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  1. 440 442 (2009). Dissent Over Descent: Intelligent Design's Challenge to Darwinism. [REVIEW] British Journal for the History of Science 42 (3):440-442.
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  2. G. M. Abbott (1951). What Every Intelligent Greek Always Knew. Classical World: A Quarterly Journal on Antiquity 45:209.
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  3. Scott F. Aikin, Michael Harbour & Robert B. Talisse (2010). Nagel on Public Education and Intelligent Design. Journal of Philosophical Research 35:209-219.
    In a recent article, Thomas Nagel argues against the court’s decision to strike down the Dover school district’s requirement that biology teachers in Dover public schools inform their students about Intelligent Design. Nagel contends that this ruling relies on questionable demarcation between science and nonscience and consequently misapplies the Establishment Clause of the constitution. Instead, he argues in favor of making room for an open discussion of these issues rather than an outright prohibition against Intelligent Design. We contend that Nagel’s (...)
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  4. Joaquín García Alandete & Esteban Pérez Delgado (2012). ¿ Evolución versus Creacionismo? Respuesta de FJ Ayala en Darwin y el Diseño Inteligente. Estudios Filosóficos 61 (177):357-372.
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  5. Denis R. Alexander & Ronald L. Numbers (eds.) (2010). Biology and Ideology From Descartes to Dawkins. University of Chicago Press.
    Over the course of human history, the sciences, and biology in particular, have often been manipulated to cause immense human suffering. For example, biology has been used to justify eugenic programs, forced sterilization, human experimentation, and death camps—all in an attempt to support notions of racial superiority. By investigating the past, the contributors to _Biology and Ideology from Descartes to Dawkins_ hope to better prepare us to discern ideological abuse of science when it occurs in the future. Denis R. Alexander (...)
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  6. S. Alfred G. Brickel (1925). I Believe in God and in Evolution. [REVIEW] Modern Schoolman 1 (5):12-13.
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  7. Brian J. Alters (2001). Defending Evolution in the Classroom a Guide to the Creation/Evolution Controversy.
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  8. Paul C. Anders (2005). William Dembski and Michael Ruse, Eds., Debating Design: From Darwin to DNA Reviewed By. Philosophy in Review 25 (3):175-179.
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  9. John Anderson (forthcoming). A Generic Distributed Simulation System for Intelligent Agent Design and Evaluation. Proceedings of the Tenth Conference on Ai, Simulation and Planning, Ais-2000, Society for Computer Simulation International.
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  10. V. Elving Anderson (1983). Scientific Creationism and Its Critique of Evolution. In J. Peter Zetterberg (ed.), Evolution Versus Creationism: The Public Education Controversy. Oryx Press. pp. 235.
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  11. Philip Appleman (2010). Hymn of Praise to the Intelligent Designer. Free Inquiry 30:40-43.
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  12. Agnes Robertson Arber (1954). The Mind and the Eye: A Study of the Biologist's Standpoint. Cambridge University Press.
    Agnes Arber's international reputation is due in part to her exceptional ability to interpret the German tradition of scholarship for the English-speaking world. The Mind and the Eye is an erudite book, revealing its author's familiarity with philosophy from Plato and Aristotle through Aquinas to Kant and Hegel; but it is not dull, because the quiet enthusiasm of the author shines through. In this book she turns from the work of a specialist in one science to those wider questions which (...)
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  13. Elena Aronova (2007). Karl Popper and Lamarckism. Biological Theory 2 (1):37-51.
    The article discusses Karl Popper’s account of Lamarckism. In this article I use Popper’s published and unpublished statements regarding Lamarckism as well as his correspondence with the Australian immunologist Edward Steele and other biologists to examine why Popper was interested in Lamarckism, how his account of Lamarckism can be understood in the context of his philosophy, and what, if any, new context Popper provided for the discussion of this abandoned doctrine. I begin by discussing Popper’s frame of reference regarding Lamarckism, (...)
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  14. M. F. Ashley-Montagu (1939). The Intelligent Individual and SocietyP. W. Bridgman. Isis 30 (2):310-312.
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  15. Scott Atran, Unintelligent Design.
    Science, then, may never replace religion in the lives of most people and in any society that hopes to survive for very long. But neither can religion replace science if humankind hopes to unlock nature's material secrets. And parodies of science, like the so-called "theory" of intelligent design, only cripple science education.
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  16. Francisco J. Ayala (2010). Darwin and Intelligent Design. In Science and Religion in Dialogue. Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 749-766.
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  17. Francisco J. Ayala (2007). The Vatican and Evolution. [REVIEW] History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 29 (2):225 - 229.
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  18. Francisco J. Ayala (2006). Evolution Vs. Creationism. [REVIEW] History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 28 (1):71 - 82.
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  19. Francisco J. Ayala (2006). The Blasphemy of Intelligent Design. [REVIEW] History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 28 (3):409 - 421.
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  20. Francisco J. Ayala (2003). Intelligent Design: The Original Version. Theology and Science 1 (1):9-32.
