About this topic
Summary

Broadly construed, animal rights is an area of inquiry and debate that focuses on a variety of approaches to assessing the moral status of nonhuman animals. One of the main approaches in contemporary scholarship is deontological and argues for strict rights for animals on the grounds that they are subjects-of-a-life (Tom Regan) and thus possess inherent worth; such views often seek to expand Kant's ascription of inherent worth to rational agents so that it applies to all sentient beings. Other views, including those of some secular naturalists, seek to ascribe rights to animals not on the basis of inherent worth but on the basis of capacities shared by all sentient beings. Another main approach encompasses a variety of views that tend to be "welfarist" in the sense that they do not seek to ascribe strict right to animals but instead argue that certain actions performed against animals (such as killing them or using them as sources of milk or eggs) are permissible as long as human beings perform them in a humane manner. Welfarist views are generally utilitarian in character, being based on calculations of the quantity of harm that can be done to a given living being, and they tend to assert hierarchies in which beings that are cognitively more sophisticated can be harmed in ways in which beings that are cognitively less sophisticated cannot; on the basis of such hierarchization, welfarist views typically ascribe moral superiority to human beings over nonhuman animals, although they also tend to avoid a speciesistic privileging of all human beings over all nonhuman animals on the grounds that some nonhuman animals are cognitively superior to some human beings. Thus thinkers such as Peter Singer argue that self-conscious beings have a stronger claim to life than non-self-conscious beings, where self-conscious beings are defined as those that can conceptualize the past, present, and future of their lives as one coherent whole. (Summary written by Gary Steiner and Erwin Lengauer)

Key works

Armstrong, Susan /  Botzler, Richard (ed.) ²2008. The Animal Ethics Reader - (AER). 2nd Edition. London; New York, NY, Routledge.

Beauchamp, Tom L. / Frey, Raymond G. (eds.) 2011. The Oxford Handbook of Animal Ethics. Oxford, Oxford University Press.

Bekoff, Marc (ed.) 2010. Encyclopedia of Animal Rights and Animal Welfare. 2 Volume Set. Santa Barbara, CA, Greenwood Press, Imprint of ABC - Clio.

Cavalieri, Paola 2001. The Animal Question: Why Non-Human Animals Deserve Human Rights. Oxford, Oxford University Press.

Chapouthier, Georges (ed.) 1998. The Universal Declaration of Animal Rights: Comments and Intentions. Paris, Ligue Francaise des Droit de l´Animal.

DeGrazia, David (1996). Taking Animals Seriously. Mental Life and Moral Status. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Dombrowski, Daniel A. 1997. Babies and Beasts: The Argument from Marginal Cases. Urbana, IL, University of Illinois Press.

Francione, Gary  2008. Animals as Persons: Essays on the Abolition of Animal Exploitation. New York, NY, Columbia University Press.

Garner, Robert 2005. The Political Theory of Animal Rights (Perspectives on Democratization). Manchester, Manchester University Press.

Kalof, Linda / Fitzgerald, Amy (eds.). 2007. The Animals Reader: The Essential Classic and Contemporary Writings. Oxford, Berg.  

Munro, Lyle 2005. Confronting Cruelty. Moral Orthodoxy and the Challenge of the Animal Rights Movement. Human-Animal Studies.  (Dissertation). Leiden, Brill Academic.     

Palmer, Clare (ed.) 2008. Animal Rights. Clare Palmer. Series: The International Library of Essays on Rights. Aldershot, GB, Ashgate Publishing Company.

Pluhar, Evelyn 1995. Beyond Prejudice. The Moral Significance of Human and Nonhuman Animals. Durham, NC, Duke University Press.

Regan, Tom 1983. The Case for Animal Rights. Berkeley, CA, University of California Press.

Rollin, Bernard  ²1992. Animal Rights and Human Morality. Amherst, Prometheus.

Rowlands, Mark ²2009. Animal Rights. Moral Theory and Practice. London, Macmillan Press.

Sapontzis, Steve F. 1987, ²1992. Morals, Reason and Animals. Philadelphia, PA, Temple University Press.

Singer, Peter 1975, ²1990. Animal Liberation. A New Ethics for our Treatment of Animals. New York, NY, New York Review of Book.

Singer, Peter (ed.) 2006. In Defense of Animals. The Second Wave. Malden, Blackwell.

