About this topic
Summary The anthropic principle is a contentious principle of reasoning and confirmation that aims at accounting for selection effects from our place as observers when we evaluate or use theories. It is often invoked in the context of testing cosmological theories. The anthropic principle states that the parameters of the universe must be such that life (or conscious life or observership) is possible. A strong version of the anthropic principle claims that the most likely theories should be those that are the most favorable to the advent of life. This strong version is contentious, as it implies that the universe is somehow designed for life. A weaker version of the anthropic principle claims that theories that are incompatible with the advent of life should be discounted for being empirically inadequate. This weak version is not contentious, but its critiques argue that it is nothing more than a truism of confirmation.
Key works Earman 1987 provides a survey and a sharp critique of different versions of the anthropic principle. See Hacking 1987 for a discussion of the anthropic principle as an inverted gambler's fallacy, and Leslie 1988 and McGrath 1988 for rebuttals. More recently, Bostrom 2002 has sparked renewed interest in anthropic reasoning, advocating the need to revise our principles of confirmation and probabilistic reasoning altogether. See Sober 2004 for a discussion of anthropic reasoning and the argument from design.
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1 — 50 / 59
  1. added 2019-01-21
    1: Programming a Planck Universe Black-Hole CMB and the Cosmological Constant, a Simulation Hypothesis.Malcolm J. Macleod - manuscript
    The Simulation Hypothesis proposes that all of reality is in fact an artificial simulation, analogous to a computer simulation. Outlined here is a method for programming principal cosmic microwave background parameters applicable for use in (Planck-level) Universe-as-a-Simulation Hypothesis as the only variable required is the universe age as measured in units of Planck time. The model initializes `micro Planck-size black-holes' being entities that embody the Planck units. The simulation begins as a single micro black-hole and expands by adding further micro (...)
  2. added 2019-01-21
    Programming Planck Units From a Virtual Electron; a Simulation Hypothesis (Summary).Malcolm Macleod - 2018 - Eur. Phys. J. Plus 133:278.
    The Simulation Hypothesis proposes that all of reality, including the earth and the universe, is in fact an artificial simulation, analogous to a computer simulation, and as such our reality is an illusion. In this essay I describe a method for programming mass, length, time and charge (MLTA) as geometrical objects derived from the formula for a virtual electron; $f_e = 4\pi^2r^3$ ($r = 2^6 3 \pi^2 \alpha \Omega^5$) where the fine structure constant $\alpha$ = 137.03599... and $\Omega$ = 2.00713494... (...)
  3. added 2018-12-03
    Wissenschaftliches Denken, Das Rätsel Bewusstsein, Und Pro-Religiöse Ideen.Alfred Gierer - manuscript
    Diese Schrift enthält sieben Artikel des Autors, in denen es um die Beziehung moderner Naturwissenschaft zu aufgeklärten, liberalen Formen religiöser Ideen geht. Die Erklärungen der Wissenschaft führen erstaunlich weit, und doch gibt es für sie prinzipielle, erkenntnistheoretisch robuste Grenzen, auch in Bezug auf die Evolution des Menschen, den Fähigkeiten seines Gehirns, und den Rätseln des menschlichen Bewusstseins. Dies ist ja nicht nur Gegenstand, sondern schon Voraussetzung des wissenschaftlichen Denkens. Auf der „meta-theoretischen“, nämlich der philosophischen, kulturellen und religiösen Ebene bleibt für (...)
  4. added 2018-05-22
    Anthropic Reasoning Does Not Conflict with Observation.Dien Ho & Bradley Monton - 2005 - Analysis 65 (1):42–45.
    We grant that anthropic reasoning yields the result that we should not expect to be in a small civilization. However, regardless of what civilization one finds oneself in, one can use anthropic reasoning to get the result that one should not expect to be in that sort of civilization. Hence, contra Ken Olum, anthropic reasoning does not conflict with observation.
  5. added 2018-02-17
    Privileged, Typical, or Not Even That? – Our Place in the World According to the Copernican and the Cosmological Principles.Claus Beisbart & Tobias Jung - 2006 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 37 (2):225-256.
    If we are to constrain our place in the world, two principles are often appealed to in science. According to the Copernican Principle, we do not occupy a privileged position within the Universe. The Cosmological Principle, on the other hand, says that our observations would roughly be the same, if we were located at any other place in the Universe. In our paper we analyze these principles from a logical and philosophical point of view. We show how they are related, (...)
