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Summary One does not have to look anywhere in order to come to know that 2+3=5. One merely has to think.  Considerations like this underlie the strong intuition that mathematical truths are apriori. That is, very roughly, that our canonical justification or knowledge of them does not essentially rest on experience. Although this claim may seem intuitive, empiricists such as Quine deny it, holding that there is no fundamental epistemological difference between mathematical and non-mathematical knowledge. The question also arises how apriori knowledge and justification in mathematics is possible at all. What exactly do the belief-forming and warrant-generating processes look like? Finally, the rise of computer proofs generates new interesting questions as to the epistemological status of relevant mathematical propositions.
Key works A classical defense of the thesis that arithmetic is apriori is Frege 1953. A sustained defense of a modern philosophy of mathematics combining Platonism with the claim that mathematics is apriori can be found in Wright & Hale 2001. As to the mentioned empiricist picture, a classical paper is Quine 1951. Jenkins 2008 defends the thesis that a version of empiricism can be combined with both mathematical realism and the claim that arithmetic is apriori.
Introductions For more information on the notion of apriority, consult the relevant category on philpapers. For a discussion of different notions of apriority in the philosophy of mathematics, consult e.g. Field 2005. A sustained discussion of the orthodoxy that mathematics is apriori, and the problems it raises in the context of other orthodoxies can be found in Jenkins 2008.
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  1. added 2020-08-06
    The Fundamental Cognitive Approaches of Mathematics.Salvador Daniel Escobedo Casillas - manuscript
    We propose a way to explain the diversification of branches of mathematics, distinguishing the different approaches by which mathematical objects can be studied. In our philosophy of mathematics, there is a base object, which is the abstract multiplicity that comes from our empirical experience. However, due to our human condition, the analysis of such multiplicity is covered by other empirical cognitive attitudes (approaches), diversifying the ways in which it can be conceived, and consequently giving rise to different mathematical disciplines. This (...)
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  2. added 2020-07-06
    Mathematics - an Imagined Tool for Rational Cognition.Boris Culina - manuscript
    Analysing several characteristic mathematical models: natural and real numbers, Euclidean geometry, group theory, and set theory, I argue that a mathematical model in its final form is a junction of a set of axioms and an internal partial interpretation of the corresponding language. It follows from the analysis that (i) mathematical objects do not exist in the external world: they are our internally imagined objects, some of which, at least approximately, we can realize or represent; (ii) mathematical truths are not (...)
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  3. added 2020-06-16
    Computer Proof, Apriori Knowledge, and Other Minds The Sixth Philosophical Perspectives Lecture.Tyler Burge - 1998 - Noûs 32 (S12):1-37.
  4. added 2020-06-03
    The Epistemology of Abstract Objects: Access and Inference.David Bell & W. D. Hart - 1979 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, Supplementary Volumes( 53:135-165.
  5. added 2020-02-07
    Metamathematics and the Philosophical Tradition, by William Boos, ed. Florence S. Boos. Berlin: De Gruyter. 2018. [REVIEW]Lydia Patton - 2020 - Philosophia 48 (4):1-4.
    William Boos (1943–2014) was a mathematician, set theorist, and philosopher. His work is at the intersection of these fields. In particular, Boos looks at the classic problems of epistemology through the lens of the axiomatic method in mathematics and physics, or something resembling that method.
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  6. added 2019-11-12
    Apriority and Essential Truth.Tristan Grøtvedt Haze - 2020 - Metaphysica 21 (1):1-8.
    There is a line of thought, neglected in recent philosophy, according to which a priori knowable truths such as those of logic and mathematics have their special epistemic status in virtue of a certain tight connection between their meaning and their truth. Historical associations notwithstanding, this view does not mandate any kind of problematic deflationism about meaning, modality or essence. On the contrary, we should be upfront about it being a highly debatable metaphysical idea, while nonetheless insisting that it be (...)
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  7. added 2019-10-13
    Last Bastion of Reason. [REVIEW]James Franklin - 2000 - New Criterion 18 (9):74-78.
    Attacks the irrationalism of Lakatos's Proofs and Refutations and defends mathematics as a "last bastion" of reason against postmodernist and deconstructionist currents.
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  8. added 2019-10-09
    Response to Franklin's Comments on 'Certainty and Domain-Independence in the Sciences of Complexity'.Kevin de Laplante - 1999 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 30 (4):725-728.