Steiner, Gary 2008. Animals and the Moral Community: Mental Life, Moral Status, and Kinship. New York, NY, Columbia University Press.

Steiner, Gary. 2013. Animals and the Limits of Postmodernism. New York: Columbia University Press.

Introductions

Beauchamp, Tom L. 2011. Rights Theory and Animal Rights. In. Beauchamp, Tom L. / Frey, Raymond G. (eds.). The Oxford Handbook of Animal Ethics. Oxford, Oxford University Press: 198-227.

DeGrazia, David 2002. Animal Rights: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford, Oxford University Press.

Gruen, Lori 2010. The Moral Status of Animals. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2010 Edition), URL = http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2010/entries/moral-animal  

Regan, Tom 2001. Animals, treatment of. In: Becker, Lawrence (ed.). Encyclopedia of Ethics. New York, Routledge: 70-74 (on page 72 about Inherentism)

Regan, Tom ³2004. Animal Welfare and Rights. In:  Post, Stephen (ed.). Encyclopedia of Bioethics. 3. edition. New York, NY, Macmillan. E-Book Version

Wilson, Scott 2010. Animals and Ethics In: Fieser, James (ed.). Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Martin, TN, The University of Tennessee at Martin. –

Wise, Steve M. 2011. animal rights. Encyclopaedia Britannica: Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/25760/animal-rights 

