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  1. The Problem of Evil.Leslie Allan - manuscript
    The existence of evil, pain and suffering is considered by many philosophers to be the most vexed question concerning the existence of an omnipotent, omniscient and morally perfect deity. Why would a loving God permit wanton acts of cruelty and misery on the scale witnessed throughout human history? In this essay, Leslie Allan evaluates four common theistic responses to this problem, highlighting the benefits and challenges faced by each approach. He concludes with a critical examination of a theistic defence designed (...)
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  2. God is NOT Hidden.Steven M. Duncan - manuscript
    In this paper I argue that there is no problem of Divine Hiddenness for Christians and offer an alternate explanation for the widespread claim that God's existence is hidden based on the Christian doctrine of Original Sin.
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  3. The Asymmetry in Tobia's Modal Arguments.Jude Arnout Durieux - manuscript
    In Tobia (2016), Kevin P. Tobia tests for bias using two ontological arguments claimed to be symmetrical and of equal strength. We show they are neither.
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  4. The End of the Teapot Argument for Atheism (and All Its Tawdry Imitators).Mark Sharlow - manuscript
    Atheists sometimes use Bertrand Russell's teapot argument, and its variants with other objects in place of the teapot, to argue for the rationality of atheism. In this paper I show that this use of the teapot argument and its variants is unacceptably circular. The circularity arises because there is indirect evidence against the objects invoked in the arguments.
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  5. Against the Fundamental‐Reading of Anselm's Account of Omnipresence.Matthew James Collier - forthcoming - Heythrop Journal.
  6. Why It Is Difficult To Defend the Plantinga‐Type Ontological Argument.Jacobus Erasmus - forthcoming - Heythrop Journal.
  7. Aspirational Theism and Gratuitous Suffering.Jimmy Alfonso Licon - forthcoming - Religious Studies.
    Philosophers have long wondered whether God exists; and yet, they have ignored the question of whether we should hope that He exists – call this stance aspirational theism. In this article, I argue that we have a weighty pro tanto reason to adopt this stance: theism offers a metaphysical guarantee against gratuitous suffering (i.e. God would not permit gratuitous suffering). On the other hand, few atheist alternatives offer such a guarantee – and even then, there are reasons to worry that (...)
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  8. Problems for the Argument From Logic: A Response to the Lord of Non-Contradiction.Alex Malpass - forthcoming - Sophia:1-15.
    James Anderson and Greg Welty have resurrected an argument for God’s existence, which we will call the argument from logic. We present three lines of response against the argument, involving the notion of necessity involved, the notion of intentionality involved, and then we pose a dilemma for divine conceptualism. We conclude that the argument faces substantial problems.
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  9. The Intoxicating Effects of Conciliatory Omniscience.David McElhoes - forthcoming - Philosophical Studies:1-17.
    The coherence of omniscience is sometimes challenged using self-referential sentences like, “No omniscient entity knows that which this very sentence expresses,” which suggest that there are truths which no omniscient entity knows. In this paper, I consider two strategies for addressing these challenges: The Common Strategy, which dismisses such self-referential sentences as meaningless, and The Conciliatory Strategy, which discounts them as quirky outliers with no impact on one’s status as being omniscient. I argue that neither strategy succeeds. The Common Strategy (...)
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  10. Why God is Probably Good: A Response to the Evil-God Challenge.Calum Miller - forthcoming - Religious Studies:1-18.
    A number of philosophers have recently defended the evil-god challenge, which is to explain relevant asymmetries between believing in a perfectly good God and believing in a perfectly evil god, such that the former is more reasonable than the latter. In this article, I offer a number of such reasons. I first suggest that certain conceptions of the ontology of good and evil can offer asymmetries which make theism a simpler hypothesis than ‘maltheism’. I then argue that maltheism is itself (...)
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  11. No-Fault Unbelief.Roberto Di Ceglie - 2021 - Sophia 60 (1):91-101.
    ‘No-fault unbelief’ can be named the view that there are those who do not believe in God through no moral or intellectual fault of their own. This view opposes a more traditional one, which can be named ‘flawed unbelief’ view, according to which religious unbelief signals a cognitive or moral flaw in the non-believer. Since this charge of mental or moral flaw causes a certain uneasiness, I oppose the former view, i.e. ‘no-fault unbelief’, with a strategy that has nothing to (...)
