparative research on the expression of emotions has traditionally focused on the visual mode and argues that, given the neurophysiological, developmental, and behavioral evidence that links touch with social interactions, focusing on touch can become an ideal mode to understand the communication of emotions in human and nonhuman primates. This evidence shows that touch is intrinsically linked with social cognition because it motivates human and nonhuman animals from birth to form social bonds. (...)
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  19. Philosophy of Behavioral Biology.Kathryn S. Plaisance & Thomas A. C. Reydon (eds.) - 2011 - Springer.
    This volume provides a broad overview of issues in the philosophy of behavioral biology, covering four main themes: genetic, developmental, evolutionary, and neurobiological explanations of behavior. It is both interdisciplinary and empirically informed in its approach, addressing philosophical issues that arise from recent scientific findings in biological research on human and non-human animal behavior. Accordingly, it includes papers by professional philosophers and philosophers of science, as well as practicing scientists. Much of the work in this volume builds on presentations given (...)
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  20. Jakob von Uexküll : une ontologie des milieux.Olivier Surel - 2014 - Critique 2014 (803):306-319.
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  21. Helen E. Longino. Studying Human Behavior: How Scientists Investigate Aggression and Sexuality. Xi + 249 Pp., Tables, App., Bibl., Indexes. Chicago/London: University of Chicago Press. $25. [REVIEW]Maria Kronfeldner - 2014 - Isis 105 (4):876-877.
  22. How to Make a Sterile Helper.Philip A. Downing, Charlie K. Cornwallis & Ashleigh S. Griffin - 2017 - Bioessays 39 (1):e201600136.
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  23. Dendrophobia in Bonobo Comprehension of Spoken English.Truswell Robert - 2017 - Mind and Language 32 (4):395-415.
    Data from a study by Savage-Rumbaugh and colleagues on comprehension of spoken English requests by a bonobo and a human infant supports Fitch's hypothesis that humans exhibit dendrophilia, or a propensity to manipulate tree structures, to a greater extent than other species. However, findings from language acquisition suggest that human infants do not show an initial preference for certain hierarchical syntactic structures. Infants are slow to acquire and generalize the structures in question, but they can eventually do so. Kanzi, in (...)
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  24. Mammalian Value Systems.Gopal P. Sarma & Nick J. Hay - 2016 - Arxiv Preprint Arxiv:1607.08289.
    Characterizing human values is a topic deeply interwoven with the sciences, humanities, political philosophy, art, and many other human endeavors. In recent years, a number of thinkers have argued that accelerating trends in computer science, cognitive science, and related disciplines foreshadow the creation of intelligent machines which meet and ultimately surpass the cognitive abilities of human beings, thereby entangling an understanding of human values with future technological development. Contemporary research accomplishments suggest increasingly sophisticated AI systems becoming widespread and responsible for (...)
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  25. Is Behavioural Flexibility Evidence of Cognitive Complexity? How Evolution Can Inform Comparative Cognition.Irina Mikhalevich, Russell Powell & Corina Logan - 2017 - Interface Focus 7.
    Behavioural flexibility is often treated as the gold standard of evidence for more sophisticated or complex forms of animal cognition, such as planning, metacognition and mindreading. However, the evidential link between behavioural flexibility and complex cognition has not been explicitly or systematically defended. Such a defence is particularly pressing because observed flexible behaviours can frequently be explained by putatively simpler cognitive mechanisms. This leaves complex cognition hypotheses open to ‘deflationary’ challenges that are accorded greater evidential weight precisely because they offer (...)
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  26. Diversity of Items of Low Nutritional Value Ingested by Chimpanzees From Kanyawara, Kibale National Park, Uganda: An Example of the Etho-Ethnology of Chimpanzees.S. Krief - 2006 - Social Science Information 45 (2):227-263.
    English For more than 30 years, field studies have shown that chimpanzees ingest items of low nutritional value such as rough leaves, bitter stems and clay, apparently thereby protecting themselves against parasites and modulating their health. The authors describe the diversity and the biological activities of items of low nutritional value used by Kanyawara chimpanzees in Uganda, according to scientific observations enriched by the viewpoints of local field assistants and a traditional healer. Their perception of chimpanzees' behaviour and the overlap (...)
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  27. Snipping or Editing? Parsimony in the Chimpanzee Mind-Reading Debate: Elliott Sober: Ockham’s Razors: A User’s Manual. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 322 Pp, $ 29.99 PB, $ 99.99 HB.Kristin Andrews - 2016 - Metascience 25 (3):377-386.
    on ). Advice about how to move forward on the mindreading debate, particularly when it comes to overcoming the logical problem, is much needed in comparative psychology. In chapter 4 of his book Ockham’s Razors, Elliott Sober takes on the task by suggesting how we might uncover the mechanism that mediates between the environmental stimuli that is visible to all, and chimpanzee social behavior. I argue that Sober's proposed method for deciding between the behaivor-reading and mindreading hypotheses fails given the (...)
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  28. Angry Rats and Scaredy Cats: Lessons From Competing Cognitive Homologies.Isaac Wiegman - 2016 - Biological Theory 11 (4):224-240.
    There have been several recent attempts to think about psychological kinds as homologies. Nevertheless, there are serious epistemic challenges for individuating homologous psychological kinds, or cognitive homologies. Some of these challenges are revealed when we look at competing claims of cognitive homology. This paper considers two competing homology claims that compare human anger with putative aggression systems of nonhuman animals. The competition between these hypotheses has been difficult to resolve in part because of what I call the boundary problem: boundaries (...)