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  1. Animal Suffering: Philosophy and Culture.Elisa Aaltola - 2012 - Palgrave-Macmillan.
    Animal Suffering: Philosophy and Culture explores the multifaceted moral meanings allocated to non-human suffering in contemporary Western culture.
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  2. The Philosophy Behind the Movement: Animal Studies Vs. Animal Rights.Elisa Aaltola - 2011 - Society and Animals 19 (4):393-406.
    Recently, many pro- animal thinkers have expressed critical views on the animal rights movement. In particular, the movement has been criticized for being philosophically uninformed, politically regressive, and practically unpersuasive. This paper investigates these criticisms and seeks to map out the philosophy behind the grassroots animal rights movement, specifically. It concludes that the criticism presented by animal studies scholars is often misplaced due to a lack of understanding of the philosophical notions within the movement, but that the critics are right (...)
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  3. Animal Ethics and the Argument From Absurdity.Elisa Aaltola - 2010 - Environmental Values 19 (1):79-98.
    Arguments for the inherent value, equality of interests,or rights of non-human animals have presented a strong challenge for the anthropocentric worldview. However, they have been met with criticism.One form of criticism maintains that,regardless of their theoretical consistency,these 'pro-animal arguments' cannot be accepted due to their absurdity. Often, particularly inter-species interest conflicts are brought to the fore: if pro-animal arguments were followed,we could not solve interest conflicts between species,which is absurd. Because of this absurdity, the arguments need to be abandoned. The (...)
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  4. Animal Minds, Skepticism and the Affective Stance.Elisa Aaltola - 2010 - Teorema: International Journal of Philosophy (2):69-82.
    External descriptions, which approach animals via external mechanisms rather than internal mental states, have gained a prominent position. However, according to strong objectivism, attention needs to be placed on the presumptions that lay behind given beliefs. When applied to the topic of animal minds, it reveals that perhaps inter-nal rather than external descriptions would offer a fruitful option. This claim is sup-ported by the Wittgensteinian criticism of skepticism, which seeks to avoid “deflection” and brings forward an “affective stance”. Still, in (...)
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  5. Philosophy and Animal Studies: Calarco, Castricano, and Diamond.Elisa Aaltola - 2009 - Society and Animals 17 (3):279-286.
    Recently, animal studies has started to gain popularity. This interdisciplinary field investigates the human- animal relationship from different perspectives, including philosophy, cultural studies, and biology. In 2008, at least three books explored themes related to animal studies : Matthew Calarco, Zoographies: The Question of the Animal ; Jodey Castricano, Animal Subjects: An Ethics Reader in a Posthuman World; and Cora Diamond, Cary Wolfe, et al. Philosophy and Animal Life. Each volume approaches animal studies from a different viewpoint, but they also (...)
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  6. Animal Ethics and Interest Conflicts.Elisa Aaltola - 2005 - Ethics and the Environment 10 (1):19-48.
    : Animal ethics has presented convincing arguments for the individual value of animals. Animals are not only valuable instrumentally or indirectly, but in themselves. Less has been written about interest conflicts between humans and other animals, and the use of animals in practice. The motive of this paper is to analyze different approaches to interest conflicts. It concentrates on six models, which are the rights model, the interest model, the mental complexity model, the special relations model, the multi-criteria model, and (...)
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  7. The Actual Evolution.George Abbe - 1988 - Between the Species 4 (4):12.
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  8. Closer Kinships: Rortyan Resources for Animal Rights.Ruth Abbey - 2017 - Contemporary Political Theory 16 (1):1-18.
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  9. Sue Donaldson and Will Kymlicka , Zoopolis: A Political Theory of Animal Rights . Reviewed By. [REVIEW]Ruth Abbey - 2013 - Philosophy in Review 33 (6):446-448.
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  10. Corporal Compassion: Animal Ethics and Philosophy of Body.Ralph R. Acampora - 2006 - University of Pittsburgh Press.
    Most approaches to animal ethics ground the moral standing of nonhumans in some appeal to their capacities for intelligent autonomy or mental sentience. _Corporal Compassion _emphasizes the phenomenal and somatic commonality of living beings; a philosophy of body that seeks to displace any notion of anthropomorphic empathy in viewing the moral experiences of nonhuman living beings. Ralph R. Acampora employs phenomenology, hermeneutics, existentialism and deconstruction to connect and contest analytic treatments of animal rights and liberation theory. In doing so, he (...)
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  11. Abortion Rights and Animal Rights'.Carol Adams - 1991 - Between the Species 7 (4):181-189.
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  12. Critical Theory and Animal Liberation.Carol Adams, Aaron Bell, Ted Benton, Susan Benston, Carl Boggs, Karen Davis, Josephine Donovan, Christina Gerhardt, Victoria Johnson, Renzo Llorente, Eduardo Mendieta, John Sorenson, Dennis Soron, Vasile Stanescu & Zipporah Weisberg - 2011 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    Critical Theory and Animal Liberation is the first collection to look at the human relationship with animals from the critical or 'left' tradition in political and social thought. The contributions in this volume highlight connections between our everyday treatment of animals and other forms of oppression, violence, and domination. Breaking with past treatments that have framed the problem as one of 'animal rights,' the authors instead depict the exploitation and killing of other animals as a political question of the first (...)