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  12. Reading the Bible Theologically by DarrenSarisky, Current Issues in Theology (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2019), Xix + 407 Pp. [REVIEW]Myk Habets - 2021 - Modern Theology 37 (2):531-534.
  13. The Ecclesial Ethics of John Howard Yoder’s Abuse.Isaac Samuel Villegas - 2021 - Modern Theology 37 (1):191-214.
    In the last decade – now that his sexual abuse is no longer deniable – Christian ethicists have had to reconsider John Howard Yoder’s theological contributions in the late twentieth century. This essay considers how the witness of the women who survived his abuse exposes the sexism latent in his development of a framework for moral discernment and community discipline. Yoder designed an ecclesiology that was congruent with his pursuit of unaccountable power over the women he used as subjects for (...)
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  14. The Void of God, or The Paradox of the Pious Atheism: From Scholem to Derrida.Agata Bielik-Robson - 2020 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 12 (2):109-132.
    My essay will take as its point of departure the paragraph from Gershom Scholem’s “Reflections on Jewish Theology,” in which he depicts the modern religious experience as the one of the "void of God" or as "pious atheism". I will first argue that the "void of God" cannot be reduced to atheistic non-belief in the presence of God. Then, I will demonstrate the further development of the Scholemian notion of the ‘pious atheism’ in Derrida, especially in his Lurianic treatment of (...)
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  15. Day Shift God, Night Shift God.Marc Champagne - 2020 - Think 19 (54):81-88.
    It is usually thought that only one being can be all-knowing, all-powerful, and all-loving. Challenging this monotheist conviction, I propose a universe ruled by two deities: ‘day shift God’ oversees the events that occur while the sun is up, whereas ‘night shift God’ oversees the events that occur while the sun is down. I survey objections to this proposal and conclude that the real obstacle is not an argument, but an aesthetic preference.
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  16. What Ontological Arguments Don’T Show.Mylan Engel - 2020 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 88 (1):97-114.
    Daniel Dombrowski contends that: a number of versions of the ontological argument [OA] are sound; the deity whose existence is most well established by the OA is the deity picked out by Hartshorne’s neoclassical concept of God; skeptics who insist that the OA only shows that “if God exists, then God exists necessarily” are contradicting themselves, and the OA is worth a great deal since it effectively demonstrates the rationality of theism. I argue that theses and are clearly false and (...)
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  17. Is there a problem of creatio ex nihilo? A reply to Pao-Shen Ho.Jacobus Erasmus - 2020 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 88 (2):215-218.
    Pao-Shen Ho attempts to argue that the Christian doctrine of creatio ex nihilo violates modal logic and is necessarily false. More precisely, Ho argues that, if God creates the universe out of nothing, then the non-existence of the universe is both possible and impossible, which is logically incoherent. I point out, however, that Ho commits the modal scope fallacy by confusing the scope of necessity in the argument and, therefore, Ho's argument is unsound.
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  18. Is the God Hypothesis Improbable? A Response to Dawkins.Logan Paul Gage - 2020 - In Kevin Vallier & Joshua Rasmussen (eds.), A New Theist Response to the New Atheists. New York: Routledge. pp. 59-76.
    In this chapter, Logan Paul Gage examines the only real attempt to disprove God’s existence by a New Atheist: Richard Dawkins’s “Ultimate 747 Gambit.” Central to Dawkins’s argument is the claim that God is more complex than what he is invoked to explain. Gage evaluates this claim using the main extant notions of simplicity in the literature. Gage concludes that on no reading does this claim survive scrutiny. Along the way, Dawkins claims that there are no good positive arguments for (...)
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  19. Evil and Divine Sovereignty.Jeff Jordan - 2020 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 88 (3):273-286.
    Since at least the tenth century, some theists have argued that God’s sovereignty as creator exempts God from moral evaluation, and so any argument employing moral principles or the idea of God as morally perfect is fallacious. In particular, any argument contending that the occurrence of pointless evil presents strong evidence against the existence of God is flawed, as God morally owes his creation nothing. This appeal to divine sovereignty, however, fails to rescue any theistic tradition proclaiming that God loves (...)