  6. added 2018-01-17
    Beyond Falsifiability: Normal Science in a Multiverse.Sean M. Carroll - forthcoming - In Richard Dawid, Radin Dardashti & Karim Thebault (eds.), Epistemology of Fundamental Physics: Why Trust a Theory? Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
    Cosmological models that invoke a multiverse - a collection of unobservable regions of space where conditions are very different from the region around us - are controversial, on the grounds that unobservable phenomena shouldn't play a crucial role in legitimate scientific theories. I argue that the way we evaluate multiverse models is precisely the same as the way we evaluate any other models, on the basis of abduction, Bayesian inference, and empirical success. There is no scientifically respectable way to do (...)
  7. added 2016-12-15
    Review of Hyperspace by Michio Kaku (1994).Starks Michael - 2016 - In Michael Starks (ed.), Suicidal Utopian Delusions in the 21st Century: Philosophy, Human Nature and the Collapse of Civilization-- Articles and Reviews 2006-2017 2nd Edition Feb 2018. Michael Starks. pp. 620-626.
    "There is something fascinating about science. One gets such wholesale returns of conjecture out of such a trifling investment of fact" Mark Twain-Life on the Mississippi -/- This is a lovely book full of fascinating info on the evolution of physics and cosmology. Its main theme is how the idea of higher dimensional geometry created by Riemann, recently extended to 24 dimensions by string theory, has revolutionized our understanding of the universe. Everyone knows that Riemann created multidimensional geometry in 1854 (...)
  8. added 2016-03-01
    (2015) Scientific Rationality, Human Consciousness, and Pro-Religious Ideas.Alfred Gierer - manuscript
    The essay discusses immanent versus transcendent concepts in the context of the art of living, as well as the understanding of human consciousness in the context of religion. Science provides us with a far reaching understanding of natural processes, including biological evolution, but also with deep insights into its own intrinsic limitations. This is consistent with more than one interpretation on the “metatheoretical“, that is on the philosophical and cultural level, including liberal, enlightened forms of religion as well as agnostic (...)
  9. added 2016-03-01
    Science, Religion and Basic Biological Issues That Are Open to Interpretation.Alfred Gierer - 2009 - English Translation Of: Preprint 388, Mpi for History of Science.
    This is an English translation of my essay: Alfred Gierer Wissenschaft, Religion und die deutungsoffenen Grundfragen der Biologie. Mpi for the History of Science, preprint 388, 1-21, also in philpapers. Range and limits of science are given by the universal validity of physical laws, and by intrinsic limitations, especially in self-referential contexts. In particular, neurobiology should not be expected to provide a full understanding of consciousness and the mind. Science cannot provide, by itself, an unambiguous interpretation of the natural order (...)
  10. added 2016-01-19
    Anthropic Explanations in Cosmology.Quentin Smith - 1994 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 72 (3):371 – 382.
  11. added 2016-01-18
    Epicurean Evolution and the Anthropic Principle.Alasdair Richmond - 2000 - American Philosophical Quarterly 37 (2):149 - 161.
  12. added 2016-01-18
    Natural Explanations for the Anthropic Coincidences.Victor J. Stenger - 2000 - Philo 3 (2):50-67.
    The anthropic coincidences are widely claimed to provide evidence for intelligent creation in the universe. However, neither data northeory support this conclusion. No basis exists for assuming that a random universe would not have some kind of life. Calculations of the properties of universes having different physical constants than ours indicate that long-lived stars are not unusual, and thus most universes should have time for complex systems of some type to evolve. A multi-universe scenario is not ruled out, since no (...)
  13. added 2016-01-18
    Cosmos and Anthropos: A Philosophical Interpretation of the Anthropic Cosmological Principle.E. Harris Errol - 1991 - Humanity Books.
  14. added 2016-01-18
    Wśród Książek [Recenzja] J.D. Barrow, F. J. Tipler, The Anthropic Cosmological Principle, 1986. J. D. Barrow, The World Within the World, 1988. General Relativity - An Einstein Centenary Survey, Red.: S. W. Hawking, W. Israel, 1979. Three Hundered Year. [REVIEW]Michał Heller - 1990 - Zagadnienia Filozoficzne W Nauce 12.
