Applied Ethics

Edited by Ezio Di Nucci (University of Copenhagen)
Assistant editor: Heather Stewart (University of Western Ontario, Oklahoma State University)
803 found
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  1. added 2021-07-27
    Community seed network in an era of climate change: dynamics of maize diversity in Yucatán, Mexico.Marianna Fenzi, Paul Rogé, Angel Cruz-Estrada, John Tuxill & Devra Jarvis - forthcoming - Agriculture and Human Values:1-18.
    Local seed systems remain the fundamental source of seeds for many crops in developing countries. Climate resilience for small holder farmers continues to depend largely on locally available seeds of traditional crop varieties. High rainfall events can have as significant an impact on crop production as increased temperatures and drought. This article analyzes the dynamics of maize diversity over 3 years in a farming community of Yucatán state, Mexico, where elevated levels of precipitation forced farmers in 2012 to reduce maize (...)
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  2. added 2021-07-26
    Do Generalist CEOs Magnify Boardroom Backscratching?Egor Evdokimov, Dean Hanlon & Edwin KiaYang Lim - forthcoming - Journal of Business Ethics:1-27.
    Boardroom backscratching, or cronyism, is an unethical practice where CEOs conspire with directors to receive remuneration beyond performance- and market-related factors. Premised on the theory of planned behavior, this study investigates whether CEO generalist experience magnifies the likelihood of boardroom backscratching. Using 9482 firm-year observations spanning 1999–2018, our analysis shows that firms with greater CEO generalist managerial experience are more likely to engage in boardroom backscratching, via both cash- and equity-based compensation. We provide further evidence that backscratching firms with CEOs (...)
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  3. added 2021-07-26
    Chasing Certainty After Cardiac Arrest: Can a Technological Innovation Solve a Moral Dilemma?Mayli Mertens, Janine van Til, Eline Bouwers-Beens & Marianne Boenink - forthcoming - Neuroethics:1-19.
    When information on a coma patient’s expected outcome is uncertain, a moral dilemma arises in clinical practice: if life-sustaining treatment is continued, the patient may survive with unacceptably poor neurological prospects, but if withdrawn a patient who could have recovered may die. Continuous electroencephalogram-monitoring is expected to substantially improve neuroprognostication for patients in coma after cardiac arrest. This raises expectations that decisions whether or not to withdraw will become easier. This paper investigates that expectation, exploring cEEG’s impacts when it becomes (...)
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  4. added 2021-07-26
    A Focused Protection Vaccination Strategy: Why We Should Not Target Children with COVID-19 Vaccination Policies.Alberto Giubilini, Sunetra Gupta & Carl Heneghan - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (8):565-566.
    Cameron et al ’s1 ethical considerations about the ‘Dualism of Values’ in pandemic response emphasise the need to strike a fair balance between the interests of the less vulnerable to COVID-19 and the interests of the more vulnerable. Those considerations are at the basis of ethical defences of focused protection strategies.2 One example is the proposal put forward in the Great Barrington Declaration. It presented focused protection strategies as more ethical alternatives to lockdowns which would prevent lockdowns’ ‘irreparable damage, with (...)
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  5. added 2021-07-26
    Getting All Emotional About the Fear of Death.Adam Patterson - 2021 - In T. Ryan Byerly (ed.), Death, Immortality, and Eternal Life. London, UK: Routledge.
    In the contemporary fear of death literature, few if any discuss what implications insights from the philosophical literature on emotions might have for arguments about the fear of death’s rationality. I remedy that here. I discuss two types of arguments to conclusions about the fear of death’s rationality. One type is Badness Arguments. The other is Epicurean Arguments. Both argument types have contradictory conclusions. Both employ different conditional claims as their crucial premise. And both presuppose that there is some relation (...)
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  6. added 2021-07-26
    Ethics of Selective Restriction of Liberty in a Pandemic.James Cameron, Bridget Williams, Romain Ragonnet, Ben Marais, James Trauer & Julian Savulescu - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (8):553-562.