    William Paley ( Natural Theology , 1802) developed the argument-from-design. The complex structure of the human eye evinces that it was designed by an intelligent Creator. The argument is based on the irreducible complexity ("relation") of multiple interacting parts, all necessary for function. Paley adduces a wealth of biological examples leading to the same conclusion; his knowledge of the biology of his time was profound and extensive. Charles Darwin’s Origin of Species is an extended argument demonstrating that the "design" of (...)
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  21. Francisco J. Ayala (2000). An American Malaise: The Debate Between Darwin and Christian Fundamentalism. [REVIEW] History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 22 (2):273 - 293.
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  22. Francisco J. Ayala (1988). Darwin and the Bible. [REVIEW] History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 10 (1):137 - 144.
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  23. Justin Barrett (2009). The Antagonism Between Christianity and Evolution Continues. For Over 100 Years Numerous Anti-Theists Have Bludgeoned Christianity Using Evolution by Natural Selection as a Bat. Christians Have Assailed Evolu-Tionary Theory as Bad Science Advanced Only for Ulterior Motives. Inspired by Observations From Molecular Biology, the Battle has Crested Again in Terms of 'Intelligent Design'versus Unguided Materialist Evolution (Eg, Behe 1996). The End of This Struggle Remains Nowhere in Sight. And Then There's .. [REVIEW] In Jeffrey Schloss & Michael J. Murray (eds.), The Believing Primate: Scientific, Philosophical, and Theological Reflections on the Origin of Religion. Oxford University Press. pp. 76.
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  24. Dene Bebbington (2005). The Wrong Way to Infer Design. Think 4 (11):85-90.
    Dene Bebbbington explains, and criticises, the intelligent design creationism of William Dembski.
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  25. Francis Beckwith (2003). Public Education, Religious Establishment, and the Challenge of Intelligent Design. Notre Dame Journal of Law, Ethics and Public Policy 17 (2):461-520.
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  26. Michael J. Behe (2001). Reply to My Critics: A Response to Reviews of Darwin's Black Box: The Biochemical Challenge to Evolution. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 16 (5):683-707.
    In Darwin's Black Box: The BiochemicalChallenge to Evolution I argued thatpurposeful intelligent design, rather thanDarwinian natural selection, better explainssome aspects of the complexity that modernscience has discovered at the molecularfoundation of life. In the five years since itspublication the book has been widely discussedand has received considerable criticism. Here Irespond to what I deem to be the mostfundamental objections. In the first part ofthe article I address empirical criticismsbased on experimental studies alleging eitherthat biochemical systems I discussed are notirreducibly complex (...)
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  27. Jesse M. Bering & Todd K. Shackelford (2004). Supernatural Agents May Have Provided Adaptive Social Information. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (6):732-733.
    Atran & Norenzayan's (A&N's) target article effectively combines the insights of evolutionary biology and interdisciplinary cognitive science, neither of which alone yields sufficient explanatory power to help us fully understand the complexities of supernatural belief. Although the authors' ideas echo those of other researchers, they are perhaps the most squarely grounded in neo-Darwinian terms to date. Nevertheless, A&N overlook the possibility that the tendency to infer supernatural agents' communicative intent behind natural events served an ancestrally adaptive function.
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  28. Larry Lee Blackman (2013). Kant and Dembski on Intelligent Design, Artistic Wisdom, and the Problem of Theodicy. In Margit Ruffing, Claudio La Rocca, Alfredo Ferrarin & Stefano Bacin (eds.), Kant Und Die Philosophie in Weltbürgerlicher Absicht: Akten des Xi. Kant-Kongresses 2010. De Gruyter. pp. 823-834.
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  29. Muriel Blaisdell (1982). Natural Theology and Nature's Disguises. Journal of the History of Biology 15 (2):163 - 189.
  30. Stefaan Blancke (2010). Creationism in the Netherlands. Zygon 45 (4):791-816.
    Recent events indicate that creationists are becoming increasingly active in the Netherlands. This article offers an overview of these events. First, I discuss the introduction of intelligent-design (ID) creationism into the Dutch public sphere by a renowned physicist, Cees Dekker. Later, Dekker himself shifted toward a more evolution-friendly position, theistic evolution. Second, we see how Dekker was followed in this shift by Andries Knevel, an important figure within the Dutch evangelical broadcasting group, the Evangelische Omroep (EO). His conversion to ID, (...)
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  31. Mark E. Borrello (2004). Mutual Aid and Animal Dispersion: An Historical Analysis of Alternatives to Darwin. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 47 (1):15-31.
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  32. Claire Bowern (2006). Punctuated Equilibrium and Language Change. In Keith Brown (ed.), Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics. Elsevier. pp. 286--289.
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  33. Peter J. Bowler (1977). Darwinism and the Argument From Design: Suggestions for a Reevaluation. Journal of the History of Biology 10 (1):29-43.
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  34. Raymond D. Bradley, God, Design, and Evolution: A Teleological Argument for Atheism.