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  29. Turtles Are Not Just Walking Stones: Conspicuous Coloration and Sexual Selection in Freshwater Turtles.Jindřich Brejcha & Karel Kleisner - 2016 - Biosemiotics 9 (2):247-266.
    Turtles are among the most intriguing amniotes but their communication and signaling have rarely been studied. Traditionally, they have been seen as basically just silent armored ‘walking stones’ with complex physiology but no altruism, maternal care, or aesthetic perception. Recently, however, we have witnessed a radical change in the perception of turtle behavioral and cognitive skills. In our study, we start by reviewing some recent findings pertaining to various highly developed behavioral and cognitive patterns with special emphasis on turtles. Then (...)
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  30. Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries The Origins and Rise of Ethology: The Science of the Natural Behaviour of Animals. By William H. Thorpe. London: Heinemann Educational Books, 1979. Pp. Xi + 174. £5.90. [REVIEW]Pamela Asquith - 1980 - British Journal for the History of Science 13 (3):273-274.
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  31. The Origins and Rise of Ethology: The Science of the Natural Behavior of Animals. W. H. Thorpe. Burkhardt - 1982 - Isis 73 (1):123-124.
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  32. Responses of Humans and Other Animals to Variations in Density.Jonathan L. Freedman - 1980 - Psychological Review 87 (3):327-328.
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  33. 'Animal Behavioural Economics': Lessons Learnt From Primate Research.Manuel Worsdorfer - 2015 - Economic Thought 4 (1):80-106.
    The paper gives an overview of primate research and the economic-ethical 'lessons' we can derive from it. In particular, it examines the complex, multi-faceted and partially conflicting nature of human primates. Our closest living relatives, the chimpanzees and bonobos, apparently walk on two legs: a selfish and a groupish leg. Given evolutionary continuity and gradualism between monkeys, apes and humans, human primates seem to be bipolar apes as well. They, too, tend to display a dual structure: there seems to be (...)
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  34. A Spur to Atavism: Placing Platypus Poison.Peter Hobbins - 2015 - Journal of the History of Biology 48 (4):499-537.
    For over two centuries, the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) has been constructed and categorized in multiple ways. An unprecedented mélange of anatomical features and physiological functions, it long remained a systematic quandary. Nevertheless, since 1797, naturalists and biologists have pursued two recurring obsessions. Investigations into platypus reproduction and lactation have focused attention largely upon females of the species. Despite its apparent admixture of avian, reptilian and mammalian characters, the platypus was soon placed as a rudimentary mammal – primitive, naïve and harmless. (...)
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  35. Aristotle's Statement on the Reproduction of Sharks.Liliane Bodson - 1983 - Journal of the History of Biology 16 (3):391-407.
  36. The Conditions Favoring Between-Community Raiding in Chimpanzees, Bonobos, and Human Foragers.Sagar A. Pandit, Gauri R. Pradhan, Hennadii Balashov & Carel P. Van Schaik - 2016 - Human Nature 27 (2):141-159.
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  37. Energetics, Scaling and Sexual Size Dimorphism of Spiders.M. Canals & B. Grossi - 2015 - Acta Biotheoretica 63 (1):71-81.
    The extreme sexual size dimorphism in spiders has motivated studies for many years. In many species the male can be very small relative to the female. There are several hypotheses trying to explain this fact, most of them emphasizing the role of energy in determining spider size. The aim of this paper is to review the role of energy in sexual size dimorphism of spiders, even for those spiders that do not necessarily live in high foliage, using physical and allometric (...)
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  38. Science and Man's Behavior. [REVIEW]Creegan Creegan - 1954 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 15:280.
  39. HOLMES, S. J. -Studies in Animal Behaviour. [REVIEW]E. M. Smith - 1917 - Mind 26:231.
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  40. A C.S. Rafinesque Anthology.C. S. Rafinesque & Charles Boewe - 2006 - Journal of the History of Biology 39 (1):210-212.
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  41. The Birds of China.Rodolphe Meyer de Schauensee - 1985 - Journal of the History of Biology 18 (3):446-446.
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  42. The Behaviour of Animals: An Introduction to Its Study.E. S. Russell - 1935 - Philosophy 10 (38):237-240.
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  43. Qualitative and Quantitative Explanation of the Forms of Heat Sensitive Organs in Snakes.Tjard De Cock Buning - 1985 - Acta Biotheoretica 34 (2-4):193-205.
    Heat sensitive pit organs in different species of snakes show various shapes. The relation between form characters and functions were analysed by means of two different research programs. This paper presents the methodological steps involved in these research programs. The first approach is called a qualitative explanation because it connects experimental data by means of qualitative statements in order to give a functional morphological explanation for the construction of the pits in respect to the behaviour of the snake. The second (...)
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  44. The Biology and Evolution of Bird Songs.Clive K. Catchpole - 1986 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 30 (1):47.
  45. Why Do Women and Some Other Primates Menstruate?C. A. Finn - 1987 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 30 (4):566.
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  46. Culture in Primates and Other Animals.Carel P. Van Schaik - 2009 - In Robin Dunbar & Louise Barrett (eds.), Oxford Handbook of Evolutionary Psychology. Oxford University Press.
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  47. Colin Allen and Marc Bekoff, Species of Mind: The Philosophy and Biology of Cognitive Ethology. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1997, Cloth £12.95/US$21.50. ISBN: 0 262 01163 8 (Cloth), 0 262 51108 8 (Paper).Gary Purpura & Richard Samuels - 2000 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 51 (2):375-380.
  48. A Herd of Red Deer. A Study of Animal Behaviour.S. Zuckerman - 1938 - The Eugenics Review 30 (1):64.
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