    Professor Franklin is correct to say that there are significant areas of agreement between his account of formal science (Franklin, 1994) and my critique of his account. We both agree that the domain-independence exhibited by the formal sciences is ontologically and epistemically interesting, and that the concept of ‘structure’ must be central in any analysis of domain-independence. We also agree that knowledge of the structural, relational properties of physical systems should count as empirical knowledge, and that it makes sense to (...)
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  9. added 2019-10-09
    Certainty and Domain-Independence in the Sciences of Complexity: A Critique of James Franklin's Account of Formal Science.Kevin de Laplante - 1999 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 30 (4):699-720.
    James Franklin has argued that the formal, mathematical sciences of complexity — network theory, information theory, game theory, control theory, etc. — have a methodology that is different from the methodology of the natural sciences, and which can result in a knowledge of physical systems that has the epistemic character of deductive mathematical knowledge. I evaluate Franklin’s arguments in light of realistic examples of mathematical modelling and conclude that, in general, the formal sciences are no more able to guarantee certainty (...)
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  10. added 2019-06-06
    Grounding Concepts, by C. S. Jenkins.: Book Reviews. [REVIEW]Albert Casullo - 2010 - Mind 119 (475):805-810.
    (No abstract is available for this citation).
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  11. added 2019-06-06
    Review of C. S. Jenkins, Grounding Concepts: An Empirical Basis for Arithmetical Knowledge[REVIEW]Neil Tennant - 2010 - Philosophia Mathematica 18 (3):360-367.
    This book is written so as to be ‘accessible to philosophers without a mathematical background’. The reviewer can assure the reader that this aim is achieved, even if only by focusing throughout on just one example of an arithmetical truth, namely ‘7+5=12’. This example’s familiarity will be reassuring; but its loneliness in this regard will not. Quantified propositions — even propositions of Goldbach type — are below the author’s radar.The author offers ‘a new kind of arithmetical epistemology’, one which ‘respects (...)
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  12. added 2019-06-06
    Ontology, Understanding, and the A Priori.Ernest Sosa - 2003 - Ratio 16 (2):178-188.
    How might one explain the reliability of one's a priori beliefs? What if anything is implied about the ontology of a certain realm of knowledge by the possibility of explaining one's reliability about that realm? Very little, or so it is argued here.
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  13. added 2019-06-06
    A Role for Reason in Science.Jonathan Y. Tsou - 2003 - Dialogue 42 (3):573-598.
    Michael Friedman’s Dynamics of Reason is a welcome contribution to the ongoing articulation of philosophical perspectives for understanding the sciences in the context of post-positivist philosophy of science. Two perspectives that have gained advocacy since the demise of the “received view” are Quinean naturalism and Kuhnian relativism. In his 1999 Stanford lectures, Friedman articulates and defends a neo-Kantian perspective for philosophy of science that opposes both of these perspectives. His proffered neo-Kantian perspective is presented within the context of the problem (...)
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  14. added 2019-06-05
    Russell on Logicism and Coherence.Conor Mayo-Wilson - 2011 - Russell: The Journal of Bertrand Russell Studies 31 (1):89-106.
    According to Quine, Charles Parsons, Mark Steiner, and others, Russell's logicist project is important because, if successful, it would show that mathematical theorems possess desirable epistemic properties often attributed to logical theorems, such as a prioricity, necessity, and certainty. Unfortunately, Russell never attributed such importance to logicism, and such a thesis contradicts Russell's explicitly stated views on the relationship between logic and mathematics. This raises the question: what did Russell understand to be the philosophical importance of logicism? Building on recent (...)
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  15. added 2019-04-24
    The Origin of Europe and the Esprit de Geometrie.Francesco Tampoia - manuscript
    In searching for the origin of Europe and the cultural region/continent that we call “Europe”, at first glance we have to consider at least a double view: on the one hand the geographical understanding which indicates a region or a continent. On the other a certain form of identity and culture described and defined as European. Rodolphe Gasché taking hint from Husserl’s passage ‘Europe is not to be construed simply as a geographical and political entity’ states that a rigorous engagement (...)
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  16. added 2019-04-09
    Our Incorrigible Ontological Relations and Categories of Being.Julian M. Galvez Bunge (ed.) - 2017 - USA: Amazon.
