Arguments for Theism, Misc

Edited by Daniel Von Wachter (International Academy of Philosophy In The Principality of Liechtenstein)
About this topic
Summary Theism is generally taken to be the view that there is a person who is bodiless, omnipotent, omniscient, eternal, perfectly good, perfectly free, and who is the creator and sustainer of the universe. There are of course  different ways to spell out these attributes, for example some spell out ‘eternal‘ as ‘being outside of time‘, others as ‘everlasting‘. However, those who present arguments for or against the ‘existence of God‘ use the term ‘God’ similarly enough to be discussing the same question. Philosophers rather say that there is no God than using ‘God’ in a very different sense, for example in the sense of something other than a person. This category contains arguments for the existence of God that do not fit into any of the sibling leaf categories.
Key works The most thorough defense of the existence of God is Swinburne 2004, who gives probabilistic, inductive instead of deductive arguments and who rejects the ontological as well as the moral argument from the existence of values or duties. Plantinga 1974 defends the ontological argument, Adams 1979 the moral argument. Mackie 1982 is still a much quoted defense of atheism. Rowe 2010 presents an atheistic position.
Introductions Most anthologies with the title ‘philosophy of religion’ contain articles that give the various arguments, for example Craig 2002 or Davies 2000, and also Meister & Copan 2007, Taliaferro & Meister 2009, and Copan & Moser 2003. A simplified defense of theism with various arguments is Swinburne 1996, Le Poidevin 1996 is an introductory defense atheism.
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181 found
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1 — 50 / 181
  1. added 2020-05-08
    Fundamentals of Philosophy - an Introduction.Jude Arnout Durieux - manuscript
    A very basic introduction meant for Chinese lay people, who only have a background in the official historic-materialist worldview.
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  2. added 2020-04-28
    A Reliability Challenge to Theistic Platonism.Dan Baras - 2017 - Analysis 77 (3):479-487.
    Many philosophers believe that when a theory is committed to an apparently unexplainable massive correlation, that fact counts significantly against the theory. Philosophical theories that imply that we have knowledge of non-causal mind-independent facts are especially prone to this objection. Prominent examples of such theories are mathematical Platonism, robust normative realism and modal realism. It is sometimes thought that theists can easily respond to this sort of challenge and that theism therefore has an epistemic advantage over atheism. In this paper, (...)
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  3. added 2020-04-16
    Lineamenti di cristeologia. «Fede critica» e umiltà epistemica: il rapporto ragione-fede al confine tra meta-teologia, metodologia e vita.Damiano Migliorini - 2017 - TheoLogica: An International Journal for Philosophy of Religion and Philosophical Theology 1 (1):94-147.
    The author investigates whether the model prevalent today of an “humble reason” - based on fallibilism and epistemic humility - is the most appropriate to express the theological truth, even in the light of the debate within the contemporary theism (rational theology). To answer this question it is necessary to examine the epistemological status of “human truth” and the “truth of faith”, in order to develop a common approach to sciences, philosophy and theology. Finally, the author shows how the communitarian (...)
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  4. added 2020-04-16
    Lineamenti di cristeologia. «Fede critica» e umiltà epistemica: il rapporto ragione-fede al confine tra meta-teologia, metodologia e vita.Damiano Migliorini - 2016 - Theologica 1:1-51.
    ENGLISH: The author investigates whether the model prevalent today of an “humble reason” - based on fallibilism and epistemic humility - is the most appropriate to express the theological truth, even in the light of the debate within the contemporary theism (rational theology). To answer this question it is necessary to examine the epistemological status of “human truth” and the “truth of faith”, in order to develop a common approach to sciences, philosophy and theology. Finally, the author shows how the (...)
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  5. added 2020-04-16
    Trinità per filosofi? Lineamenti di un Teismo Trinitario.Damiano Migliorini - 2014 - Studia Patavina 61:471-482.
    The philosophical thought of Massimo Cacciari and the conceptual issues of « open theism » are two speculative routes apparently very distant from each other. This contribution highlights the common goal in their going to the root of philosophic problems in order to seek an answer: they think of a divine way of becoming explaining the reason of both the reality of the world and the paradoxical reality of human freedom. The two routes tend to converge and recover concepts pertaining (...)
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  6. added 2020-04-16
    Dall’incompatibilismo di Pike all’Open Theism: il dibattito sull’onniscienza divina nella filosofia analitica della religione.Damiano Migliorini - 2014 - Rivista di Filosofia 105:273-288.
