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  1. added 2019-10-27
    Bovine Prospection, the Mesocorticolimbic Pathways, and Neuroethics: Is a Cow's Future Like Ours?Gary Comstock - 2020 - In L. Syd M. Johnson, Andrew Fenton & Adam Shriver (eds.), Neuroethics and Nonhuman Animals. Cham, Switzerland: Springer. pp. 73-97.
    What can neuroscience tell us, if anything, about the capacities of cows to think about the future? The question is important if having the right to a future requires the ability to think about one’s future. To think about one’s future involves the mental state of prospection, in which we direct our attention to things yet to come. I distinguish several kinds of prospection, identify the behavioral markers of future thinking, and survey what is known about the neuroanatomy of future-directed (...)
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  2. added 2019-10-27
    What Do We Need to Know to Know That Animals Are Conscious of What They Know?Gary Comstock - 2019 - Animal Behavior and Cognition 6 (4):289-308.
    In this paper I argue for the following six claims: 1) The problem is that some think metacognition and consciousness are dissociable. 2) The solution is not to revive associationist explanations; 3) …nor is the solution to identify metacognition with Carruthers’ gatekeeping mechanism. 4) The solution is to define conscious metacognition; 5) … devise an empirical test for it in humans; and 6) … apply it to animals.
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  3. added 2019-09-07
    Animal Suicide: An Account Worth Giving? Commentary on Peña-Guzmán on Animal Suicide.Irina Mikhalevich - 2018 - Animal Sentience 20 (19).
    Peña-Guzmán (2017) argues that empirical evidence and evolutionary theory compel us to treat the phenomenon of suicide as continuous in the animal kingdom. He defends a “continuist” account in which suicide is a multiply-realizable phenomenon characterized by self-injurious and self-annihilative behaviors. This view is problematic for several reasons. First, it appears to mischaracterize the Darwinian view that mind is continuous in nature. Second, by focusing only on surface-level features of behavior, it groups causally and etiologically disparate phenomena under a single (...)
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  4. added 2019-09-05
    Proposal for an Evolutionary Nature of Self-Consciousness Linked to a Human Specific Anxiety (Neurex 2018).Christophe Menant - manuscript
    This presentation is about an evolutionary scenario for self-consciousness linked to a human specific anxiety. It is a continuation of other works (2011 Book chapter, 2014 TSC Poster). AIM: Present a scenario describing an evolutionary nature of self-consciousness that introduces a human specific anxiety which is active in our human lives. METHOD: The scenario starts with our pre-human ancestors which were capable to manage representations and to partly identify with their conspecifics (Olds 2006, DeWaal 2008). These identifications brought our ancestors (...)
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  5. added 2019-06-06
    Ian Hesketh, Of Apes and Ancestors: Evolution, Christianity and the Oxford Debate. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2009. Pp. Viii+144. ISBN 978-0-8020-9284-7. CDN$29.95. [REVIEW]Frank James - 2011 - British Journal for the History of Science 44 (2):298-300.
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  6. added 2019-05-28
    Animal Consciousness: How Can We Know? [REVIEW]Clive D. L. Wynne - 2005 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 9 (12):562-563.
  7. added 2019-05-13
    Anthropomorphism, Anecdotes, and Mirrors.Karyl B. Swartz & Sian Evans - 1997 - In R. Mitchell, Nicholas S. Thompson & H. L. Miles (eds.), Anthropomorphism, Anecdotes, and Animals. Suny Press. pp. 296--306.
  8. added 2019-04-01
    Kristin Andrews: The Animal Mind: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Animal Cognition: Routledge, 2014, 185 Pages. ISBN: 0415809606 $37.95.Michele Merritt - 2016 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 15 (3):475-481.
  9. added 2019-04-01
    A Lack Of Depth Review Of The Pinnacle Of Life: Consciousness And Self-Awareness In Humans And Animals By Derek Denton. [REVIEW]Matthew Elton - 1995 - PSYCHE: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Research On Consciousness 2.