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  13. Fast Food and Animal Rights: An Examination and Assessment of the Industry's Response to Social Pressure.Ronald J. Adams - 2008 - Business and Society Review 113 (3):301-328.
    ABSTRACTFast food chains such as McDonald's, KFC, and Burger King are major players in the production, marketing, and consumption of animal‐derived food throughout the world. Animal rights activists are quick to point out the link between the highly efficient factory farms that supply these chains and extreme animal cruelty and environmental degradation. Strategically, fast food is well positioned to leverage change in the methods by which animals are raised and processed for human consumption. Although progress has been made as the (...)
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  14. Support for Animal Rights as a Function of Belief in Evolution, Religious Fundamentalism, and Religious Denomination.Cassandra Aebersold, Luke Galen, Victoria Stanton & Jamie DeLeeuw - 2007 - Society and Animals 15 (4):353-363.
    The present study examined the relationship among religious denomination, fundamentalism, belief about human origins, gender, and support for animal rights. Eighty-two college undergraduates filled out a set of 3 questionnaires: The Religious Fundamentalism Scale , beliefs about human origins , and the Animal Rights Scale . Because conservative Protestants and fundamentalists adhere to religious doctrine that espouses a discontinuity between humans and other species, the study predicted they would have lower support for animal rights. Further, proponents of evolution—who tend to (...)
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  15. Human Rights in an Ecological Era.William Aiken - 1992 - Environmental Values 1 (3):191 - 203.
    After presenting a brief history of the idea of a human right to an adequate environment as it has evolved in the United Nations documents, I assess this approach to our moral responsibility with regard to the environment. I argue that although this rights approach has some substantial weaknesses, these are outweighed by such clear advantages as its action-guiding nature and its political potency.
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  16. In Defence of Extinctionism.Frauke Albersmeier - 2014 - Les ateliers de l'éthique/The Ethics Forum 9 (3):68-88.
    Frauke Albersmeier | : In Zoopolis, Donaldson and Kymlicka dismiss the abolitionist, or extinctionist approach in animal rights theory as insufficient in its theoretical foundation and disproportional regarding the means it promotes to prevent domesticated animals from suffering abuse by humans. Among the consequences of their counterproposal—granting domesticated animals citizenship—is an increased pressure to justify any interference with domesticated animals’ reproductive activities. This paper attempts to give such justification with reference to domesticated animals’ specific state of vulnerability, but also takes (...)
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  17. Capacidades y derechos de los animales: argumentos a favor de la teoría de M.C. Nussbaum.Mikel Torres Aldave - 2009 - Dilemata 1 (1).
    Many publications in the field of animal ethics consider the theories of Peter Singer and Tom Regan as the main arguments for the direct moral consideration of non human animals. This paper argues that both those theories have to face serious problems that make them difficult to accept and to apply, and proposes instead an alternative based on the recent work of M. C. Nussbaum. She has drafted a theory in favor of the direct moral consideration of non human animals, (...)
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  18. Animal Rights and the Wrongness of Killing.Leslie Allan - manuscript
    This essay explores the moral reasoning underpinning the common view that it is worse to kill a human compared with killing an animal. After examining the serious deficiencies of traditional approaches, the author develops an alternative utilitarian-based framework that proportions the seriousness of killing to levels of sentience. He demonstrates how this new approach avoids the problems faced by the application of standard utilitarian formulae in weighing the seriousness of killing many low-sentience animals vis-á-vis killing a single human. The author (...)
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  19. Julian H. Franklin, Animal Rights and Moral Philosophy Reviewed By.Michael Allen Fox - 2005 - Philosophy in Review 25 (6):408-412.
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  20. Ethics and the Science of Animal Minds.Colin Allen - 2006 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 27 (4):375-394.
    Ethicists have commonly appealed to science to bolster their arguments for elevating the moral status of nonhuman animals. I describe a framework within which I take many ethicists to be making such appeals. I focus on an apparent gap in this framework between those properties of animals that are part of the scientific consensus, and those to which ethicists typically appeal in their arguments. I will describe two different ways of diminishing the appearance of the gap, and argue that both (...)
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  21. Animal Minds, Cognitive Ethology, and Ethics.Colin Allen & Marc Bekoff - 2007 - Journal of Ethics 11 (3):299-317.