    The debate on divine omniscience and its compatibility with human freedom, developed after the formulation of the famous Pike’s Argument, has led some authors to formulate a new form of theism called open theism. The main thesis of this theory deals with the redefinition of the attribute of omniscience – meant as dynamic – and other divine attributes, such as eternity and immutability. The core of the theory, however, lies in the assumption, in metaphysical terms, of the affirmation of the (...)
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  7. added 2020-04-13
    Omniscience, Freedom, and Mystery.Damiano Migliorini - 2018 - Nuovo Giornale di Filosofia Della Religione 8 (2).
    The text published below is the translation of a part of this published article: "Il Dio che rischia e che cambia: introduzione all’Open Theism". The issue of omniscience is one of the most debated in contemporary Analytical Philosophy of Religion. However, what is often lacking in this discussion is a deep understanding of the dilemma of omniscience and human freedom within a complete epistemological (what can we really say about the divine and the world), metaphysical and theological framework. For example, (...)
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  8. added 2020-02-18
    Magical Thinking.Andrew M. Bailey - forthcoming - Faith and Philosophy.
    According to theists, God is an immaterial thinking being. The main question of this article is whether theism supports the view that we are immaterial thinking beings too. I shall argue in the negative. Along the way, I will also explore some implications in the philosophy of mind following from the observation that, on theism, God’s mentality is in a certain respect magical.
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  9. added 2020-02-03
    Perceiving God: Epistemic Direct Realism and Religious Belief.Justin P. McBrayer - 2007 - Southwest Philosophy Review 23 (1):17-25.
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  10. added 2020-01-21
    C. S. Lewis' Argument From Nostalgia: A New Argument From Desire.Todd Buras & Michael Cantrell - 2018 - In Jerry L. Walls & Trent Dougherty (eds.), Two Dozen (or so) Arguments for God: The Plantinga Project. New York, NY, USA: pp. 356-371.
    This chapter shows that in certain circumstances desires are a guide to possibility, and that, in these circumstances, human beings desire at least one state of affairs for which the existence of God is a necessary condition. It follows that God’s existence is possible; or, more modestly, anyone with the relevant desires has a reason to believe God’s existence is possible. Thus, a new argument in the tradition of C.S. Lewis’s argument from nostalgia is offered, an argument from certain desires (...)
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  11. added 2019-12-25
    Causation and Sufficient Reason (Atheism).Felipe Leon - 2019 - In Joseph W. Koterski & Graham Oppy (eds.), Theism and Atheism: Opposing Arguments in Philosophy. MacMillan Reference.
    This chapter provides an overview and critical discussion of cosmological arguments for theism, with special focus on the Kalam argument and arguments from contingency.
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  12. added 2019-12-25
    A Priori (Atheism).Felipe Leon - 2019 - In Joseph W. Koterski & Graham Oppy (eds.), Theism and Atheism: Opposing Arguments in Philosophy. MacMillan Reference.
    The primary aim of this chapter is to evaluate whether considerations about a priori domains and abstract objects favor atheism over theism.
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  13. added 2019-11-12
    Berkeley: el conocimiento de Dios a través de uno mismo / Berkeley on the Knowledge of God through oneself.Alberto Luis López - 2016 - In Ildefonso Murillo (ed.), Pensar y conocer a Dios en el siglo XXI. Madrid, Spain: pp. 530-537.
    Is not easy to explain how God is known according to Berkeley. However, from his works one may infer that philosophically Berkeley oscillates between two conceptions of God: (i) as an indispensable and necessary assumption for his theory of ideas and (ii) as a being analogous to the man. From these conceptions, I present here a route for the knowledge of God, which emerges from Berkeley´s concept of finite spirit. As this possess the ideas of imagination and memory and is (...)
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  14. added 2019-08-30
    The Common Consent Argument.Jonathan Matheson - forthcoming - In Colin Ruloff (ed.), Contemporary Arguments in Natural Theology. Bloomsbury.
    In this paper, I will explain and motivate the common consent argument for theism. According to the common consent argument it is rational for you to believe that God exists because you know so many other people believe that God exists. Having motivated the argument, I will explain and motivate several pressing objections to the argument and evaluate their probative force. The paper will serve as both an accessible introduction to this argument as well as a resource for continued research (...)
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  15. added 2019-08-27
    Is God the Best Explanation of Things? A Dialogue.Felipe Leon & Joshua L. Rasmussen Josh - 2019 - Palgrave Macmillan.