    The purpose of this book is to address the controversial issues of whether we have a fixed set of ontological categories and if they have some epistemic value at all. Which are our ontological categories? What determines them? Do they play a role in cognition? If so, which? What do they force to presuppose regarding our world-view? If they constitute a limit to possible knowledge, up to what point is science possible? Does their study make of philosophy a science? Departing (...)
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  17. added 2019-02-24
    On the Parallel Between Mathematics and Morals.James Franklin - 2004 - Philosophy 79 (1):97-119.
    The imperviousness of mathematical truth to anti-objectivist attacks has always heartened those who defend objectivism in other areas, such as ethics. It is argued that the parallel between mathematics and ethics is close and does support objectivist theories of ethics. The parallel depends on the foundational role of equality in both disciplines. Despite obvious differences in their subject matter, mathematics and ethics share a status as pure forms of knowledge, distinct from empirical sciences. A pure understanding of principles is possible (...)
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  18. added 2019-02-24
    The Formal Sciences Discover the Philosophers' Stone.James Franklin - 1994 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 25 (4):513-533.
    The formal sciences - mathematical as opposed to natural sciences, such as operations research, statistics, theoretical computer science, systems engineering - appear to have achieved mathematically provable knowledge directly about the real world. It is argued that this appearance is correct.
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  19. added 2018-09-06
    Kitcher, Mathematics, and Apriority.Jeffrey Roland - 2019 - Erkenntnis 84 (3):687-702.
    Philip Kitcher has argued against the apriority of mathematical knowledge in a number of places. His arguments rely on a conception of mathematical knowledge as embedded in a historical tradition and the claim that this sort of embedding compromises apriority. In this paper, I argue that tradition dependence of mathematical knowledge does not compromise its apriority. I further identify the factors which appear to lead Kitcher to argue as he does.
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  20. added 2018-09-06
    Proof, Reliability, and Mathematical Knowledge.Anthony Peressini - 2003 - Theoria 69 (3):211-232.
    With respect to the confirmation of mathematical propositions, proof possesses an epistemological authority unmatched by other means of confirmation. This paper is an investigation into why this is the case. I make use of an analysis drawn from an early reliability perspective on knowledge to help make sense of mathematical proofs singular epistemological status.
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  21. added 2018-02-17
    Proof and Knowledge in Mathematics.Michael Detlefsen (ed.) - 1992 - Routledge.
    These questions arise from any attempt to discover an epistemology for mathematics. This collection of essays considers various questions concerning the nature of justification in mathematics and possible sources of that justification. Among these are the question of whether mathematical justification is _a priori_ or _a posteriori_ in character, whether logical and mathematical differ, and if formalization plays a significant role in mathematical justification.
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  22. added 2017-12-19
    The Eleatic and the Indispensabilist.Russell Marcus - 2015 - Theoria : An International Journal for Theory, History and Fundations of Science 30 (3):415-429.
    The debate over whether we should believe that mathematical objects exist quickly leads to the question of how to determine what we should believe. Indispensabilists claim that we should believe in the existence of mathematical objects because of their ineliminable roles in scientific theory. Eleatics argue that only objects with causal properties exist. Mark Colyvan’s recent defenses of Quine’s indispensability argument against some contemporary eleatics attempt to provide reasons to favor the indispensabilist’s criterion. I show that Colyvan’s argument is not (...)
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  23. added 2017-06-14
    The Modal Status of Contextually A Priori Arithmetical Truths.Markus Pantsar - 2016 - In Andrea Sereni & Francesca Boccuni (eds.), Objectivity, Realism, and Proof. Springer International Publishing. pp. 67-79.
    In Pantsar (2014), an outline for an empirically feasible epistemological theory of arithmetic is presented. According to that theory, arithmetical knowledge is based on biological primitives but in the resulting empirical context develops an essentially a priori character. Such contextual a priori theory of arithmetical knowledge can explain two of the three characteristics that are usually associated with mathematical knowledge: that it appears to be a priori and objective. In this paper it is argued that it can also explain the (...)
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  24. added 2017-03-20
    A Framework for Implicit Definitions and the A Priori.Philip A. Ebert - 2016 - In Philip A. Ebert & Marcus Rossberg (eds.), Abstractionism. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 133--160.