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  20. Pestilent Popes or a Pestilent Church? Judaism, Catholicism, and Skeptical Theism.Tyler Dalton McNabb - 2020 - Heythrop Journal 61 (4):671-676.
  21. God-Intoxicated Man: The Philosopher Who Denied the World.Yitzhak Melamed & Clare Carlisle - 2020 - TLS: The Times Literary Supplement.
  22. Creation as Sacrament: Reflections on Ecology and Spirituality by JohnChryssavgis (London: T&T Clark, 2018), Xi + 220 Pp. [REVIEW]Aristotle Papanikolaou - 2020 - Modern Theology 36 (3):690-692.
  23. The Decency of Albert Camus.Jesus Deogracias Principe - 2020 - Renascence 72 (2):99-120.
    This essay explores the place of decency and the decent man in the moral and religious thought of Albert Camus. Focusing primarily on the major fictional works, we consider how Camus employs the semantic ambiguity inherent in the notion of being decent, and then develops this into a normative ethical call characterized by responsibility and solidarity. We then explore further how Camus pushes the envelope to make us reflect on whether decency is even possible, both in the sense of addressing (...)
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  24. Against the Theistic Multiverse.Sara L. Uckelman - 2020 - Kriterion - Journal of Philosophy 34 (4):1-14.
    We argue that Kraay's "theistic multiverse" response to the objections to theism [Kraay 2011] is unsuccessful as it simply shifts the problems leveled against theism from the level of possible worlds to the level of possible universes. Furthermore, when we restate the objections at the level of possible universes, we can show how Kraay's conclusion about the uniqueness of the theistic multiverse is undermined.
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  25. Fundamentality and the Prior Probability of Theism.Luke Wilson - 2020 - Religious Studies 56 (2):169-180.
    Paul Draper has recently developed an account of intrinsic probability according to which a theory’s intrinsic probability is determined by its modesty and coherence. He employs this account in an argument that Source Physicalism (SP) and Source Idealism (SI) are equally intrinsically probable. Since SP and SI are not exhaustive, and Theism is one very specific version of SI, it follows that the intrinsic probability of Theism is very low. I argue here that considerations of fundamentality show that more work (...)
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  26. A Grotesque in the Garden, by Hud Hudson. [REVIEW]Matthew A. Benton - 2019 - Faith and Philosophy 36 (2):271-275.
  27. C. G. Jung and Hans Urs von Balthasar: God and Evil: A Critical Comparison. By Les Oglesby. Pp. Xiv, 217, London: Routledge, 2014, $54.95. [REVIEW]Jason Paul Bourgeois - 2019 - Heythrop Journal 60 (5):807-807.
  28. Guest Editors’ Introduction.Andrei Buckareff & Yujin Nagasawa - 2019 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 11 (2):i.
  29. Loke’s Preconscious Christ.Oliver D. Crisp - 2019 - Philosophia Christi 21 (1):39-47.
    In several recent articles and a monograph, Andrew Loke has outlined a particular model of the Incarnation, which he calls the Divine Preconscious Model. In this article I provide a critique of this model, drawing on recent work by James Arcadi in order to show that there are serious theological costs involved in adopting the DPM.
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  30. Editorial Preface.R. L. Hall - 2019 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 86 (1):1-2.
  31. ‘The Question in Each and Every Thing’: Nietzsche and Weil on Affirmation.Stuart Jesson - 2019 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 86 (2):131-155.
    This paper identifies and offers commentary upon a previously un-remarked consonance between Nietzsche and Weil when it comes to the idea of a universal love of the world. The discussion focuses on five features of the Nietzschean account of affirmation, which are as follows: that the possibility of affirmation has the form of a fundamental question at the heart of human life, which has an all-or-nothing character ; that genuine affirmation is rare, difficult or traumatic in an existentially revealing way, (...)