    Liberty-restricting measures have been implemented for centuries to limit the spread of infectious diseases. This article considers if and when it may be ethically acceptable to impose selective liberty-restricting measures in order to reduce the negative impacts of a pandemic by preventing particularly vulnerable groups of the community from contracting the disease. We argue that the commonly accepted explanation—that liberty restrictions may be justified to prevent harm to others when this is the least restrictive option—fails to adequately accommodate the complexity (...)
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  7. added 2021-07-26
    Kollektive Verantwortung und Armut.Anne Schwenkenbecher - 2021 - In Gottfried Schweiger & Clemens Sedmak (eds.), Handbuch Philosophie Und Armut. J.B. Metzler. pp. 326-332.
    Die Frage nach der Verantwortung für globale Armut laesst sich auf mindestens zwei Weisen stellen – als Frage nach der (retrospektiven) Verantwortung für das Auftreten dieses Problems oder als Frage nach der (prospektiven) Verantwortung für dessen Behebung. Dieses Kapitel wird sich vor allem auf die zweite Frage konzentrieren: Inwiefern sollte die Verantwortung, Armut zu bekaempfen, als kollektive Verantwortung verstanden werden? Für viele von uns werden diese Pflichten nur im weiten (schwachen) Sinne kollektiv sein, naemlich in dem Sinne, dass die kollektive (...)
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  8. added 2021-07-26
    Justifiable Discrimination? On Cameron Et Al’s Proportionality Test.Sherry Kao - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (8):563-564.
    With increasing inoculations and emerging coronavirus variants, governments worldwide are challenged to adopt proper liberty-restricting measures to reduce the spread of COVID-19 and minimise grave consequences for liberty and well-being caused by over a year-long pandemic. Cameron et al ’s proposal of a selective strategy addresses this pressing issue.1 Following Savulescu and Cameron, they argue for limiting the liberty of the elderly. But, instead of claiming not doing so is an instance of wrongful levelling down equality, they argue this discriminative (...)
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  9. added 2021-07-26
    Ethics Briefing.Sophie Brannan, Martin Davies, Veronica English, Caroline Ann Harrison, Dominic Norcliffe-Brown & Julian C. Sheather - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (8):587-588.
    In June 2021, the BMA published its report on moral distress and moral injury in UK doctors.1 The report includes definitions of the terms ‘moral distress’ and ‘moral injury’ as well as a summary of how the concepts have developed over time. There is also an analysis of the BMA’s pan-profession survey of moral distress and moral injury of doctors in the UK, the first of its kind. The impact of COVID-19 and recommendations for tackling moral distress also feature. Many (...)
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  10. added 2021-07-26
    Science, Politics, Ethics and the Pandemic.Kenneth Boyd - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (8):529-530.
    That they are ‘following the science’ has become the watchword of many politicians during the present pandemic, especially when imposing or prolonging lockdowns or other liberty-restricting regulations. The scientists who advise politicians however are usually careful to add that the decision what to restrict and when is ultimately a political one. In science, as in medical practice, there is a delicate balance to be maintained between confidence in the best available information, and the necessary caveat that the assumptions and calculations (...)
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  11. added 2021-07-26
    Voluntary COVID-19 Vaccination of Children: A Social Responsibility.Margherita Brusa & Yechiel Michael Barilan - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (8):543-546.
    Nearly 400 million adults have been vaccinated against COVID-19. Children have been excluded from the vaccination programmes owing to their lower vulnerability to COVID-19 and to the special protections that apply to children’s exposure to new biological products. WHO guidelines and national laws focus on medical safety in the process of vaccine approval, and on national security in the process of emergency authorisation. Because children suffer much from social distancing, it is argued that the harms from containment measures should be (...)
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  12. added 2021-07-26
    Teaching Critical Thinking and Metacognitive Skills Through Philosophical Enquiry. A Practitioner's Report on Experiments in the Classroom.Emma Worley & Peter Worley - 2019 - Childhood and Philosophy 15.