  15. added 2015-12-11
    The Role of the Protocol in Anthropic Reasoning.Joseph Y. Halpern - 2015 - Ergo: An Open Access Journal of Philosophy 2:195-206.
    I show how thinking in terms of the protocol used can help clarify problems related to anthropic reasoning and self-location, such as the Doomsday Argument and the Sleeping Beauty Problem.
  16. added 2015-12-06
    Probabilistic Reasoning in Cosmology.Yann Benétreau-Dupin - 2015 - Dissertation, The University of Western Ontario
    Cosmology raises novel philosophical questions regarding the use of probabilities in inference. This work aims at identifying and assessing lines of arguments and problematic principles in probabilistic reasoning in cosmology. -/- The first, second, and third papers deal with the intersection of two distinct problems: accounting for selection effects, and representing ignorance or indifference in probabilistic inferences. These two problems meet in the cosmology literature when anthropic considerations are used to predict cosmological parameters by conditionalizing the distribution of, e.g., the (...)
  17. added 2015-03-18
    The Anthropic Principle: A Primer for Philosophers.Frank J. Tipler - 1988 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1988:27 - 48.
    An outline of the three basic versions of the Anthropic Principle-the Weak, the Strong, and the Final Anthropic Principles-is given from a philosophical point of view.
  18. added 2015-03-18
    The Sap Also Rises: A Critical Examination of the Anthropic Principle.John Earman - 1987 - American Philosophical Quarterly 24 (4):307 - 317.
  19. added 2015-03-18
    Anthropic Explanations in Cosmology.John Leslie - 1986 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1986:87 - 95.
    Cosmologists using the Anthropic Principle claim that if our universe had been much different then nobody would exist to observe it. This may become explanatory when one accepts the actual existence of multiple "universes": gigantic, largely or entirely separate systems having very varied properties. Ian Hacking has urged, though, that an Inverse Gambler's Fallacy is committed during many attempts to formulate anthropic explanations. Besides disagreeing with him, the paper makes several further points in support of such explanations, in particular against (...)
  20. added 2015-03-18
    Anthropic Principle, World Ensemble, Design.John Leslie - 1982 - American Philosophical Quarterly 19 (2):141 - 151.
  21. added 2015-03-17
    Anthropic Explanations in Cosmology.Jesus Mosterin - unknown
    The claims of some authors to have introduced a new type of explanation in cosmology, based on the anthropic principle, are examined and found wanting. The weak anthropic principle is neither anthropic nor a principle. Either in its direct or in its Bayesian form, it is a mere tautology lacking explanatory force and unable to yield any prediction of previously unknown results. It is a pattern of inference, not of explanation. The strong anthropic principle is a gratuitous speculation with no (...)
  22. added 2015-02-09
    The Anthropic Principle and its Implications for Biological Evolution [and Discussion].Brandon Carter & William H. McCrea - 1983 - Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences 310 (1512):347-363.
    In the form in which it was originally expounded, the anthropic principle was presented as a warning to astrophysical and cosmological theorists of the risk of error in the interpretation of astronomical and cosmological information unless due account is taken of the biological restraints under which the information was acquired. However, the converse message is also valid: biological theorists also run the risk of error in the interpretation of the evolutionary record unless they take due heed of the astrophysical restraints (...)
  23. added 2015-01-29
    Transcendental Background to the Anthropic Reasoning in Cosmology.Yuri V. Balashov - 1992 - Man and World 25 (2):115-132.
  24. added 2014-11-06
    First-Person Plural Quantum Mechanics.Ulrich J. Mohrhoff - manuscript
    Doing justice to quantum mechanics calls for a deeper examination of the relations between our experience, its objects, and its subjects than either third-person interpretations or the first-person singular interpretation of the QBist permit. The metaphysical space opened by Bohr's employment of the "Kantian wedge" between the objective world, about which we can communicate, and the world "in itself" allows quantum mechanics to unfold its metaphysical potential. This in turn makes it possible to go a long way towards bridging the (...)
  25. added 2014-11-06
    Why the Laws of Physics Are Just So.Ulrich Mohrhoff - 2002 - Foundations of Physics 32 (8):1313-1324.
    Does a world that contains chemistry entail the validity of both the standard model of elementary particle physics and general relativity, at least as effective theories? This article shows that the answer may very well be affirmative. It further suggests that the very existence of stable, spatially extended material objects, if not the very existence of the physical world, may require the validity of these theories.