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  32. Theodicy in a Suffering World: Glory and Longing. By Christopher Southgate. Pp. Ix, 281, Cambridge University Press, 2018. [REVIEW]Terrance Klein - 2019 - Heythrop Journal 60 (5):809-810.
  33. A Priori (Atheism).Felipe Leon - 2019 - In Joseph W. Koterski & Graham Oppy (eds.), Theism and Atheism: Opposing Viewpoints in Philosophy. MacMillan Reference.
    The primary aim of this chapter is to evaluate whether considerations about a priori domains and abstract objects favor atheism over theism.
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  34. Causation and Sufficient Reason (Atheism).Felipe Leon - 2019 - In Joseph W. Koterski & Graham Oppy (eds.), Theism and Atheism: Opposing Viewpoints in Philosophy. MacMillan Reference.
    This chapter provides an overview and critical discussion of cosmological arguments for theism, with special focus on the Kalam argument and arguments from contingency.
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  35. Anti-Theism, Pro-Theism, and Gratuitous Evil.Kirk Lougheed - 2019 - Philosophia Christi 21 (2):355-369.
    Ebrahim Azadegan recently argues that personal anti-theism, the view that it’s rational for a particular individual to prefer that God not exist, is a form of gratuitous evil. He justifies this evil by arguing that the anti-theist is uniquely positioned to bargain, implore, and plea to God. I argue that Azadegan faces a paradox. Once the anti-theist recognizes that God plus anti-theism makes the world better, she should convert to pro-theism. But then there can be no reflective anti-theists who could (...)
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  36. The Common Consent Argument.Tiddy Smith - 2019 - The Philosophers' Magazine 86:80-86.
  37. Religious Diversity (Atheism).Tiddy Smith - 2019 - In Graham Oppy & Joseph Koterski (eds.), Theism and Atheism: Opposing Viewpoints in Philosophy. Farmington Hills, MI, USA: pp. 243-257.
    On what grounds can religious belief be maintained when the chances that one has happenedupon the one true religion are so very low and when it seems that all believers have an equallystrong sense that they are justified in their own beliefs? In answer to the problem, three popularapologetic strategies have often been presented, and in their simplest forms they run as follows:1. All religions are basically right.2. All religions are partly right.3. My religion is right, and the others are (...)
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  38. The Crisis of Method in Contemporary Analytic Philosophy by Avner Baz , Ix + 240 Pp.Jonathan Tran - 2019 - Modern Theology 35 (3):590-592.
  39. The Providence of God: A Polyphonic Approach by David Fergusson , Xii + 377 Pp.Charles M. Wood - 2019 - Modern Theology 35 (3):592-595.
  40. Who Mourns for Adonais? Or, Where Have All the Gods Gone?Necip Fikri Alican - 2018 - Analysis and Metaphysics 17:38–94.
    Belief in God is a steady epistemic state sustaining an ancient social institution. Not only is it still with us, it is still the same as it ever was. It rests on the same inspiration it did thousands of years ago, commanding the same attention with the same motivation. Deities come and go but the belief stays the same. That is the thesis of this paper. It is more specifically a study of classical Greek polytheism as a paradigm for our (...)
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  41. Does the Purpose Theory of the Meaning of Life Entail an Irrational God?Elliott R. Crozat - 2018 - Philosophia Christi 20 (2):401-413.
    In this essay, I address an objection to purpose theory. PT holds that fulfilling the purpose God has assigned for humans is a way for human life to be objectively meaningful. According to the objection, PT entails the absurdity that God is irrational. There are at least two versions. I refer to them as Irrationality Objection-1, raised elsewhere by Thaddeus Metz, and Irrationality Objection-2, which I raise in this essay. I summarize IO-1 and replies to it by Metz. I then (...)
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  42. The Atheistic Argument From Outrageousness.Bryan Frances - 2018 - Think 17 (48):107-116.
    When pressed, many atheists offer three reasons why they reject theism: there is strong evidence against theism, there is no strong evidence for theism, and theism is so outrageous that it needs a great deal of support in order for us to believe it in a reasonable manner. I examine the third reason, arguing that it fails.
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  43. Sceptical Theism and the Evil-God Challenge.Perry Hendricks - 2018 - Religious Studies 54 (4):549-561.