  10. added 2019-03-18
    Animal Consciousness.Rocco J. Gennaro - 2018 - Springer: Encyclopedia of Animal Cognition and Behavior.
    This chapter addresses the extent to which nonhuman animals are conscious. Most important perhaps is what criteria should be used in making such a determination.
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  11. added 2019-03-18
    Povinelli’s Problem and Introspection.Michael Roche - 2013 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 4 (4):559-576.
    Povinelli’s Problem is a well-known methodological problem confronting those researching nonhuman primate cognition. In this paper I add a new wrinkle to this problem. The wrinkle concerns introspection, i.e., the ability to detect one’s own mental states. I argue that introspection either creates a new obstacle to solving Povinelli’s Problem, or creates a slightly different, but closely related, problem. I apply these arguments to Robert Lurz and Carla Krachun’s (Review of Philosophy and Psychology 2: 449–481, 2011) recent attempt at solving (...)
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  12. added 2019-03-05
    Neo-Thomism and the Problem of Animal Suffering.B. Kyle Keltz - 2019 - Nova et Vetera 17 (1):93-125.
    Proponents of the problem of animal suffering claim that the millions of years of apparent nonhuman animal pain and suffering provides evidence against the existence of God. Neo-Cartesianism attempts to avoid this problem mainly by denying the existence of phenomenal consciousness in nonhuman animals. However, neo-Cartesian options regarding animal minds have failed to compel many. In this essay, I explore an answer to the problem of animal suffering inspired by the medieval theologian Thomas Aquinas. Instead of focusing on phenomenal consciousness, (...)
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  13. added 2019-03-05
    Animal Consciousness.Pierre Le Neindre, Emilie Bernard, Alain Boissy, Xavier Boivin, Ludovic Calandreau, Nicolas Delon, Bertrand Deputte, Sonia Desmoulin-Canselier, Muriel Dunier, Nathan Faivre, Martin Giurfa, Jean-Luc Guichet, Léa Lansade, Raphaël Larrère, Pierre Mormède, Patrick Prunet, Benoist Schaal, Jacques Servière & Claudia Terlouw - 2017 - EFSA Supporting Publication 14 (4).
    After reviewing the literature on current knowledge about consciousness in humans, we present a state-of-the art discussion on consciousness and related key concepts in animals. Obviously much fewer publications are available on non-human species than on humans, most of them relating to laboratory or wild animal species, and only few to livestock species. Human consciousness is by definition subjective and private. Animal consciousness is usually assessed through behavioural performance. Behaviour involves a wide array of cognitive processes that have to be (...)
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  14. added 2018-09-22
    Higher-Order Theories of Consciousness.Rocco J. Gennaro - 2018 - Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    An overview of higher-order representational theories of consciousness. Representational theories of consciousness attempt to reduce consciousness to “mental representations” rather than directly to neural or other physical states. This approach has been fairly popular over the past few decades. Examples include first-order representationalism (FOR) which attempts to explain conscious experience primarily in terms of world-directed (or first-order) intentional states (Tye 2005) as well as several versions of higher-order representationalism (HOR) which holds that what makes a mental state M conscious is (...)
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  15. added 2018-01-31
    Animal Consciousness (Routledge Handbook of Consciousness Ch.29).Sean Allen-Hermanson - 2018 - In Rocco J. Gennaro (ed.), Routledge Handbook of Consciousness. Routledge.
  16. added 2018-01-22
    Getting It Together: Psychological Unity and Deflationary Accounts of Animal Metacognition.Gary Comstock & William A. Bauer - 2018 - Acta Analytica 33 (4):431-451.
    Experimenters claim some nonhuman mammals have metacognition. If correct, the results indicate some animal minds are more complex than ordinarily presumed. However, some philosophers argue for a deflationary reading of metacognition experiments, suggesting that the results can be explained in first-order terms. We agree with the deflationary interpretation of the data but we argue that the metacognition research forces the need to recognize a heretofore underappreciated feature in the theory of animal minds, which we call Unity. The disparate mental states (...)