    This book provides an up to date, high-level exchange on God in a uniquely productive style. Readers witness a contemporary version of a classic debate, as two professional philosophers seek to learn from each other while making their cases for their distinct positions. In their dialogue, Joshua Rasmussen and Felipe Leon examine classical and cutting-edge arguments for and against a theistic explanation of general features of reality. The book also provides original lines of thought based on the authors’ own contributions (...)
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  16. added 2019-08-27
    Margaret Cavendish, Feminist Ethics, and the Problem of Evil.Jill Hernandez - 2018 - Religions 9 (4):1-13.
    This paper argues that, although Margaret Cavendish’s main philosophical contributions are not in philosophy of religion, she makes a case for a defense of God, in spite of the worst sorts of harms being present in the world. Her arguments about those harms actually presage those of contemporary feminist ethicists, which positions Cavendish’s scholarship in a unique position: it makes a positive theodical contribution, by relying on evils that contemporary atheists think are the best evidence against the existence of God. (...)
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  17. added 2019-08-27
    Proofs of God in Early Modern Europe.Lloyd Strickland - 2018 - Waco, TX, USA: Baylor University Press.
    Proofs of God in Early Modern Europe offers a fascinating window into early modern efforts to prove God’s existence. Assembled here are twenty-two key texts, many translated into English for the first time, which illustrate the variety of arguments that philosophers of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries offered for God. These selections feature traditional proofs—such as various ontological, cosmological, and design arguments—but also introduce more exotic proofs, such as the argument from eternal truths, the argument from universal aseity, and the (...)
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  18. added 2019-08-27
    Seungoh Chung, P. God at the Crossroads of Worldviews. Toward a Different Debate about the Existence of God. [REVIEW]Andrey Pukhaev - 2017 - Folia Petropolitana 6:312-314.
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  19. added 2019-08-27
    Incarnate Arguments and Natural Signs. [REVIEW]Leigh Vicens - 2016 - Syndicate Theology 3.
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  20. added 2019-08-27
    Has ‘Modernity’ Shown All Arguments for the Existence of God to Be Wrong? [REVIEW]Daniel Von Wachter - 2016 - Journal of Reformed Theology 10:257-261.
    Review of Gottesbeweise als Herausforderung für die moderne Vernunft, ed. Th. Buchheim.
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  21. added 2019-08-15
    Jewish Survival, Divine Supervision, and the Existence of God.Moti Mizrahi - 2012 - Shofar: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Jewish Studies 30 (4):100-112.
    In this paper, I discuss an argument for the existence of God known as “The Argument from the Survival of the Jews.” This argument has the form of an Inference to the Best Explanation (IBE). It proceeds from the phenomenon of Jewish survival to the existence of God as the best explanation for this phenomenon. I will argue that, even if we grant that Jewish survival is a remarkable occurrence that demands an explanation, and even if we gloss over the (...)
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  22. added 2019-06-06
    The Argument From Wholes: A Classical Hindu Design Argument for the Existence of God.John Kronen & Sandra Menssen - 2013 - Faith and Philosophy 30 (2):138-158.
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  23. added 2019-06-06
    Oakes’ New Argument for God’s Existence.Theodore J. Kondoleon - 1982 - New Scholasticism 56 (1):100-109.
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  24. added 2019-06-06
    Two ‘Proofs’ of God's Existence: A. C. EWING.A. C. Ewing - 1965 - Religious Studies 1 (1):29-45.
    I do not think that the existence of God can be proved or even that the main justification for the belief can be found in argument in the ordinary sense of that term, but I think two of the three which have, since Kant at least, been classified as the traditional arguments of natural theology have some force and are worthy of serious consideration. This consideration I shall now proceed to give. I cannot say this of the remaining one of (...)
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  25. added 2019-06-05
    The God of Consciousness.Stewart Goetz - 2010 - Philosophia Christi 12 (1):189-200.
    In his two first-rate books, ’Consciousness and the Existence of God: A Theistic Argument’ and ’The Recalcitrant Imago Dei: Human Persons and the Failure of Naturalism’, J. P. Moreland argues that our existence as conscious beings presents insurmountable problems for naturalism and evidence for theism. In this review, I summarize Moreland’s treatment of three issues in scientific theory acceptance, which he claims are relevant to determining which worldview, theism or naturalism, is better able to explain the existence of conscious mental (...)
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  26. added 2019-06-05
    Cartesian Anxiety, Perspectivalism, and Truth.Myron B. Penner - 2006 - Philosophia Christi 8 (1):85-98.
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  27. added 2019-06-05
    Book Review. [REVIEW]Richard Swinburne - 1985 - Journal of Philosophy 82 (1):46-53.
