Arguments for Theism, Misc

Edited by Daniel von Wachter (International Academy of Philosophy In The Principality of Liechtenstein)
About this topic
Summary Theism is generally taken to be the view that there is a person who is bodiless, omnipotent, omniscient, eternal, perfectly good, perfectly free, and who is the creator and sustainer of the universe. There are of course  different ways to spell out these attributes, for example some spell out ‘eternal‘ as ‘being outside of time‘, others as ‘everlasting‘. However, those who present arguments for or against the ‘existence of God‘ use the term ‘God’ similarly enough to be discussing the same question. Philosophers rather say that there is no God than using ‘God’ in a very different sense, for example in the sense of something other than a person. This category contains arguments for the existence of God that do not fit into any of the sibling leaf categories.
Key works The most thorough defense of the existence of God is Swinburne 2004, who gives probabilistic, inductive instead of deductive arguments and who rejects the ontological as well as the moral argument from the existence of values or duties. Plantinga 1974 defends the ontological argument, Adams 1979 the moral argument. Mackie 1982 is still a much quoted defense of atheism. Rowe 2010 presents an atheistic position.
Introductions Most anthologies with the title ‘philosophy of religion’ contain articles that give the various arguments, for example Craig 2002 or Davies 2000, and also Meister & Copan 2007, Taliaferro & Meister 2009, and Copan & Moser 2003. A simplified defense of theism with various arguments is Swinburne 1996, Le Poidevin 1996 is an introductory defense atheism.
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296 found
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1 — 50 / 296
  1. Kant's Pre-Critical Proof for God's Existence.Steven M. Duncan - manuscript
    In his Beweisgrund (1762), Kant presents a sketch of "the only possible basis" for a proof of God's existence. In this essay, I attempt to present that proof as a valid and sound argument for the existence of God.
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  2. Fundamentals of Philosophy - an Introduction.Jude Arnout Durieux - manuscript
    A very basic introduction meant for Chinese lay people, who only have a background in the official historic-materialist worldview.
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  3. His Royal I-Ness.Mark Glouberman - forthcoming - Philosophy and Theology.
    The theology of the (Hebrew) Bible, as set out in the Torah’s foundational parts, answers the question “What am I?” not the question “Why is there a world?” So the principle that the Bible’s deity, God, represents, the principle of a category of being not recognized in the pagan thinking whose basic elements Greek philosophy systematizes, first enters “In the day that . . . the Lord God formed [the] man,” not “In the beginning when God created the heavens and (...)
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  4. The Common Consent Argument.Jonathan Matheson - forthcoming - In Colin Ruloff (ed.), Contemporary Arguments in Natural Theology. Bloomsbury.
    In this paper, I will explain and motivate the common consent argument for theism. According to the common consent argument it is rational for you to believe that God exists because you know so many other people believe that God exists. Having motivated the argument, I will explain and motivate several pressing objections to the argument and evaluate their probative force. The paper will serve as both an accessible introduction to this argument as well as a resource for continued research (...)
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  5. Why God is Probably Good: A Response to the Evil-God Challenge.Calum Miller - forthcoming - Religious Studies:1-18.
    A number of philosophers have recently defended the evil-god challenge, which is to explain relevant asymmetries between believing in a perfectly good God and believing in a perfectly evil god, such that the former is more reasonable than the latter. In this article, I offer a number of such reasons. I first suggest that certain conceptions of the ontology of good and evil can offer asymmetries which make theism a simpler hypothesis than ‘maltheism’. I then argue that maltheism is itself (...)
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  6. Atheistic Induction by Boltzmann Brains.Bradley Monton - forthcoming - In Jerry Walls & Trent Dougherty (eds.), Two Dozen (or so) Arguments for God: The Plantinga Project. Oxford University Press.
    I present a new thermodynamic argument for the existence of God. Naturalistic physics provides evidence for the failure of induction, because it provides evidence that the past is not at all what you think it is, and your existence is just a momentary fluctuation. The fact that you are not a momentary fluctuation thus provides evidence for the existence of God – God would ensure that the past is roughly what we think it is, and you have been in existence (...)
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  7. Erich Przywara’s Theology of Israel: A Critical Response to “Historical Criticism”.John R. Betz - 2021 - Modern Theology 37 (1):62-88.
    In the Anglophone world the Jesuit philosopher and theologian Erich Przywara (1889‐1972) tends to be known almost exclusively to Balthasar and Barth scholars (as an important mentor to the former and a formidable nemesis of the latter). In recent years, however, interest in Przywara has grown beyond these circles, owing in part to the English translation of his magnum opus, Analogia Entis (2014), and a handful of articles and monographs on his thought. Indeed, it is gradually being recognized that Przywara (...)
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  8. Rethinking Augustine’s Misunderstanding of First Movements: the Moral Psychology of Preliminary Passions.Yuan Gao - 2021 - Sophia 60 (1):139-155.