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  17. added 2017-12-14
    Minds That Matter: Seven Degrees of Moral Standing.Julian Friedland - 2004 - Between the Species 13 (4).
    Prominent non-speciesist attempts to determine the amount of moral standing properly attributable to conscious beings argue that certain non-human animals should be granted the highest consideration as self-conscious persons. Most of these theories also include a lesser moral standing for the sentient, or merely conscious, non-person. Thus, the standard approach has been to advocate a two-tiered theory—'sentience' or 'consciousness' and 'self-consciousness' or 'personhood'. While the first level seems to present little interpretative difficulty, the second has recently been criticized as a (...)
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  18. added 2017-12-04
    Box 1. Self-Awareness and the Mirror Test.Julian Paul Keenan, Mark A. Wheeler, Gordon G. Gallup & Alvaro Pascual-Leone - 2000 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 4 (9):338-344.
  19. added 2017-12-04
    Individual Interests.Andrzej Elzanowski - 1998 - In Marc Bekoff & Carron A. Meaney (eds.), Encyclopedia of Animal Rights and Animal Welfare. Greenwood Press. pp. 311--313.
    Having positive experience is, by defintion, in the interest of every subject. Whether being alive per se, in addition to having positive experiences, is in a subject's interest depends of her/his cognitive development. Only a reflectively self-conscious subject can take and thus have an interest in one's own individual existence and may not want to die regardless of the expected experience. Since most non-human subjects (except for a few mammalian and avian species) are not aware of their subjective existence they (...)
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  20. added 2017-07-24
    Through the Looking Glass, and What We (Don’T) Find There.Eric Saidel - 2016 - Biology and Philosophy 31 (3):335-352.
    The conclusions drawn from mirror self-recognition studies, in which nonhuman animals are tested for whether they detect a mark on their bodies which can be observed only in the mirror, are based on several presuppositions. These include that performance on the test is an indication of species wide rather than individual abilities, and that all the animals which pass the test are demonstrating the presence of the same psychological ability. However, further details about the results of the test indicate that (...)
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  21. added 2017-07-24
    Animal Cognition and Self-Awareness.Paul Veatch Moriarty - 1997 - Dissertation, University of Colorado at Boulder
    Many ethologists, psychologists and philosophers have recently come to recognize the important role of cognition in determining the behavior of non-human animals. They grant that animals have beliefs, desires, expectations, fears, etc. However, most of these cognitive psychologists see no reason to suppose that animals are aware of their own thoughts. Meanwhile, many philosophers view self-awareness as being fundamental to our humanity. Self-awareness has frequently been offered as a dividing line between humans and other animals. By examining empirical evidence from (...)
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  22. added 2017-06-21
    Meaning Generation for Animals, Humans and Artificial Agents. An Evolutionary Perspective on the Philosophy of Information. (IS4SI 2017).Christophe Menant - manuscript
    Meanings are present everywhere in our environment and within ourselves. But these meanings do not exist by themselves. They are associated to information and have to be created, to be generated by agents. The Meaning Generator System (MGS) has been developed on a system approach to model meaning generation in agents following an evolutionary perspective. The agents can be natural or artificial. The MGS generates meaningful information (a meaning) when it receives information that has a connection with an internal constraint (...)
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  23. added 2017-06-16
    Information, Constraint and Meaning. From the Pre-Biotic World to a Possible Post Human One. An Evolutionary Approach (IS4SI 2017).Christophe Menant - manuscript
    The presentation proposes to complement an existing development on meaning generation for animals, humans and artificial agents by looking at what could have existed at pre-biotic times and what could be a post-human meaning generation. The core of the approach is based on an existing model for meaning generation: the Meaning Generator System (MGS). The MGS is part of an agent submitted to an internal constraint. The MGS generates a meaning when it receives an information that has a connection with (...)