  26. added 2014-07-03
    Blurring Out Cosmic Puzzles.Yann Benétreau-Dupin - 2015 - Philosophy of Science 82 (5):879–891.
    The Doomsday argument and anthropic reasoning are two puzzling examples of probabilistic confirmation. In both cases, a lack of knowledge apparently yields surprising conclusions. Since they are formulated within a Bayesian framework, they constitute a challenge to Bayesianism. Several attempts, some successful, have been made to avoid these conclusions, but some versions of these arguments cannot be dissolved within the framework of orthodox Bayesianism. I show that adopting an imprecise framework of probabilistic reasoning allows for a more adequate representation of (...)
  27. added 2014-04-01
    The Weak Anthropic Principle and the Design Argument.Joseph M. Zycinski - 1996 - Zygon 31 (1):115-130.
    The design argument for God’s existence was critically assessed when in the growth of modern science the cognitive value of teleological categories was called into question. In recent discussions dealing with anthropic principles there has appeared a new version of the design argument, in which cosmic design is described without the use of teleological terms. The weak anthropic principle (WAP), a most critical version of all these principles, describes the fine-tuning of physical parameters necessary to the genesis of carbon-based life. (...)
  28. added 2014-03-28
    Carter on Anthropic Principle Predictions.Patrick A. Wilson - 1994 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 45 (1):241-253.
    A significant criticism of the anthropic principle as a scientific claim is that testable predictions cannot be derived from it. Brandon Carter has argued, however, that the principle can be used to predict on the one hand that the period of time biological evolution is intrinsically likely to require is very large, and on the other that the number of ‘critical steps’ that have occurred in the evolution of life on earth is related to the length of time life can (...)
  29. added 2014-03-26
    The "Ethical Anthropic Principle" and the Religious Ethics of Levinas.A. T. Nuyen - 2001 - Journal of Religious Ethics 29 (3):427 - 442.
    Why did Levinas choose Isaiah 45:7 ("I make peace and create evil: I the Lord do all that") as a superscription of his essay on evil? This article explores the role of evil in Levinas's religious ethics. The author discusses the structure of evil as revealed phenomenologically and juxtaposes it to the structure of subjectivity found in the writings of Levinas. The idea of the "ethical anthropic principle," modeled upon the cosmic anthropic principle, is then used to link evil to (...)
  30. added 2014-03-26
    A Fatal Logical Flaw in Anthropic Principle Design Arguments.Gilbert Fulmer - 2001 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 49 (2):101-110.
  31. added 2014-03-24
    Anthropic Fluctuations Vs. Weak Anthropic Principle.Milan M. Ćirković - 2002 - Foundations of Science 7 (4):453-463.
    A modern assessment of the classical Boltzmann-Schuetz argument for large-scale entropy fluctuations as the origin of our observable cosmological domain is given.The emphasis is put on the central implication of this picture which flatly contradicts the weak anthropic principle as an epistemological statement about the universe. Therefore, to associate this picture with the anthropic principle as it is usually done is unwarranted. In particular, Feynman's criticism of theanthropic principle based on the entropy-fluctuation picture is a product of this semantic confusion.
  32. added 2014-03-24
    The Anthropic Principle: Life in the Universe.Kevin Sharpe & Jonathan Walgate - 2002 - Zygon 37 (4):925-939.
  33. added 2014-03-23
    Observer-Relative Chances in Anthropic Reasoning?Nick Bostrom - 2000 - Erkenntnis 52 (1):93-108.
    John Leslie presents a thought experiment to show that chances are sometimes observer-relative in a paradoxical way. The pivotal assumption in his argument – a version of the weak anthropic principle – is the same as the one used to get the disturbing Doomsday argument off the ground. I show that Leslie's thought experiment trades on the sense/reference ambiguity and is fallacious. I then describe a related case where chances are observer-relative in an interesting way. But not in a paradoxical (...)
  34. added 2014-03-07
    Possible Implications of the Quantum Theory of Gravity: An Introduction to the Meduso-Anthropic Principle. [REVIEW]Louis Crane - 2010 - Foundations of Science 15 (4):369-373.
    If we assume that the constants of nature fluctuate near the singularity when a black hole forms (assuming, also, that physical black holes really do form singularities) then a process of evolution of universes becomes possible. We explore the implications of such a process for the origin of life, interstellar travel, and the human future.