    This article is a response to Stephen Law's article ‘The evil-god challenge’. In his article, Law argues that if belief in evil-god is unreasonable, then belief in good-god is unreasonable; that the antecedent is true; and hence so is the consequent. In this article, I show that Law's affirmation of the antecedent is predicated on the problem of good (i.e. the problem of whether an all-evil, all-powerful, and all-knowing God would allow there to be as much good in the world (...)
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  44. Introduction to the American Academy of Religion Panel Forum on Erik Wielenberg’s Robust Ethics.Adam Lloyd Johnson - 2018 - Philosophia Christi 20 (2):331-332.
    Erik Wielenberg is the most important contemporary critic of theistic metaethics. Wielenberg maintains that God is unnecessary for objective morality because moral truths exist as brute facts of the universe that have no, and need no, foundation. At times his description of these brute facts make them sound like abstract objects or Platonic forms. At the American Academy of Religion’s annual meeting in Boston in November of 2017, we organized an Evangelical Philosophical Society panel to discuss Erik Wielenberg’s book Robust (...)
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  45. Religious Disagreement and Divine Hiddenness.Jon Matheson - 2018 - Philosophia Christi 20 (1):215-225.
    In this paper, I develop and respond to a novel objection to Conciliatory Views of disagreement. Having first explained Conciliationism and the problem of divine hiddenness, I develop an objection that Conciliationism exacerbates the problem of divine hiddenness. According to this objection, Conciliationism increases God’s hiddenness in both its scope and severity, and is thus incompatible with God’s existence (or at least make God’s existence quite improbable). I respond to this objection by showing that the problem of divine hiddenness is (...)
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  46. The X-Claim Argument Against Religious Belief Offers Nothing New.Justin McBrayer & Weston Ellis - 2018 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 84 (2):223-232.
    Stephen Law has recently offered an argument against the rationality of certain religious beliefs that he calls the X-claim argument against religious beliefs. The argument purports to show that it is irrational to believe in the existence of extraordinary beings associated with religions. However, the X-claim argument is beset by certain ambiguities that, once resolved, leave the argument undifferentiated from two other common objections to the rationality of religious belief: the objection from religious diversity and the objection from unreliable sources. (...)
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  47. Atheism and Agnosticism.Graham Oppy - 2018 - Cambridge University Press.
    This is a Cambridge *Element*, on the topic of atheism and agnosticism. It contains four main parts. First, there is an introduction in which atheism and agnosticism are explained. Second, a theoretical background to assessment. Third, a case for preferring atheism to theism. Fourth, a case for preferring agnosticism to theism.
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  48. Mink & Brace’s Accidental Conference.Mark Piper - 2018 - Philosophy Now 125:57-58.
    An examination, in dialogue form, of one of the core weaknesses of the design argument for God's existence.
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  49. Si la contingence est absolue, le désespoir aussi. Critique de la divinologie de Q. Meillassoux.Yann Schmitt - 2018 - Cahiers Critiques de Philosophie 1 (19).
    Dans cette contribution, j'examinerai l'argument qui renvoie dos à dos le théisme et l'athéisme et qui structure la présentation de l'alternative que constitue le Dieu à venir. N'étant ni adhérant, ni sympathisant du réalisme spéculatif, je ne proposerai pourtant pas de critique externe de la philosophie de la religion proposée par Meillassoux. De manière heuristique, je vais tenir pour acquis Après la finitude et je montrerai ce qui me semble être les faiblesses de l'argument, critiques rendant finalement peu crédible l'affirmation (...)
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  50. Is Supernatural Belief Unreliably Formed?Hans Van Eyghen - 2018 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 85 (2):125-148.
    I criticize 5 arguments for the conclusion that religious belief is unreliably formed and hence epistemically tainted. The arguments draw on scientific evidence from Cognitive Science of Religion. They differ considerably as to why the evidence points to unreliability. Two arguments conclude to unreliability because religious belief is shaped by evolutionary pressures; another argument states that the mechanism responsible for religious belief produces many false god-beliefs; a similar argument claims that the mechanism produces incompatible god-beliefs; and a final argument states (...)
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