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  24. added 2017-03-08
    Emotion et moi, et moi, et moi.Fabrice Teroni - 2016 - Revue Philosophique de la France Et de l'Etranger 141 (2):161-178.
    Ma discussion est structuree autour de l examen de trois theses concernant le rapport entre emotions et moi. J examine d'abord la these selon laquelle toute emotion renferme une forme de reflexivité en ce qu elle est intentionnellement dirigee vers le sujet qui la ressent. Le moi est ici considere être l objet particulier de toute emotion. Je me consacre ensuite a l examen d une deuxieme these, plus subtile, qui considere que les emotions sont reflexives en ce qu elles (...)
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  25. added 2017-03-08
    Emotions, Me, Myself and I.Fabrice Teroni - 2016 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 24 (4):433-451.
    We are prone to think that the emotions someone undergoes are somehow revelatory of the sort of person she is, and philosophers working in the field have frequently insisted upon the existence of an intimate relation between a subject and her emotions. But how intimate is the relation between emotions and the self? I first explain why interesting claims about this relation must locate it at the level of emotional intentionality. Given that emotions have a complex intentional structure – they (...)
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  26. added 2017-03-01
    The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Animal Minds.Kristin Andrews & Jacob Beck (eds.) - 2017 - Routledge.
    While philosophers have been interested in animals since ancient times, in the last few decades the subject of animal minds has emerged as a major topic in philosophy. _The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Animal Minds_ is an outstanding reference source to the key topics, problems and debates in this exciting subject and is the first collection of its kind. Comprising nearly fifty chapters by a team of international contributors, the _Handbook_ is divided into eight parts: Mental representation Reasoning and (...)
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  27. added 2017-03-01
    The Animal Mind: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Animal Cognition.Kristin Andrews - 2014 - Routledge.
    The study of animal cognition raises profound questions about the minds of animals and philosophy of mind itself. Aristotle argued that humans are the only animal to laugh, but in recent experiments rats have also been shown to laugh. In other experiments, dogs have been shown to respond appropriately to over two hundred words in human language. In this introduction to the philosophy of animal minds Kristin Andrews introduces and assesses the essential topics, problems and debates as they cut across (...)
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  28. added 2017-02-27
    Can Rats Reason?Savanah Stephane - 2015 - Psychology of Consciousness: Theory, Research, and Practice 2 (4):404-429.
    Since at least the mid-1980s claims have been made for rationality in rats. For example, that rats are capable of inferential reasoning (Blaisdell, Sawa, Leising, & Waldmann, 2006; Bunsey & Eichenbaum, 1996), or that they can make adaptive decisions about future behavior (Foote & Crystal, 2007), or that they are capable of knowledge in propositional-like form (Dickinson, 1985). The stakes are rather high, because these capacities imply concept possession and on some views (e.g., Rödl, 2007; Savanah, 2012) rationality indicates self-consciousness. (...)
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  29. added 2017-02-27
    Do Animal Have Interests Worthy of Our Moral Interest?Peter Miller - 1983 - Environmental Ethics 5 (4):319-333.
    The conclusion of animal liberationists that the underlying assumptions of modern egalitarian humanism can be construed to imply an equal moral desert for the higher nonhuman animals has recently been challenged by R. G. Frey on the grounds that linguistic incompetence and lack of self-consciousness on the part of animals preclude them from having desires, beliefs, interests, and rights. AlthoughFrey’s arguments fail, they challenge us to provide alternative accounts of these descriptive and normative categories of human and animal psychology. Phenomenological (...)
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  30. added 2017-02-27
    Self-Consciousness and the Rights of Nonhuman Animals and Nature.Richard A. Watson - 1979 - Environmental Ethics 1 (2):99-129.