    Our goal in this paper is to provide enough of an account of the origins of cognitive ethology and the controversy surrounding it to help ethicists to gauge for themselves how to balance skepticism and credulity about animal minds when communicating with scientists. We believe that ethicists’ arguments would benefit from better understanding of the historical roots of ongoing controversies. It is not appropriate to treat some widely reported results in animal cognition as if their interpretations are a matter of (...)
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  22. Reply to David Graham and Nathan Nobis, "Putting Humans First?" : Putting Humans First? YES!John Altick - 2007 - Journal of Ayn Rand Studies 8 (2):317-330.
    In "Putting Humans First?" David Graham and Nathan Nobis question Tibor Machan's critique of the idea of "animal rights." They suggest that Machan does not adequately respond to arguments about the impact of ' marginal cases' on theories such as his, which claim that natural rights stem from the manner in which human beings as a species interact with the world. Altick argues that Graham and Nobis' critique is misdirected and that it misses Machan's underlying argument, thus leaving his defense (...)
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  23. Biocentric Ethics and Animal Prosperity.A. T. Anchustegui - 2005 - International Journal of Applied Philosophy 19 (1):105-119.
    Singer’s utilitarian and Regan’s deontological views must be rejected because: (1) they rely on criteria for moral standing that can only be known a priori and (2) if these criteria were successful, they’d be too restrictive. I hold that while mental properties may be sufficient for moral standing, they are not necessary. (3) Their criteria of moral standing do not unambiguously abrogate needless harm to animals. I defend a theory of biocentric individualism that upholds the principle of species egalitarianism while (...)
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  24. Animal Rights and the Values of Nonhuman Life.Elizabeth Anderson - 2004 - In Cass R. Sunstein & Martha Craven Nussbaum (eds.), Animal Rights: Current Debates and New Directions. Oxford University Press. pp. 277.
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  25. Rights, Killing, and Suffering.Judith Andre - 1987 - Philosophical Studies 31:521-522.
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  26. Personhood, Ethics, and Animal Cognition: Situating Animals in Hare's Two-Level Utilitarianism, by Gary E. Varner * The Philosophy of Animal Minds, Edited by Robert W. Lurz.K. Andrews - 2014 - Mind 123 (491):959-966.
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  27. What's Wrong with Factory Farming?Jonny Anomaly - 2015 - Public Health Ethics 8 (3):246-254.
  28. The Rights of Nonhuman Beings: A Whiteheadian Study.Susan Bryn Armstrong - 1976 - Dissertation, Bryn Mawr College
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  29. The Animal Ethics Reader.Susan J. Armstrong & Richard George Botzler (eds.) - 2008 - Routledge.
    The Animal Ethics Reader is the first comprehensive, state-of-the-art anthology of readings on this substantial area of study and interest. A subject that regularly captures the headlines, the book is designed to appeal to anyone interested in tracing the history of the subject, as well as providing a powerful insight into the debate as it has developed. The recent wealth of material published in this area has not, until now, been collected in one volume. Readings are arranged thematically, carefully presenting (...)
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  30. Animal Ethics Reader.Susan Armstrong & Richard G. Botzler (eds.) - 2003 - Routledge.
    The Animal Ethics Reader is the first comprehensive, state-of-the-art anthology of readings on this substantial area of study and interest. A subject that regularly captures the headlines, the book is designed to appeal to anyone interested in tracing the history of the subject, as well as providing a powerful insight into the debate as it has developed. The recent wealth of material published in this area has not, until now, been collected in one volume. Readings are arranged thematically, carefully presenting (...)
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  31. Notes on the Animal Kingdom of the Spirit.Chris Arthur - 1983 - Radical Philosophy 35:9.
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  32. Daniel Imhoff (Ed): The CAFO Reader: The Tragedy of Industrial Animal Factories. [REVIEW]Loka Ashwood - 2012 - Agriculture and Human Values 29 (3):427-428.
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  33. Protection From Animal Rights Lunatics : The Center for Consumer Freedom and Animal Rights Rhetoric.Wendy Atkins-Sayre - 2010 - In Greg Goodale & Jason Edward Black (eds.), Arguments About Animal Ethics. Lexington Books.
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  34. Arguments About Animal Ethics.Wendy Atkins-Sayre, Renee S. Besel, Richard D. Besel, Carrie Packwood Freeman, Laura K. Hahn, Brett Lunceford, Patricia Malesh, Sabrina Marsh, Jane Bloodworth Rowe & Mary Trachsel - 2014 - Lexington Books.
    Bringing together the expertise of rhetoricians in English and communication as well as media studies scholars, Arguments about Animal Ethics delves into the rhetorical and discursive practices of participants in controversies over the use of nonhuman animals for meat, entertainment, fur, and vivisection. Both sides of the debate are carefully analyzed, as the contributors examine how stakeholders persuade or fail to persuade audiences about the ethics of animal rights or the value of using animals.
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  35. Conflicting Ideologies: Views of Animal Rights Advocates and Their Opponents.Atwood Lawrence Elizabeth - 1994 - Society and Animals 2 (2):175-190.
    In order to understand the animal rights movement as it exists today in American society, it is necessary to explore the ways in which the beliefs of those who support the movement differ from the beliefs of their adversaries. Societal views generally determine the perceived differences and similarities between people and animals, and the issues surrounding these differences are fundamental to the animal rights controversy.