    Augustine’s theory of first movements has provoked many controversies over the years. When discussing Augustine’s position in preliminary passions, some scholars maintain that he misunderstands the Stoics, whereas some others argue that he grasps their works rather well and his accounts are consistent with Stoic teaching. This article examines how Augustine transforms his predecessors’ conception of first movements into his own theory, with particular focus on whether Augustine misinterprets his predecessor’s doctrine in his approach. The first section introduces the recent (...)
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  9. Reading the Bible Theologically by DarrenSarisky, Current Issues in Theology (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2019), Xix + 407 Pp. [REVIEW]Myk Habets - 2021 - Modern Theology 37 (2):531-534.
  10. Proving God Without Dualism: Improving the Swinburne-Moreland Argument From Consciousness.Ludger Jansen & Ward Blondé - 2021 - Metaphysica 22 (1):75-87.
    With substance dualism and the existence of God, Swinburne and Moreland have argued for a very powerful explanatory mechanism that can readily explain several philosophical problems related to consciousness. However, their positions come with presuppositions and ontological commitments which many are not prepared to share. The aim of this paper is to improve on the Swinburne-Moreland argument from consciousness by developing an argument for the existence of God from consciousness without being committed to substance dualism. The argument proceeds by suggesting (...)
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  11. Work and Its Discontents: On Contemporary Theology’s Response to the Question of Work.Zachary T. Settle - 2021 - Modern Theology 37 (1):165-190.
    I begin this essay by articulating capitalism’s problematic work ethic, to which a host of contemporary theologians are rightfully responding. I then establish a pattern that structures a host of those contemporary theological responses. Theologians working out of the “God as Worker” model aim to address work‐related problems by calling for workers to imitate God’s work. Making use of Augustine’s doctrine of transcendence, I problematize that mode of response on two fronts: (1) those proposals are based on too quick an (...)
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  12. Magical Thinking.Andrew M. Bailey - 2020 - Faith and Philosophy 37 (2):181-201.
    According to theists, God is an immaterial thinking being. The main question of this article is whether theism supports the view that we are immaterial thinking beings too. I shall argue in the negative. Along the way, I will also explore some implications in the philosophy of mind following from the observation that, on theism, God’s mentality is in a certain respect magical.
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  13. The Void of God, or The Paradox of the Pious Atheism: From Scholem to Derrida.Agata Bielik-Robson - 2020 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 12 (2):109-132.
    My essay will take as its point of departure the paragraph from Gershom Scholem’s “Reflections on Jewish Theology,” in which he depicts the modern religious experience as the one of the "void of God" or as "pious atheism". I will first argue that the "void of God" cannot be reduced to atheistic non-belief in the presence of God. Then, I will demonstrate the further development of the Scholemian notion of the ‘pious atheism’ in Derrida, especially in his Lurianic treatment of (...)
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  14. Reason and Faith: Themes From Richard Swinburne: Michael Bergmann and Jeffrey E. Brower (Eds.): Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016, 256 Pp, $72. [REVIEW]Isaac Choi - 2020 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 87 (2):193-197.
  15. Christ the Tragedy of God: A Theological Exploration of Tragedy. By Kevin Taylor. Pp. X, 155, London: Routledge, 2019, $113.50. [REVIEW]Paul Raimond Daniels - 2020 - Heythrop Journal 61 (4):717-718.
  16. Divine Hiddenness and the Suffering Unbeliever Argument.Roberto Di Ceglie - 2020 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 12 (2):211-235.
    In this essay, I propose two arguments from Thomas Aquinas’s reflection on theism and faith to rebut Schellenberg’s claim that divine hiddenness justifies atheism. One of those arguments, however, may be employed so as to re-propose Schellenberg’s conviction, which is crucial to his argument, that there are ‘non-resistant’ or ‘inculpable’ unbelievers. I then advance what I call the suffering unbeliever argument. In short, the unbelievers mentioned by Schellenberg are expected to suffer because of their non-belief, which—as Schellenberg says—prevents them from (...)
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  17. A Profound Ignorance: Modern Pneumatology and Its Anti‐Modern Redemption by EphraimRadner (Waco, TX: Baylor University Press, 2019), Ix + 453 Pp. [REVIEW]Amy J. Erickson - 2020 - Modern Theology 36 (4):919-922.
  18. The Amazing Placenta: Evolution and Lifeline to Humanness.Graeme Finlay - 2020 - Zygon 55 (2):306-326.
  19. God, existence, and fictional objects: the Case for Meinongian theism: John-Mark L. Miravalle. Bloomsbury Academic, 2018, 186 pp, $102.60.Tyron Goldschmidt - 2020 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 88 (1):133-136.
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  20. Does God Intend That Sin Occur? We Affirm.Matthew J. Hart & Daniel J. Hill - 2020 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 12 (1):143-171.