    Although expert consensus states that critical thinking (CT) is essential to enquiry, it doesn’t necessarily follow that by practicing enquiry children are developing CT skills. Philosophy with children programmes around the world aim to develop CT dispositions and skills through a community of enquiry, and this study compared the impact of the explicit teaching of CT skills during an enquiry, to The Philosophy Foundation's philosophical enquiry (PhiE) method alone (which had no explicit teaching of CT skills). Philosophy with children is (...)
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  13. added 2021-07-25
    We are More Than our Executive Functions: on the Emotional and Situational Aspects of Criminal Responsibility and Punishment.Federica Coppola - forthcoming - Criminal Law and Philosophy:1-14.
    In Responsible Brains, Hirstein, Sifferd and Fagan apply the language of cognitive neuroscience to dominant understandings of criminal responsibility in criminal law theory. The Authors make a compelling case that, under such dominant understandings, criminal responsibility eventually ‘translates’ into a minimal working set of executive functions that are primarily mediated by the frontal lobes of the brain. In so arguing, the Authors seem to unquestioningly accept the law’s view of the “responsible person” as a mixture of cognitive capacities and mechanisms—thereby (...)
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  14. added 2021-07-25
    Anxiety as a Positive Epistemic Emotion in Politics.Antonia Rosati, Florencia Guglielmetti & Leandro De Brasi - 2021 - Critical Review: A Journal of Politics and Society 33 (1):1-24.
    ABSTRACT People suffer from a variety of cognitive shortcomings when forming and updating their political beliefs. Three pervasive shortcomings are confirmation bias, disconfirmation bias, and motivated reasoning. The emotional state of anxiety can help us overcome these biases given the open-minded, information-rich, reflective deliberation with diverse people it may promote—although mass and social media may hinder this type of deliberation.
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  15. added 2021-07-25
    Primordial Emotions, Neural Substrates, and Sentience: Affective Neuroscience Relevant to Psychiatric Practice.A. Colasanti & H. D. Critchley - 2021 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 28 (7-8):154-173.
  16. added 2021-07-25
    Emotional Beliefs or Contingent Distinctions?Krzysztof C. Matuszek - 2021 - Constructivist Foundations 16 (3):345-346.
    Goldstein reveals the beliefs underlying political psychology, thereby siding with the position of radical constructivism. I argue that the epistemological implications presented in the article ….
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  17. added 2021-07-25
    Crisis, Dispossession, and Activism to Reclaim Detroit.Gail Presbey - 2017 - In Vasiliki Solomou-Papanikolaou Golfo Maggini (ed.), Philosophy and Crisis: Responding to the Challenges to Ways of Life in the Contemporary World, Volume One. Washington, DC, USA: pp. 121-129.
    The paper discusses the concept of "crisis" in the context of the city of Detroit's bankruptcy under the rule of the Governor-appointed Emergency Manager. In their recent book, Judith Butler and Athena Athanasiou discuss the concept of dispossession in all its complexity, in the context of enforced austerity measures in Europe and a global Occupy movement. The concept of “dispossession” clarifies how we actually depend on others in a sustained social world, that in fact the self is social. I will (...)
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  18. added 2021-07-24
    CEOs’ Poverty Experience and Corporate Social Responsibility: Are CEOs Who Have Experienced Poverty More Generous?Shan Xu & Panyi Ma - forthcoming - Journal of Business Ethics:1-30.
    This study examines whether the chief executive officer’s poverty experience has an impact on firms’ corporate social responsibility. We find that firms’ CSR performance increases with CEOs’ poverty experience; specifically, firms with CEOs who experienced early-life poverty are associated with more socially responsible activities and fewer socially irresponsible activities, such as on-the-job consumption, and are more associated with key stakeholder-related rather than community-related CSR. We further find that the positive relationship between the CEO’s poverty experience and CSR strengthens for well-educated (...)
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  19. added 2021-07-24
    Needle Stick Injury From a COVID-19 Patient—Fear It or Forget It?Vishakh C. Keri, Parul Kodan, Anubhav Gupta & Pankaj Jorwal - forthcoming - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry:1-2.
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  20. added 2021-07-24
    Living Your Best Life.August Gorman - forthcoming - Analysis.