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  36. Situation de l'animal et statut de l'animalité.Ingrid Auriol - 2001 - Heidegger Studies 17:135-153.
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  37. Traversing the Gap Between Religion and Animal Rights: Framing and Networks as a Conceptual Bridge.Rachel L. Austin & Clifton P. Flynn - 2015 - Journal of Animal Ethics 5 (2):144-158.
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  38. Islamic Philosophy on Animal Rights.Mahfouz Azzam - 2006 - In Jacky Turner & Joyce D'Silva (eds.), Animals, Ethics, and Trade: The Challenge of Animal Sentience. Earthscan. pp. 129.
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  39. The Price of Serving Meat—on Confucius's and Mencius's Views of Human and Animal Rights.Tongdong Bai - 2009 - Asian Philosophy 19 (1):85 – 99.
    The apparent conflict between some fundamental ideas of Confucianism and of rights seems to render Confucianism incompatible with rights. I will illustrate the general strategies, based upon an insight of the later Rawls, to solve the incompatibility problem. I will then show how these strategies can help us to develop a Confucian account of animal rights, which, by way of example, demonstrates how Confucianism can endorse and develop unique and constructive accounts of most rights that are commonly recognized today.
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  40. Le Capitalisme, les animaux et la nature chez Marx.Christiane Bailey - 2016 - Ithaque:60-86.
  41. Editor's Introduction.Christiane Bailey & Chloë Taylor - 2013 - Phaenex. Journal of Existential and Phenomenological Theory and Culture 8 (2):i-xv.
    Christiane Bailey and Chloë Taylor (Editorial Introduction) Sue Donaldson (Stirring the Pot - A short play in six scenes) Ralph Acampora (La diversification de la recherche en éthique animale et en études animales) Eva Giraud (Veganism as Affirmative Biopolitics: Moving Towards a Posthumanist Ethics?) Leonard Lawlor (The Flipside of Violence, or Beyond the Thought of Good Enough) Kelly Struthers Montford (The “Present Referent”: Nonhuman Animal Sacrifice and the Constitution of Dominant Albertan Identity) James Stanescu (Beyond Biopolitics: Animal Studies, Factory Farms, (...)
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  42. Individual Interests, Societal Interests, and Reproductive Technologies.Patricia Baird - 1997 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 40 (3):440-451.
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  43. Legislating a Solution to Animal Shelter Euthanasia: A Case Study of California's Controversial SB 1785.Sarah A. Balcom - 2000 - Society and Animals 8 (1):129-150.
    On September 22, 1998, California Governor Pete Wilson signed Senate Bill 1785 into law, dramatically affecting the entire California animal sheltering community. Dubbed the "Hayden law" by the animal protection community after the bill's sponsor, it represents the state of California's attempt to legislate a solution to both the companion animal overpopulation problem and the friction between the agencies trying to end it. The persistence of the bill's primary supporters, a Los Angeles veterinarian and a UCLA law school professor and (...)
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  44. Book Review: A Critique of the Moral Defense of Vegetarianism.Paul Bali - manuscript
    Andrew Smith makes his case against V-ism by appeal to (i) plant sentience, and (ii) the Transitivity of Eating principle (by which V-ans eat animals, since animals eat plants). By (i), V-ans are inconsistent in their prohibitions; by (ii) they are incoherent. -/- But, I argue, Smith and his beloved omnivore animists face similar pressures, insofar as they prohibit cannibalism.
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  45. Hartshorne and the Metaphysics of Animal Rights.Judith Barad - 1989 - Between the Species 5 (3):11.
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  46. Does Beast Suffering Count for Kant: A Contextual Examination of § 17 in The Doctrine of Virtue.Heike Baranzke - 2004 - Essays in Philosophy 5 (2):4.
    Ever since Schopenhauer ́s accusation, it has been disputed whether Kant ́s few remarks concerning the ethical human-animal-relationship in the Lectures and in the Doctrine of Virtue fail to support ethical arguments on behalf of animals. One critique that plays a central role is whether Kant would have forbidden cruelty to brutes for educational purposes. In addition to these old objections, Kant ́s ethics is charged to be speciesistic by animal ethicists and animal rights philosophers at present.The following article examines (...)
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  47. Animal Rights.Miles Barton - 1987 - Gloucester Press.
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  48. Opening a Dialogue on Migrant (Rights) Activism.Tanya Basok - 2010 - Studies in Social Justice 4 (2):97-100.
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  49. In Nature's Interest? Interests, Animal Rights, and Environmental Ethics by Gary E. Varner.Amitrajeet A. Batabyal - 2000 - Agriculture and Human Values 17 (4):399-400.
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  50. Justice at the Margins: The Social Contract and the Challenge of Marginal Cases.Nathan Bauer & David Svolba - 2017 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 55 (1):51-67.
    Attempts to justify the special moral status of human beings over other animals face a well-known objection: the challenge of marginal cases. If we attempt to ground this special status in the unique rationality of humans, then it becomes difficult to see why nonrational humans should be treated any differently than other, nonhuman animals. We respond to this challenge by turning to the social contract tradition. In particular, we identify an important role for the concept of recognition in attempts to (...)
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