  25. added 2017-03-20
    Introduction to Abstractionism.Philip A. Ebert & Marcus Rossberg - 2016 - In Philip A. Ebert & Marcus Rossberg (eds.), Abstractionism. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 3-33.
  26. added 2017-02-25
    Knowledge of Abstract Objects in Physics and Mathematics.Michael Shaffer - 2017 - Acta Analytica 32 (4):397-409.
    In this paper a parallel is drawn between the problem of epistemic access to abstract objects in mathematics and the problem of epistemic access to idealized systems in the physical sciences. On this basis it is argued that some recent and more traditional approaches to solving these problems are problematic.
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  27. added 2017-02-12
    Carrie Jenkins, Grounding Concepts. An Empirical Basis for Arithmetical Knowledge. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2008.Lorenz Demey - 2009 - Tijdschrift Voor Filosofie 71 (4):796-798.
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  28. added 2017-02-08
    Grounding Concepts: An Empirical Basis for Arithmetical Knowledge – C.S. Jenkins.James Robert Brown & James Davies - 2011 - Philosophical Quarterly 61 (242):208-211.
  29. added 2017-01-26
    CS Jenkins, Grounding Concepts: An Empirical Basis for Arithmetical Knowledge.Nenad Miščević - 2009 - Croatian Journal of Philosophy 9 (2):252-257.
  30. added 2017-01-24
    C. S. Jenkins, Grounding Concepts: An Empirical Basis for Arithmetical Knowledge Reviewed By.Manuel Bremer - 2010 - Philosophy in Review 30 (3):205-207.
  31. added 2016-12-15
    Review of The Art of the Infinite by R. Kaplan, E. Kaplan 324p(2003).Michael Starks - 2016 - In Suicidal Utopian Delusions in the 21st Century: Philosophy, Human Nature and the Collapse of Civilization-- Articles and Reviews 2006-2017 2nd Edition Feb 2018. Michael Starks. pp. 619.
    This book tries to present math to the millions and does a pretty good job. It is simple and sometimes witty but often the literary allusions intrude and the text bogs down in pages of relentless math--lovely if you like it and horrid if you don´t. If you already know alot of math you will still probably find the discussions of general math, geometry, projective geometry, and infinite series to be a nice refresher. If you don´t know any and don´t (...)
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  32. added 2016-12-08
    Scientific Heritage.Zbigniew Król - 2012 - Dialogue and Universalism 22 (4):41-65.
    This paper presents sources pertinent to the transmission of Euclid’s Elements in Western medieval civilization. Some important observations follow from the pure description of the sources concerning the development of mathematics, e.g., the text of the Elements was supplemented with new axioms, proofs and theorems as if an “a priori skeleton” lost in Dark Ages was reconstructed and rediscovered during the late Middle Ages. Such historical facts indicate the aprioricity of mathematics.
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  33. added 2016-10-27
    A Priori.Edwin Mares - 2011 - Routledge.
    In recent years many influential philosophers have advocated that philosophy is an a priori science. Yet very few epistemology textbooks discuss a priori knowledge at any length, focusing instead on empirical knowledge and empirical justification. As a priori knowledge has moved centre stage, the literature remains either too technical or too out of date to make up a reasonable component of an undergraduate course. Edwin Mares book aims to rectify this. This book seeks to make accessible to students the standard (...)
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  34. added 2016-05-13
    Lakatos’ Quasi-Empiricism in the Philosophy of Mathematics.Michael J. Shaffer - 2015 - Polish Journal of Philosophy 9 (2):71-80.
    Imre Lakatos' views on the philosophy of mathematics are important and they have often been underappreciated. The most obvious lacuna in this respect is the lack of detailed discussion and analysis of his 1976a paper and its implications for the methodology of mathematics, particularly its implications with respect to argumentation and the matter of how truths are established in mathematics. The most important themes that run through his work on the philosophy of mathematics and which culminate in the 1976a paper (...)
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  35. added 2016-04-15
    Commentary: The Timing of Brain Events.Benjamin Libet - 2006 - Consciusness and Cognition 15:540--547.
  36. added 2016-02-25
    Wittgenstein e as teorias semânticas do a priori visual: Observações Filosóficas , cap. XVI & XX.Ludovic Soutif - 2009 - Doispontos 6 (1):13-34.