    Many things in the natural world work so well that they seem to have been designed. But by what? Could nature itself, by processes including those of evolution, be the designer? Or must their complex structure and function be attributed to some intelligent designer or God? Is natural design compatible with intelligent design? How good is the argument from the presence of design to an intelligent designer? And if we could legitimately infer the probable existence of an intelligent designer from (...)
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  35. P. W. Bridgman (1939). The Intelligent Individual and Society. Philosophical Review 48 (2):221-223.
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  36. John Broadbent (2003). Designing with Evolving Systems. World Futures 59 (8):631 – 637.
    This article suggests that it may be timely to action the relationship between design and evolution. While this view is not particularly new, the form of its expression here may be. It is noted that the exponential (possibly double exponential) rate of technological change, and the merging of the technological evolutionary lineage with those of biology, cognition, and socioculture is causing greatly accelerated evolution in these latter lineages. So rapid are these change processes that the attendant evolutionary time frames are (...)
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  37. John Broadbent (2002). Design and Sociocultural Evolution: Theoretical and Practical Considerations. World Futures 58 (2 & 3):213 – 228.
    The two approaches described here may clarify the role of design in sociocultural evolution by making best use of information already available. The first, holistic in nature, explores possible advantages of a convergence between the design, systems, and social evolution communities which, to date, have worked largely in isolation of one another. The benefits of juxtaposing the three disciplines are examined by reviewing three works on social evolution for their insights into design practice. The second approach is reductionist in nature, (...)
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  38. John Brooke (1994). The Creationists: The Evolution of Scientific Creationism. [REVIEW] British Journal for the History of Science 27 (2):238-239.
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  39. John Hedley Brooke (1977). Natural Theology and the Plurality of Worlds: Observations on the Brewster-Whewell Debate. Annals of Science 34 (3):221-286.
    Summary The object of this study is to analyse certain aspects of the debate between David Brewster and William Whewell concerning the probability of extra-terrestrial life, in order to illustrate the nature, constitution and condition of natural theology in the decades immediately preceding the publication in 1859 of Charles Darwin's Origin of species. The argument is directed against a stylised picture of natural theology which has been drawn from a backward projection of the Darwinian antithesis between natural selection and certain (...)
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  40. John Brookfield (2006). When is “Neutral” Neutral? Review of Robustness and Evolvability in Living Systems. By Andreas Wagner (2005). Princeton University Press, Princeton and Oxford Hardback. 322 Pp. ISBN: 0‐691‐12240‐7. [REVIEW] Bioessays 28 (9):957-958.
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  41. John Buckeridge (2007). Dossier Évolution Etcréationnisme. Creationism and Intelligent Design: A Critique. Natures Sciences Sociétés 15 (4):405-406.
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  42. Stuart Burgess (2002). Hallmarks of Design Evidence of Purposeful Design and Beauty in Nature.
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  43. Stuart Burgess (2000). Hallmarks of Design Evidence of Design in the Natural World.
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  44. Henry Byerly (2010). Jerry Fodor and Massimo Piattelli-Palmarini. What Darwin Got Wrong. Reviewed By. Philosophy in Review 30 (4):255-258.
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  45. John Angus Campbell & Stephen C. Meyer (eds.) (2003). Darwinism, Design, and Public Education. Michigan State University Press.
  46. John Angus Campbell & John Mark Reynolds, The Design Inference: Eliminating Chance Through Small Probabilities.
    The design inference uncovers intelligent causes by isolating the key trademark of intelligent causes: specified events of small probability. Just about anything that happens is highly improbable, but when a highly improbable event is also specified (i.e., conforms to an independently given pattern) undirected natural causes lose their explanatory power. Design inferences can be found in a range of scientific pursuits from forensic science to research into the origins of life to the search for extraterrestrial intelligence.
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  47. R. C. Carrier (2004). The Argument From Biogenesis: Probabilities Against a Natural Origin of Life. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 19 (5):739-764.
    No evidence exists that the accidental origin of life is too improbable to have occurred naturally, but there are numerous attempts to argue so. Dizzying statistics are cited to show that a god had to be responsible. This paper identifies the Argument from Biogenesis, then explains why all these arguments so far fail, and what would actually have to be done to make such an argument succeed. Describes seven general types of error, with examples. Includes a table of forty-seven statistics (...)
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  48. Paolo Casini (2009). The New World and the Intelligent Design. Rivista di Filosofia 1 (1):157-178.
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  49. Clark A. Chinn & Luke A. Buckland (2011). Differences in Epistemic Practices Among Scientists, Young Earth Creationists, Intelligent Design Creationists, and the Scientist-Creationists of Darwin's Era. In Roger S. Taylor & Michel Ferrari (eds.), Epistemology and Science Education: Understanding the Evolution Vs. Routledge. pp. 38--76.
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  50. Kyungsan Cho, Kihyun Kim & Hyunku Cho (1990). An Intelligent Simulation Environment for Computer System Design. Ai and Simulation Theory and Applications: Proceedings of the Scs Eastern Multiconference, 23-26 April, 1990, Nashville, Tennessee 22:59.
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