    In Almost Over: Aging, Dying, Dead, Frances Kamm seeks to make sense of people’s widely variant choices about which lives they would choose to continue living. She does this by defending the Prudential Prerogative, which, in analogy to the Moral Prerogative, holds that in a fairly wide range of conditions we are under no intrapersonal rational obligation to choose either to die or to live on. I argue against Kamm's case for the Prudential Prerogative in favor of Life Holism, the (...)
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  21. added 2021-07-24
    Popperian Hayek or Hayekian Popper?Joao Pinheiro da Silva - 2021 - Economic Thought 10 (1):46.
    Friedrich Hayek was a fervent advocate of the methodological specificity of the social sciences. However, given his contact with Karl Popper, several historians and philosophers have characterised his final position as Popperian, that is, a position that would have accepted the unity of the scientific method. A closer look at Hayek's philosophy and Popper's own intellectual course shows that such a thesis is based on some misconceptions that can be overcome by taking the Hayekian concept of 'spontaneous order' as the (...)
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  22. added 2021-07-24
    Discussion Article: Comments on Joao Pinheiro da Silva's Paper: 'Popperian Hayek or Hayekian Popper?'.Mark Amadeus Notturno - 2021 - Economic Thought 10 (1):61.
  23. added 2021-07-23
    Civilian Casualty Mitigation and the Rationalization of Killing.Brian Smith - forthcoming - Journal of Military Ethics:1-20.
    Of the two purposes of this article, the first is to show that the prohibition against intentionally targeting civilians is poorly suited to the current techno-rational landscape of warfare. Sophis...
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  24. added 2021-07-23
    On the Threshold of a Dream.Henrik Syse - forthcoming - Journal of Military Ethics:1-1.
    A recent editorial of mine carried the title of the Bob Dylan album Time Out of Mind, with reference back to the immortal Shakespearian phrase “time out of joint.” It was a reflection focusing on t...
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  25. added 2021-07-23
    Basic Beliefs, The Embryo Rescue Case, and Single-Issue Voting: A Response to Dustin Crummett.Tyler McNabb & Michael DeVito - forthcoming - The National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly.
    Abstract. In this essay, we respond to Dustin Crummett’s argument that one cannot consistently appeal to body count reasoning to justify being a single-issue pro-life voter if one is also committed to the usual response to the embryo rescue case. Specifically, we argue that a modified version of BSR we call BSR* is consistent with the usual response. We then move to address concerns about the relevance of BSR* to Crummett’s original thesis. National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 21.2 (Summer 2021).
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  26. added 2021-07-23
    Speciesism and tribalism: embarrassing origins.François Jaquet - forthcoming - Philosophical Studies:1-22.
    Animal ethicists have been debating the morality of speciesism for over forty years. Despite rather persuasive arguments against this form of discrimination, many philosophers continue to assign humans a higher moral status than nonhuman animals. The primary source of evidence for this position is our intuition that humans’ interests matter more than the similar interests of other animals. And it must be acknowledged that this intuition is both powerful and widespread. But should we trust it for all that? The present (...)
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  27. added 2021-07-23
    Constitution of “The Already Dying”: The Emergence of Voluntary Assisted Dying in Victoria.Courtney Hempton & Catherine Mills - forthcoming - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry:1-12.
    In June 2019 Victoria became the first state in Australia to permit “voluntary assisted dying”, with its governance detailed in the Voluntary Assisted Dying Act 2017. While taking lead from the regulation of medically assisted death practices in other parts of the world, Victoria’s legislation nevertheless remains distinct. The law in Victoria only makes VAD available to persons determined to be “already dying”: it is expressly limited to those medically prognosed to die “within weeks or months.” In this article, we (...)
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  28. added 2021-07-23
    Engineering Students as Co-creators in an Ethics of Technology Course.Gunter Bombaerts, Karolina Doulougeri, Shelly Tsui, Erik Laes, Andreas Spahn & Diana Adela Martin - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (4):1-26.