    Neste artigo, tentamos mostrar que um problema comum aos capítulos XVI e XX das Observações filosóficas é o da aplicabilidade dos conceitos e «proposições» da geometria à realidade física e perceptiva (visual, em particular), e que o modo pelo qual Wittgenstein aborda esse problema nessa obra difere radicalmente, a despeito de aparentes similitudes, daquele que caracteriza as teorias semânticas do a priori visual em termos de estipulações (notadamente, o de Carnap em 1922). O esclarecimento do estatuto dos enunciados sobre os (...)
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  37. added 2016-02-08
    Justified Concepts and the Limits of the Conceptual Approach to the A Priori.Darren Bradley - 2011 - Croatian Journal of Philosophy 11 (3):267-274.
    Carrie Jenkins (2005, 2008) has developed a theory of the a priori that she claims solves the problem of how justification regarding our concepts can give us justification regarding the world. She claims that concepts themselves can be justified, and that beliefs formed by examining such concepts can be justified a priori. I object that we can have a priori justified beliefs with unjustified concepts if those beliefs have no existential import. I then argue that only beliefs without existential import (...)
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  38. added 2015-09-01
    Closure of A Priori Knowability Under A Priori Knowable Material Implication.Jan Heylen - 2015 - Erkenntnis 80 (2):359-380.
    The topic of this article is the closure of a priori knowability under a priori knowable material implication: if a material conditional is a priori knowable and if the antecedent is a priori knowable, then the consequent is a priori knowable as well. This principle is arguably correct under certain conditions, but there is at least one counterexample when completely unrestricted. To deal with this, Anderson proposes to restrict the closure principle to necessary truths and Horsten suggests to restrict it (...)
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  39. added 2015-08-28
    Against Mathematical Convenientism.Seungbae Park - 2016 - Axiomathes 26 (2):115-122.
    Indispensablists argue that when our belief system conflicts with our experiences, we can negate a mathematical belief but we do not because if we do, we would have to make an excessive revision of our belief system. Thus, we retain a mathematical belief not because we have good evidence for it but because it is convenient to do so. I call this view ‘ mathematical convenientism.’ I argue that mathematical convenientism commits the consequential fallacy and that it demolishes the Quine-Putnam (...)
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  40. added 2015-06-14
    The Four-Color Theorem and Mathematical Proof.Michael Detlefsen & Mark Luker - 1980 - Journal of Philosophy 77 (12):803-820.
    I criticize a recent paper by Thomas Tymoczko in which he attributes fundamental philosophical significance and novelty to the lately-published computer-assisted proof of the four color theorem (4CT). Using reasoning precisely analogous to that employed by Tymoczko, I argue that much of traditional mathematical proof must be seen as resting on what Tymoczko must take as being "empirical" evidence. The new proof of the 4CT, with its use of what Tymoczko calls "empirical" evidence is therefore not so novel as he (...)
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  41. added 2015-01-17
    Kant's Views on Non-Euclidean Geometry.Michael E. Cuffaro - 2012 - Proceedings of the Canadian Society for History and Philosophy of Mathematics 25:42-54.
    Kant's arguments for the synthetic a priori status of geometry are generally taken to have been refuted by the development of non-Euclidean geometries. Recently, however, some philosophers have argued that, on the contrary, the development of non-Euclidean geometry has confirmed Kant's views, for since a demonstration of the consistency of non-Euclidean geometry depends on a demonstration of its equi-consistency with Euclidean geometry, one need only show that the axioms of Euclidean geometry have 'intuitive content' in order to show that both (...)
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  42. added 2014-05-10
    Review of Space, Time, and Number in the Brain. [REVIEW]Carlos Montemayor & Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther - 2015 - Mathematical Intelligencer 37 (2):93-98.
    Albert Einstein once made the following remark about "the world of our sense experiences": "the fact that it is comprehensible is a miracle." (1936, p. 351) A few decades later, another physicist, Eugene Wigner, wondered about the unreasonable effectiveness of mathematics in the natural sciences, concluding his classic article thus: "the miracle of the appropriateness of the language of mathematics for the formulation of the laws of physics is a wonderful gift which we neither understand nor deserve" (1960, p. 14). (...)
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  43. added 2014-04-03
    Apriority and Applied Mathematics.Robert A. Holland - 1992 - Synthese 92 (3):349 - 370.