  35. added 2013-12-02
    The Anthropic Cosmological Principle.John D. Barrow - 1986 - Oxford University Press.
    Ever since Copernicus, scientists have continually adjusted their view of human nature, moving it further and further from its ancient position at the center of Creation. But in recent years, a startling new concept has evolved that places it more firmly than ever in a special position. Known as the Anthropic Cosmological Principle, this collection of ideas holds that the existence of intelligent observers determines the fundamental structure of the Universe. In its most radical version, the Anthropic Principle asserts that (...)
  36. added 2013-11-22
    Philosophy and Cosmology 2012 (The Journal of International Society of Philosophy and Cosmology (ISPC) ).Oleg Bazaluk (ed.) - 2012 - ISPC.
    The Journal «Philosophy and Cosmology» (ISSN 2307-3705) was established by Oleg Bazaluk as a press organ of International Society of Philosophy and Cosmology at 2004. This Society was established in the setting of Pereyaslav-Khmelnitskiy State Pedagogical University. Initially the Journal was printed as a special edition of Ukrainian philosophical journal «Sententiae» (Editor-in-Chief - Oleg Khoma) and covered scientific and philosophical researches of the space problematic. Since 2008, Journal «Philosophy and Cosmology» is an independent printed issue. Since 2009, together with coming (...)
  37. added 2013-10-31
    Design and the Anthropic Principle.John Leslie - 1992 - Biology and Philosophy 7 (3):349-354.
  38. added 2013-10-26
    Philosophy and Cosmology 2010 (The Journal of International Society of Philosophy and Cosmology (ISPC) ).Oleg Bazaluk (ed.) - 2010 - ISPC.
    The Journal «Philosophy and Cosmology» (ISSN 2307-3705) was established by Oleg Bazaluk as a press organ of International Society of Philosophy and Cosmology at 2004. This Society was established in the setting of Pereyaslav-Khmelnitskiy State Pedagogical University. Initially the Journal was printed as a special edition of Ukrainian philosophical journal «Sententiae» (one’s Chief Editor is Oleg Khoma) and covered academic scientific, philosophical and amateur researches of the space problematic. Since 2008, Journal «Philosopy and Cosmology» is an independent printed issue at (...)
  39. added 2013-10-26
    Philosophy and Cosmology 2009 (The Journal of International Society of Philosophy and Cosmology (ISPC) ).Oleg Bazaluk (ed.) - 2009 - ISPC.
    Philosophy and Cosmology is an open access, peer-reviewed and refereed journal that focuses on theoretical and conceptual problems and issues in philosophical and cosmological research. Philosophy and Cosmology is published by International Society of Philosophy and Cosmology. The objective of Philosophy and Cosmology is to promote exchange and collaboration among philosophers, social, technical and natural science researchers throughout the world. In pursuit of this objective the journal not only publishes high quality research papers but also ensures that the published papers (...)
  40. added 2013-10-26
    World Existence and “Evolved Matter” as its Modern Model.Oleg Bazaluk - 2009 - Philosophy and Cosmology 1 (1):3-37.
    Along the strike of this article we’ll try to perform two tasks. The first one is to review the world existence but not in form of concept but in form of modern scientific-philosophic system of views on the Universe structure and on the processes of formation and development of non-organic world, worlds of life and intelligence. The second one is to answer the question “what is the essence of human life?” through the scientific-philosophic understanding of the world existence.
  41. added 2013-10-26
    Philosophy and Cosmology 2008 (The Journal of International Society of Philosophy and Cosmology (ISPC) ).Oleg Bazaluk (ed.) - 2008 - ISPC.
    Philosophy and Cosmology is an open access, peer-reviewed and refereed journal that focuses on theoretical and conceptual problems and issues in philosophical and cosmological research. Philosophy and Cosmology is published by International Society of Philosophy and Cosmology. The objective of Philosophy and Cosmology is to promote exchange and collaboration among philosophers, social, technical and natural science researchers throughout the world. In pursuit of this objective the journal not only publishes high quality research papers but also ensures that the published papers (...)
  42. added 2013-10-26
    T I M E in the Light of a New Cosmological Conception.Oleg Bazaluk - 2003 - Porogi.