  28. added 2019-02-01
    The Routledge Handbook of Contemporary Philosophy of Religion, Edited by Graham Oppy: London: Routledge, 2015, Pp. Xv + 482, £150. [REVIEW]Richard Colledge - 2016 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 94 (4):839-840.
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  29. added 2018-10-08
    The Problem of God.Clarence Finlayson - 1948 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 9 (3):423-432.
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  30. added 2018-09-24
    Skeptheism: Is Knowledge of God’s Existence Possible?Moti Mizrahi - 2017 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 9 (1):41-64.
    In this paper, I sketch an argument for the view that we cannot know (or have good reasons to believe) that God exists. Some call this view “strong agnosticism” but I prefer the term “skeptheism” in order to clearly distinguish between two distinct epistemic attitudes with respect to the existence of God, namely, agnosticism and skepticism. For the skeptheist, we cannot know (or have good reasons to believe) that God exists, since there can be neither conceptual (a priori) nor empirical (...)
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  31. added 2018-09-24
    Questions Open and Closed: Lessons From Metaethics for Identity Arguments for the Existence of God.Andrew Sneddon - 2017 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy:1-18.
    Identity arguments for the existence of god offer an intriguing blend of conceptual and existential claims. As it happens, this sort of blend has been probed for more than a century in metaethics, ever since G.E. Moore formulated the Open Question Argument against metaethical naturalism. Moore envisaged naturalism as offering identity claims between good and natural properties. His central worry was that such identity claims should render certain questions closed and hence meaningless. However, he contended that speakers competent with the (...)
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  32. added 2018-09-22
    Kripke and Fixing the References of “God”.Aviezer Tucker - 2002 - International Studies in Philosophy 34 (4):155-160.
  33. added 2018-09-14
    Mackey, Louis. Faith, Order, Understanding: Natural Theology in the Augustinian Tradition. [REVIEW]Thomas M. Osborne Jr - 2012 - Review of Metaphysics 65 (4):883-885.
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  34. added 2018-09-07
    Turner on Reason and Proving God’s Existence.Bruce Milem - 2007 - Philosophy and Theology 19 (1/2):79-94.
    In Faith, Reason and the Existence of God, Denys Turner defends the possibility of proving God’s existence on Christian and philosophical grounds. He responds to Kantian objections by developing a theory of reason derived from Thomas Aquinas. Turner’s work shifts the debate about God’s existence to the problem of determining which concept of reason is correct. I argue that this problem is extremely difficult and perhaps insoluble, because it requires using reason to resolve a dispute about reason. Consequently, Turner’s claims (...)
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  35. added 2018-08-15
    What Place, Then, for Rational Apologetics?Richard Brian Davis & W. Paul Franks - 2014 - In Paul Gould & Richard Brian Davis (eds.), Loving God with Your Mind: Essays in Honor of J. P. Moreland. Chicago: Moody Publishers. pp. 127–140.
    In this chapter, we attempt to show that J.P. Moreland's understanding of apologetics is beautifully positioned to counter resistance to a rationally defensible Christianity—resistance arising from the mistaken idea that any rational defense will fail to support or even undermine relationship. We look first at Paul Moser's complaint that since rational apologetics doesn’t prove the God of Christianity, it falls short of delivering what matters most—a personal agent worthy of worship and relationship. We then consider John Wilkinson's charge that the (...)
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  36. added 2018-07-30
    The Argument From Reason, and Mental Causal Drainage: A Reply to van Inwagen.Brandon Rickabaugh & Todd Buras - 2017 - Philosophia Christi 19 (2):381-399.
    According to Peter van Inwagen, C. S. Lewis failed in his attempt to undermine naturalism with his Argument from Reason. According to van Inwagen, Lewis provides no justification for his central premise, that naturalism is inconsistent with holding beliefs for reasons. What is worse, van Inwagen argues that the main premise in Lewis's argument from reason is false. We argue that it is not false. The defender of Lewis's argument can make use of the problem of mental causal drainage, a (...)
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  37. added 2018-06-01
    The Meaning of “It’s Impossible to Prove That God Exists”.Mark Roberts - 1995 - Faith and Reason (3):1-8.
  38. added 2018-05-07
    Response to Wunder: Objective Probability, Non-Contingent Theism, and the EAAN.Perry Hendricks - 2018 - Religious Studies:1-5.
    This paper is a response to Tyler Wunder’s ‘The modality of theism and probabilistic natural theology: a tension in Alvin Plantinga's philosophy’ (this journal). In his article, Wunder argues that if the proponent of the Evolutionary Argument Against Naturalism (EAAN) holds theism to be non-contingent and frames the argument in terms of objective probability, that the EAAN is either unsound or theism is necessarily false. I argue that a modest revision of the EAAN renders Wunder’s objection irrelevant, and that this (...)