    I argue that we need not accept Quine's holistic conception of mathematics and empirical science. Specifically, I argue that we should reject Quine's holism for two reasons. One, his argument for this position fails to appreciate that the revision of the mathematics employed in scientific theories is often related to an expansion of the possibilities of describing the empirical world, and that this reveals that mathematics serves as a kind of rational framework for empirical theorizing. Two, this holistic conception does (...)
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  44. added 2014-03-26
    Could Experience Disconfirm the Propositions of Arithmetic?Jessica M. Wilson - 2000 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 30 (1):55--84.
    Alberto Casullo ("Necessity, Certainty, and the A Priori", Canadian Journal of Philosophy 18, 1988) argues that arithmetical propositions could be disconfirmed by appeal to an invented scenario, wherein our standard counting procedures indicate that 2 + 2 != 4. Our best response to such a scenario would be, Casullo suggests, to accept the results of the counting procedures, and give up standard arithmetic. While Casullo's scenario avoids arguments against previous "disconfirming" scenarios, it founders on the assumption, common to scenario and (...)
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  45. added 2014-03-21
    A Priori Knowledge Contextualised and Benacerraf’s Dilemma.Maja Malec - 2004 - Acta Analytica 19 (33):31-44.
    In this article, I discuss Hawthorne'€™s contextualist solution to Benacerraf'€™s dilemma. He wants to find a satisfactory epistemology to go with realist ontology, namely with causally inaccessible mathematical and modal entities. I claim that he is unsuccessful. The contextualist theories of knowledge attributions were primarily developed as a response to the skeptical argument based on the deductive closure principle. Hawthorne uses the same strategy in his attempt to solve the epistemologist puzzle facing the proponents of mathematical and modal realism, but (...)
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  46. added 2014-03-12
    Recent Debates About the A Priori.Hartry Field - 2005 - In Tamar Szabo Gendler & John Hawthorne (eds.), Oxford Studies in Epistemology Volume 1. Oxford University Press.
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  47. added 2014-03-09
    Benacerraf’s Dilemma and Informal Mathematics.Gregory Lavers - 2009 - Review of Symbolic Logic 2 (4):769-785.
    This paper puts forward and defends an account of mathematical truth, and in particular an account of the truth of mathematical axioms. The proposal attempts to be completely nonrevisionist. In this connection, it seeks to satisfy simultaneously both horns of Benacerrafs work on informal rigour. Kreisel defends the view that axioms are arrived at by a rigorous examination of our informal notions, as opposed to being stipulated or arrived at by trial and error. This view is then supplemented by a (...)
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  48. added 2014-03-08
    What is the Benacerraf Problem?Justin Clarke-Doane - 2017 - In Fabrice Pataut (ed.), New Perspectives on the Philosophy of Paul Benacerraf: Truth, Objects, Infinity. Springer Verlag.
    In "Mathematical Truth", Paul Benacerraf articulated an epistemological problem for mathematical realism. His formulation of the problem relied on a causal theory of knowledge which is now widely rejected. But it is generally agreed that Benacerraf was onto a genuine problem for mathematical realism nevertheless. Hartry Field describes it as the problem of explaining the reliability of our mathematical beliefs, realistically construed. In this paper, I argue that the Benacerraf Problem cannot be made out. There simply is no intelligible problem (...)
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  49. added 2014-03-04
    Grounding Concepts: The Problem of Composition.Gábor Forrai - 2011 - Philosophia 39 (4):721-731.
    In a recent book C.S. Jenkins proposes a theory of arithmetical knowledge which reconciles realism about arithmetic with the a priori character of our knowledge of it. Her basic idea is that arithmetical concepts are grounded in experience and it is through experience that they are connected to reality. I argue that the account fails because Jenkins’s central concept, the concept for grounding, is inadequate. Grounding as she defines it does not suffice for realism, and by revising the definition we (...)
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  50. added 2014-01-10
    Friedman on Implicit Definition: In Search of the Hilbertian Heritage in Philosophy of Science.Woosuk Park - 2012 - Erkenntnis 76 (3):427-442.
    Michael Friedman’s project both historically and systematically testifies to the importance of the relativized a priori. The importance of implicit definitions clearly emerges from Schlick’s General Theory of Knowledge . The main aim of this paper is to show the relationship between both and the relativized a priori through a detailed discussion of Friedman’s work. Succeeding with this will amount to a contribution to recent scholarship showing the importance of Hilbert for Logical Empiricism.
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