    A reciprocity framework is presented as an analysis of morality, and to explain and justify the attribution of moral rights and duties. To say an entity has rights makes sense only if that entity can fulfill reciprocal duties, i.e., can act as a moral agent. To be a moral agent an entity must be self-conscious, understand general principles, have free will, understand the given principles, be physicallycapable of acting, and intend to act according to or against the given principles. This (...)
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  31. added 2017-02-14
    Ostensive Behavior in Great Apes: The Role of Eye Contact.Juan-Carlos Gomez - 1996 - In A. Russon, Kim A. Bard & S. Parkers (eds.), Reaching Into Thought: The Minds of the Great Apes. Cambridge University Press. pp. 131--151.
  32. added 2017-02-14
    Thinking About Animal Thoughts.Donald R. Griffin - 1983 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 6 (3):364.
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  33. added 2017-02-13
    Are Apes and Elephants Persons?Barbara J. King - 2011 - In J. Wentzel Van Huyssteen & Erik P. Wiebe (eds.), In Search of Self: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Personhood. William B. Eerdmans Pub. Co.. pp. 70.
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  34. added 2017-02-13
    What Does an Intermediate Success Rate Mean? An Analysis of a Piagetian Liquid Conservation Task in the Great Apes.Chikako Suda & Josep Call - 2006 - Cognition 99 (1):53-71.
  35. added 2017-02-13
    Manual Deixis in Apes and Humans.David A. Leavens - 2005 - Interaction Studies: Social Behaviour and Communication in Biological and Artificial Systems 5 (3):387-408.
  36. added 2017-02-13
    Mind Reading, Pretence and Imitation in Monkeys and Apes.A. Whiten - 1992 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 15 (1):170-171.
  37. added 2017-02-13
    Man-Apes of Eastern Australia. Part 1.R. Gilroy - 1991 - Nexus 2 (5):25-28.
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  38. added 2017-02-11
    Raymond Corbey's' The Metaphysics of Apes'.Pieter Adriaens - 2007 - Algemeen Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Wijsbegeerte 99 (4):310-312.
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  39. added 2017-02-09
    A Great Scotist Study.Jean Duns Scot: Introduction À Ses Positions Fondamentales.George Lindbeck - 1954 - Review of Metaphysics 7 (3):422 - 435.
    Yet we must stick with our original judgment; this is a study of quite extraordinary merits. In order to appreciate them properly, it is necessary to know something of the difficulties which confront the researcher in this field. I shall mention some of these, in order to provide the background against which Gilson's contribution should be evaluated. A discussion of this contribution will follow, after which I shall raise some questions regarding Gilson's historical methodology, and conclude with some suggestions about (...)
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  40. added 2017-02-07
    A Novel Approach for Identifying a Human-Like Self-Conscious Behavior.Gianpiero Negri - manuscript
    In this paper a possible extension of Turing test [1] will be presented, which is intended to overcome the limits highlighted by several researchers and scientists in the last seventy years. The main problem related to the execution in Turing test is substantially dealing with the trouble in identification of a human-like intelligence based on a pure evaluation of external behavior of a machine. In this work first of all a description of classical Turing test will be done. After that, (...)
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  41. added 2017-02-07
    What Mirror Self-Recognition Can Tell Us About Aspects of Self.Theresa Schilhab - forthcoming - Biology and Philosophy.
  42. added 2017-02-07
    Self-Recognition.James R. Anderson, Gordon G. Gallup & Steven M. Platek - 2011 - In Shaun Gallagher (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of the Self. Oxford University Press.
    This article focuses on mirror self-recognition, the ability to recognize one's own image in a mirror. It presents the result of the first experiment on mirror self-recognition which showed that chimpanzees are able to learn that the chimps they see in the mirror are not other chimps, but themselves, as evidenced by self-directed behaviour. It reviews evidence for neural network for self-recognition and self-other differentiation and cites evidence that frontal cortex and cortical midline structures are implicated in self-recognition tasks. It (...)