    Research on the effectiveness of case studies in teaching engineering ethics in higher education is underdeveloped. To add to our knowledge, we have systematically compared the outcomes of two case approaches to an undergraduate course on the ethics of technology: a detached approach using real-life cases and a challenge-based learning approach with students and stakeholders acting as co-creators. We first developed a practical typology of case-study approaches and subsequently tested an evaluation method to assess the students’ learning experiences and outcomes (...)
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  29. added 2021-07-23
    Schopenhauer on the State and Morality.David Bather Woods - 2017 - In Sandra Shapshay (ed.), The Palgrave Schopenhauer Handbook. pp. 299-322.
    This chapter argues that Schopenhauer’s political philosophy, on the one hand, is conservative in character, while his moral philosophy, on the other, has progressive applications to social and political life. While this is not inconsistent in itself, it does confound Schopenhauer’s expectation that the norms of political justice converge on the same set of outwards behaviors as the norms of moral justice.
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  30. added 2021-07-23
    Los valores y la familia.José Ramón Fabelo Corzo - 2003 - Candidus La Revista Educativa Para El Debate y la Transformación 3 (25):46-52.
    El trabajo aborda la relación compleja, dinámica y multidimensional entre los valores y la familia. Se aborda el tema de la crisis de los valores desde la perspectiva familiar. Se destaca el valor que en sí misma tiene la familia, el papel de esta última como factor instituyente de valores y mediador de las influencias valorativas que llegan al individuo desde distintos ámbitos sociales. En función de la relación con los valores se describen tres tipos fundamentales de familia. Por último, (...)
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  31. added 2021-07-22
    Ethical Considerations for International Recruitment in COVID-19 Human Challenge Trials.Kaleem Ahmid, Abie Rohrig, Paul Ndebele, Zacharia Kafuko & Josh Morrison - manuscript
    Ongoing and anticipated COVID-19 human challenge studies in the UK may advance our understanding of COVID-19 and facilitate the licensure of safe, effective, and easily deployable next-generation COVID-19 vaccines and boosters. We argue that international volunteer recruitment for COVID-19 human challenge trials can help promote diversity in these trials and ensure a sufficient number of eligible volunteers, both of which will increase the benefits of challenge research. We explore the ethical ramifications of dealing with unfair background conditions of global vaccine (...)
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  32. added 2021-07-22
    The Moral Duty to Love One’s Stakeholders.Muel Kaptein - forthcoming - Journal of Business Ethics:1-15.
    Much has been written about the general moral duty to love one’s neighbors. In this article, I explore the specific application of this moral duty in the work setting. I argue from a secular perspective that individuals have the moral duty to love their stakeholders. Loving one’s stakeholders is an affective valuing of the stake-related values these stakeholders pursue and as such is the real recognition of one’s stakeholders as stakeholders and of oneself as a stakeholder of one’s stakeholders. This (...)
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  33. added 2021-07-22
    Ethical Review of Animal Research and the Standards of Procedural Justice: A European Perspective.Tomasz Pietrzykowski - forthcoming - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry:1-10.
    Committees established for the ethical review of research involving animals have become a widespread legal standard around the world. Despite many differences in their composition, powers, and institutional settings, they share many common problems related to the well-established standards of procedural justice in administrative practice. The paper adapts the general theory of procedural justice to the specific context of ethical review committees. From this perspective, the main concerns over the procedural aspects of the ethical evaluation of research projects are identified (...)
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  34. added 2021-07-22
    Improving Ethics: Extending the Theory of Planned Behavior to Include Moral Disengagement.Ervin L. Black, F. Greg Burton & Joshua K. Cieslewicz - forthcoming - Journal of Business Ethics:1-34.
    We extend the Theory of Planned Behavior for ethics in the workplace. Using a path modeling methodology, we find evidence that, for ethics, moral disengagement is an antecedent to the TPB predictors of attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control. We show that the TPB predictors mediate the influence moral disengagement has on ethical behavioral intentions. Thus, to improve ethical behavior, reducing moral disengagement is critical. We find support for including both types of PBC when modeling ethical behavior. We use (...)
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  35. added 2021-07-22
    The Innocent Mosquito? The Environmental Ethics of Mosquito Eradication.Anna Wienhues - 2021 - In Marcus Hall & Dan Tamïr (eds.), Mosquitopia: The Place of Pests in a Healthy World. London, Vereinigtes Königreich: pp. 195-209.