    This small book continues the theoretical study on the structure of the universe. It examines the category of “time” in the light of a new cosmological model proposed by the author in his book “The Origin of Mankind”. It is generally accepted that after researches of A. Einstein, А. Minkovsky and others space and time are considered in their interrelation, as the continuum. Nevertheless, the category of “time” is still a bone of contention and a cause of a great deal (...)
  43. added 2013-10-26
    The Origin of Mankind A New Cosmological Conception.Oleg Bazaluk - 2003 - Porogi.
    I present my own vision of the material world's formation. I think this new cosmological model deepens and extends the modern points of view on the universe. It allows to follow the evolution of matter up to forming of human society. I had to rethink a lot and even to change and to surrender in some degree my points of view stated in my previous publications. But these changes had a partial character and naturally resulted from the evolution of my (...)
  44. added 2013-10-08
    Philosophy and Cosmology 2011 (The Journal of International Society of Philosophy and Cosmology (ISPC) ).Oleg Bazaluk (ed.) - 2011 - ISPC.
    Philosophy and Cosmology is an open access, peer-reviewed and refereed journal that focuses on theoretical and conceptual problems and issues in philosophical and cosmological research. Philosophy and Cosmology is published by International Society of Philosophy and Cosmology. The objective of Philosophy and Cosmology is to promote exchange and collaboration among philosophers, social, technical and natural science researchers throughout the world. In pursuit of this objective the journal not only publishes high quality research papers but also ensures that the published papers (...)
  45. added 2011-09-05
    Anthropic Reasoning in Multiverse Cosmology and String Theory.Steven Weinstein - unknown
    Anthropic arguments in multiverse cosmology and string theory rely on the weak anthropic principle (WAP). We show that the principle, though ultimately a tautology, is nevertheless ambiguous. It can be reformulated in one of two unambiguous ways, which we refer to as WAP_1 and WAP_2. We show that WAP_2, the version most commonly used in anthropic reasoning, makes no physical predictions unless supplemented by a further assumption of "typicality", and we argue that this assumption is both misguided and unjustified. WAP_1, (...)
  46. added 2011-06-07
    Observer Localization in Multiverse Theories.Marcus Hutter - 2010 - In Harald Fritzsch & K. K. Phua (eds.), Proceedings of the Conference in Honour of Murray Gell-Mann's 80th Birthday. World Scientific.
    The progression of theories suggested for our world, from ego- to geo- to helio-centric models to universe and multiverse theories and beyond, shows one tendency: The size of the described worlds increases, with humans being expelled from their center to ever more remote and random locations. If pushed too far, a potential theory of everything (TOE) is actually more a theories of nothing (TON). Indeed such theories have already been developed. I show that including observer localization into such theories is (...)
  47. added 2011-05-31
    Time and Degrees of Existence: The Big Bang Anthropic Principle Religion Atheism.Quentin Smith - unknown
    the rise of analytic philosophy early in the 20th century, specifically, with Russell's 1905 article "On Denoting", for in 1904 and earlier years he and G.E. Moore held a sort of Meinongian theory of degrees of existence (subsistence and existence are distinguished, with existence being a higher..
  48. added 2011-05-31
    Indifference Principle and Anthropic Principle in Cosmology.Ernan McMullin - 1993 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 24 (3):359-389.
    The successes scored by the big bang model of cosmic evolution in the 1960’s led to an intensive application of quantum theory to the problem of how the expansion might have begun and what its likely first stages were. It seemed as though an incredibly precise setting of the initial conditions would have been needed in order that a long-lived galactic universe containing heavy elements might develop. One response was to suppose that the fine-tuning could somehow be explained by the (...)
  49. added 2011-05-31
    Why There Is Something: The Anthropic Principle and Improbable Events.Jonathan Katz - 1988 - Dialogue 27 (1):111.
  50. added 2010-03-21
    Anthropic Bias: Observation Selection Effects in Science and Philosophy.Nick Bostrom - 2002 - Routledge.
    _Anthropic Bias_ explores how to reason when you suspect that your evidence is biased by "observation selection effects"--that is, evidence that has been filtered by the precondition that there be some suitably positioned observer to "have" the evidence. This conundrum--sometimes alluded to as "the anthropic principle," "self-locating belief," or "indexical information"--turns out to be a surprisingly perplexing and intellectually stimulating challenge, one abounding with important implications for many areas in science and philosophy. There are the philosophical thought experiments and paradoxes: (...)
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