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  43. added 2017-02-07
    World Poverty, Animal Minds and the Ethics of Veterinary Expenditure.John Hadley & Siobhan O'Sullivan - 2009 - Environmental Values 18 (3):361-378.
    In this paper we make an argument for limiting veterinary expenditure on companion animals. The argument combines two principles: the obligation to give and the self-consciousness requirement. In line with the former, we ought to give money to organisations helping to alleviate preventable suffering and death in developing countries; the latter states that it is only intrinsically wrong to painlessly kill an individual that is self-conscious. Combined, the two principles inform an argument along the following lines: rather than spending inordinate (...)
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  44. added 2017-02-07
    Between Apes and Angels: At the Borders of Human Nature.J. M. M. H. Thijssen - unknown
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  45. added 2017-02-07
    Great Apes Imitate Actions of Others and Effects of Others' Actions.Robert W. Mitchell - 1998 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (5):700-700.
    Apes imitate the effects of others' actions, but the evidence for program-level imitation seems contradictory and the evidence against bodily imitation and trial and error in learning the organization of complex activities seems ambiguous. Action-level imitations are more flexible than described and may derive from imitation of the effects of others' actions on objects.
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  46. added 2017-02-07
    The First Step in the Case for Great Ape Equality: The Argument for Other Minds.Kristin Andrews - 1996 - Etica and Animali: The Great Ape Project:131-141.
    A defense of equality for great apes must begin with an understanding of the opposition and an acknowledgement of the most basic point of disagreement. For great apes to gain status as persons in our community, we must begin by determining what the multitude of different definitions of "person" have in common. Finding that great apes fulfill the requirements of any one specific theory of personhood is insufficient, for these theories are highly controversial, and a critique of the theory will (...)
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  47. added 2017-02-07
    Are We Unique? The Locus Humanus, Animal Cognition and the Theology of Nature.Gregory Roy Peterson - 1996 - Dissertation, The Iliff School of Theology and University of Denver
    It has long been assumed in the Western philosophical and theological traditions that humankind is in some way unique. Philosophically, this uniqueness has been asserted in terms of one of four qualities: rationality, language, consciousness, and self-consciousness. Theologically, it has also been expressed in terms of the concept of the image of God. This dissertation argues, contrarily, that humans are not unique in this sense and in fact share a wide range of cognitive abilities with many other animals. To this (...)
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  48. added 2017-02-07
    Descartes on Animals.Peter Harrison - 1992 - Philosophical Quarterly 42 (167):219-227.
    Did Descartes deny that animals can feel? While it has generally been assumed that he did, there has been some confusion over the fact that Descartes concedes to animals both sensations and passions'. John Cottingham, for example, has argued that while Descartes did insist that animals were automata, denying them thought and "self"-consciousness, none of these assertions entail the conclusion that animals do not feel. This paper examines both Cottingham's arguments and the relevant sections of Descartes' writings, concluding that Descartes (...)
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  49. added 2017-02-07
    Against Liberation: Putting Animals in Perspective.Michael P. T. Leahy - 1991 - Routledge.
    The Western world is currently gripped by an obsessive concern for the rights of animals - their uses and abuses. In this book, Leahy argues that this is a movement based upon a series of fundamental misconceptions about the basic nature of animals. This is a radical philosophical questioning of prevailing views on animal rights, which credit animals with a self-consciousness like ours. Leahy's conclusions have implications for issues such as bloodsports, meat eating and fur trading.
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  50. added 2017-02-02
    Primate Cultural Worlds: Monkeys, Apes, and Humans.Frank E. Poirier & Lori J. Fitton - 2001 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (2):349-350.
    Monkeys and apes, inhabiting variable environments and subjected to K-selection, exhibit cultural behavior transmitted horizontally and vertically, like cetaceans. Behaviors enhancing better health and nutrition, predator avoidance, or mate selection, can affect differential reproduction.Furthermore, dominance hierarchies and social status not only affect the transmission and acceptance of new behaviors but they may also affect genetic inheritance.
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