  36. added 2021-07-22
    Intensive Animal Agriculture, Land-Use and Biological Conservation: Converging Demands of Justice.Anna Wienhues & Steffen Hirth - 2021 - Justice and Food Security in a Changing Climate.
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  37. added 2021-07-22
    Los valores y la familia.José Ramón Fabelo Corzo - 2002 - In Luis R. L. Bombino (ed.), Ética y sociedad. La Habana, Cuba: pp. 265-283.
    El trabajo aborda la relación compleja, dinámica y multidimensional entre los valores y la familia. Se aborda el tema de la crisis de los valores desde la perspectiva familiar. Se destaca el valor que en sí misma tiene la familia, el papel de esta última como factor instituyente de valores y mediador de las influencias valorativas que llegan al individuo desde distintos ámbitos sociales. En función de la relación con los valores se describen tres tipos fundamentales de familia. Por último, (...)
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  38. added 2021-07-22
    Poder y valores instituidos.José Ramón Fabelo Corzo - 2002 - In Luis R. L. Bombino (ed.), Ética y sociedad. La Habana, Cuba: pp. 251-264.
    Explícita o implícitamente la relación entre poder y valor ha estado muy presente en la historia del pensamiento filosófico-político. Debido a que el poder, en cualquiera de sus formas, tiende siempre a normar y regular la convivencia y actividad conjunta entre grupos humanos, cualquier reflexión filosófica sobre su naturaleza habrá de cuestionarse, directa o indirectamente, el asunto de su racionalidad ética, de su vínculo con los valores humanos. Al mismo tiempo, pensar los valores debe conducir, tarde o temprano, a relacionarlos (...)
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  39. added 2021-07-21
    Prioritizing the Vulnerable Over the Susceptible for COVID-19 Vaccination.Siegfredo R. Paloyo, Alvin B. Caballes, Ana Melissa Hilvano-Cabungcal & Leonardo De Castro - forthcoming - Developing World Bioethics.
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  40. added 2021-07-21
    Why Should We Try to Be Sustainable? Expected Consequences and the Ethics of Making an Indeterminate Difference.Howard Nye - 2021 - In Chelsea Miya, Oliver Rossier & Geoffrey Rockwell (eds.), Right Research: Modelling Sustainable Research Practices in the Anthropocene. Open Book Publishers. pp. 3-35.
    Why should we refrain from doing things that, taken collectively, are environmentally destructive, if our individual acts seem almost certain to make no difference? According to the expected consequences approach, we should refrain from doing these things because our individual acts have small risks of causing great harm, which outweigh the expected benefits of performing them. Several authors have argued convincingly that this provides a plausible account of our moral reasons to do things like vote for policies that will reduce (...)
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  41. added 2021-07-21
    Encyclopedia of Business and Professional Ethics.Alex Michalos and Debora Poff (ed.) - 2017 - Springer.
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  42. added 2021-07-20
    MacIntyre and Business Ethics.Matthew Sinnicks - forthcoming - In Encyclopedia of Business and Professional Ethics.
    Entry on MacIntyre and Business Ethics forthcoming in Poff, D. C. & Michalos, A. C. (Eds.) Encyclopedia of Business and Professional Ethics. Springer.
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  43. added 2021-07-20
    Shareholder Engagement on Environmental, Social, and Governance Performance.Tamas Barko, Martijn Cremers & Luc Renneboog - forthcoming - Journal of Business Ethics:1-36.
    We study behind-the-scenes investor activism promoting environmental, social, and governance improvements by means of a proprietary dataset of a large international, socially responsible activist fund. We examine the activist’s target selection, forms of engagement, impact on ESG performance, drivers of success, and effects on the targets’ operations and value creation. Target firms are typically large and visible, perform well, and have high liquidity and low ESG performance. Engagement induces ESG rating adjustments: firms with poor ex ante ESG ratings experience a (...)