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  39. added 2017-11-18
    An Evidential Argument for Theism From the Cognitive Science of Religion.Matthew Braddock - 2018 - In Hans Van Eyghen, Rik Peels & Gijsbert van den Brink (eds.), New Developments in the Cognitive Science of Religion: The Rationality of Religious Belief. Springer. pp. 171-198.
    What are the epistemological implications of the cognitive science of religion (CSR)? The lion’s share of discussion fixates on whether CSR undermines (or debunks or explains away) theistic belief. But could the field offer positive support for theism? If so, how? That is our question. Our answer takes the form of an evidential argument for theism from standard models and research in the field. According to CSR, we are naturally disposed to believe in supernatural agents and these beliefs are constrained (...)
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  40. added 2017-10-07
    Two Dozen (or so) Arguments for God.J. Walls & T. Dougherty (eds.) - 2018 - Oxford University Press.
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  41. added 2017-10-07
    Two Dozen (or so) Arguments for God: The Plantinga Project.Jerry L. Walls Trent Dougherty (ed.) - 2018 - Oxford University Press.
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  42. added 2017-10-07
    What Are Epistemic Reasons?Gerald K. Harrison - 2017 - Philosophia Christi 19 (1):23-36.
    Epistemic reasons exist indubitably, yet confusion surrounds just what exactly they are, in and of themselves. In this paper I argue that there is only one thing they could credibly be: the favoring attitudes a god is adopting toward us believing what is true and following methods of belief formation likely to result in true beliefs. As the existence of epistemic reasons is indubitable then if this analysis is correct, it will provide us with an apparent proof of a god’s (...)
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  43. added 2017-10-07
    Heidegger’s Argument for the Existence of God?Sonia Sikka - 2017 - Sophia 56 (4):671-695.
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  44. added 2017-10-07
    Arguments for the Existence of God.Graham Oppy - unknown
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  45. added 2017-10-07
    God as the Simplest Explanation of the Universe.Richard Swinburne - 2011 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 68:3-24.
    I have argued over many years that theism provides a probably true explanation of the existence and most general features of the universe. A major reason for this, I have claimed, is that it is simpler than other explanations. The present paper seeks to amplify and defend this latter claim in the light of some recent challenges.
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  46. added 2017-10-07
    The Existence of God: A Philosophical Introduction.Yujin Nagasawa - 2011 - Routledge.
    Does God exist? What are the various arguments that seek to prove the existence of God? Can atheists refute these arguments? The Existence of God: A Philosophical Introduction assesses classical and contemporary arguments concerning the existence of God: the ontological argument, introducing the nature of existence, possible worlds, parody objections, and the evolutionary origin of the concept of God the cosmological argument, discussing metaphysical paradoxes of infinity, scientific models of the universe, and philosophers’ discussions about ultimate reality and the meaning (...)
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  47. added 2017-10-07
    The Blackwell Companion to Natural Theology, Edited by William Lane Craig and J. P. Moreland. [REVIEW]D. Long - 2010 - Ars Disputandi 10.
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  48. added 2017-10-07
    A Dilemma For The Proponent Of The Transcendental Argument For God’s Existence.David Reiter - 2009 - Philosophia Christi 11 (2):465-470.
    The transcendental argument for God’s existence claims that the existence of the Triune God is a metaphysically necessary precondition for the most basic features of human life and experience. Philosopher Sean Choi has recently argued that TAG is best understood as having the following argument pattern: p, Necessarily, if p, then G, and therefore G. In this note, I pose a dilemma argument for the proponent of the transcendental argument. My hope is that the dilemma argument will spur further development (...)
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  49. added 2017-10-07
    The Blackwell Companion to Natural Theology.William Lane Craig & J. P. Moreland (eds.) - 2009 - Wiley-Blackwell.
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  50. added 2017-10-07
    Is There a Metaphysical Proof of God's Existence?Piotr Moskal - 2008 - Forum Philosophicum: International Journal for Philosophy 13 (2):167-175.
    What determines whether the procedures for proving the affirmative statement of God's existence may be called a proof? Certainly, it is necessary that all premises be true and that a reliable inference schemata be applied. One premise appears to be the most critical in the theistic argument. This premise is the principle of sufficient reason. I hold the view that the principle of sufficient reason cannot be found among the premises of any metaphysical explanation of reality, so I suggest that (...)
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