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  44. added 2021-07-20
    Sex Robots and Views From Nowhere: A Commentary on Jecker, Howard and Sparrow, and Wang.Kelly Kate Evans - forthcoming - In Ruiping Fan & Mark J. Cherry (eds.), Sex Robots Social Impact and the Future of Human Relations. New York, NY, USA: Springer.
    This article explores the implications of what it means to moralize about future technological innovations. Specifically, I have been invited to comment on three papers that attempt to think about what seems to be an impending social reality: the availability of life-like sex robots. In response, I explore what it means to moralize about future technological innovations from a secular perspective, i.e., a perspective grounded in an immanent, socio-historically contingent view. I review the arguments of Nancy Jecker, Mark Howard and (...)
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  45. added 2021-07-20
    Should We Delay Covid-19 Vaccination in Children?Lisa Forsberg & Anthony Skelton - 2021 - British Medical Journal 374 (8300):96-97.
    The net benefit of vaccinating children is unclear, and vulnerable people worldwide should be prioritised instead, say Dominic Wilkinson, Ilora Finlay, and Andrew J Pollard. But Lisa Forsberg and Anthony Skelton argue that covid-19 vaccines have been approved for some children and that children should not be disadvantaged because of policy choices that impede global vaccination.
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  46. added 2021-07-20
    Artificial Moral Patients: Mentality, Intentionality, and Systematicity.Howard Nye & Tugba Yoldas - 2021 - International Review of Information Ethics 29:1-10.
    In this paper, we defend three claims about what it will take for an AI system to be a basic moral patient to whom we can owe duties of non-maleficence not to harm her and duties of beneficence to benefit her: (1) Moral patients are mental patients; (2) Mental patients are true intentional systems; and (3) True intentional systems are systematically flexible. We suggest that we should be particularly alert to the possibility of such systematically flexible true intentional systems developing (...)
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  47. added 2021-07-19
    Surrogacy and Uterus Transplantation Using Live Donors: Examining the Options From the Perspective of ‘Womb-Givers’.Alexandra Mullock, Elizabeth Chloe Romanis & Dunja Begović - forthcoming - Bioethics.
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  48. added 2021-07-19
    Time Orientation in Languages and Tax Avoidance.C. S. Agnes Cheng, Jaehyeon Kim, Mooweon Rhee & Jian Zhou - forthcoming - Journal of Business Ethics:1-26.
    Studies suggest that when a language requires grammatical marking of future events, speakers prefer immediate payoffs and engage in less future-oriented behavior. If future costs of tax avoidance are non-trivial, we posit that strong future time reference in languages would lower managers’ perceptions about costs, encouraging more tax avoidance. Using a large sample of 56,243 firm-year observations across 31 countries, we find that tax avoidance is higher where FTR in the language is strong. We also find that tax avoidance is (...)
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  49. added 2021-07-19
    The Entrepreneurial Quest for Emancipation: Trade-Offs, Practices, and Outcomes in an Indigenous Context.Albena Pergelova, Fernando Angulo-Ruiz & Leo-Paul Dana - forthcoming - Journal of Business Ethics:1-23.
    This paper builds on theoretical developments that view entrepreneurship as emancipation, i.e., entrepreneurial activities as generators of change and pursuit of freedom from perceived constraints. Using a representative data set of 1095 SMEs owned by Indigenous entrepreneurs in Canada, the authors investigate how pursuit of this freedom affects the way entrepreneurs enact several aspects of their ventures and the performance outcomes achieved. Findings reveal how the initial motivations of entrepreneurs lead to distinct business practices, which in turn impact differentially entrepreneurial (...)
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  50. added 2021-07-19
    Collective Responses to Covid-19 and Climate Change.Andrea S. Asker & H. Orri Stefansson - 2021 - Erasmus Journal for Philosophy and Economics 14 (1):152–166.
    Both individuals and governments around the world have willingly sacrificed a great deal to meet the collective action problem posed by Covid-19. This has provided some commentators with newfound hope about the possibility that we will be able to solve what is arguably the greatest collective action problem of all time: global climate change. In this paper we argue that this is overly optimistic. We defend two main claims. First, these two collective action problems are so different that the actions (...)
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