    In this paper we discuss the question whether God intends that sin occur. We clarify the question, consider some of the answers given in the Christian tradition, and give a careful commentary on a few especially telling passages from the Christian Scriptures. We consider two philosophically informed interpretative strategies, one derived from the work of Frances Kamm, the other from Reformed scholasticism, against our interpretation of these passages. While we concede that in other passages such interpretations may allow a way (...)
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  21. Piety Without Metaphysics: The Moral Pedagogy of Hume’s Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion.Joshua P. Hochschild - 2020 - Urbaniana University Journal 73 (3):73-99.
    Urbaniana University Journal 73.3 (2020): 73-99. -/- A close reading of Hume’s Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion reveals that it is not what it appears. Rather than a work of natural theology, meant to show something about arguments concerning the existence and nature of God, the Dialogues turn out to embody a moral pedagogy exemplifying and attempting to instill a conception of piety and religion as virtues. This paper defends this interpretation by reviewing three alternative, but ultimately inadequate, interpretations of the (...)
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  22. Inner Animalities: Theology and the End of the Human. By Eric Daryl Meyer. Pp. 228, NY, Fordham University Press, 2018, $32.00. [REVIEW]Daniel P. Horan - 2020 - Heythrop Journal 61 (2):347-348.
  23. In a Mirror and an Enigma: Nicholas of Cusa’s De Visione Dei and the Milieu of Vision.Taylor Knight - 2020 - Sophia 59 (1):113-137.
    Nicholas of Cusa’s deployment of an omnivoyant image in the De visione Dei has been said to deconstruct Leon Battista Alberti’s mathematical determination of space in single-point linear perspective. While there has been some debate over whether the omnivoyant functions like a medieval icon or instead like a Renaissance painting, what has been neglected is a more careful analysis of what underlies the very structure of omnivoyance, namely the milieu from which its contradictions and paradoxes emerge. In this article, I (...)
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  24. Peace is Everything: An Examination of the Bahá’Í Faith’s Concept of Peace.Hoda Mahmoudi - 2020 - Zeitschrift für Religions- Und Geistesgeschichte 72 (3):242-259.
    This paper describes the central role of peace in the Bahá’í Faith. For Bahá’ís, peace begins at the level of the individual and migrates outward to the community, nation, and the world. The article explains how the Bahá’í Faith outlines a covenant – an agreement between Bahá’ís and between Bahá’ís and the world – made manifest in an Administrative Order in which the ascertainment of peaceful principles and the establishment of peaceful practices are developed. The paper explains how concepts like (...)
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  25. Memory Altering Technologies and the Capacity to Forgive: Westworld and Volf in Dialogue.Michelle A. Marvin - 2020 - Zygon 55 (3):713-732.
    I explore the impact of memory altering technologies in the science fiction drama (2016–2020) in order to show that unreconciled altered traumatic memory may lead to a dystopian breakdown of society. I bring Miroslav Volf's theological perspectives on memory into conversation with the plot of Westworld in order to reveal connections between memory altering technologies and humanity's responsibility to remember rightly. Using Volf's theology of remembering as an interpretive lens, I analyze characters’ inability to remember rightly while recalling partial memories (...)
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  26. Mary and Fátima: A Modest C-Inductive Argument for Catholicism.Tyler Dalton Mcnabb & Joseph E. Blado - 2020 - Perichoresis 18 (5):55-65.
    C-Inductive arguments are arguments that increase the probability of a hypothesis. This can be contrasted with what is called a P-Inductive argument. A P-inductive argument is an argument that shows the overall probability of a hypothesis to be more probable than not. In this paper, we put forth a C-inductive argument for the truth of the Catholic hypothesis (CH). Roughly, we take CH to be the hypothesis that the core creedal beliefs found within the Catholic Tradition are true. Specifically, we (...)
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  27. Transubstantiation: Theology, History, and Christian Unity by BrettSalkeld (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2019), Xv + 270 Pp. [REVIEW]Joshua Mobley - 2020 - Modern Theology 36 (3):692-695.
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  28. God* Does Not Exist: A Novel Logical Problem of Evil.P. X. Monaghan - 2020 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 88 (2):181-195.
    I often tell my students that the only thing that is not controversial in philosophy is that everything else in it is controversial. While this might be a bit of an exaggeration, it does contain a kernel of truth, as many exaggerations do: philosophy is a highly contentious discipline. So it is remarkable the extent to which there is agreement in the philosophy of religion amongst theists, agnostics, and atheists alike that John Mackie’s argument for atheism is either invalid or (...)
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  29. Religious Education and Theology: Separate Sails in the One Breeze.Gerard Moore - 2020 - The Australasian Catholic Record 97 (2):227.
    There is an ongoing tension between the spheres of religious education and of theological studies. It is somewhat evident in the academy, and often enough emerges when the inevitable university restructure places religious education and theology in the same school, or situates religious education within education at a remove from theology, or any range of permutations. The tension is also felt in discussions between clergy, with a theological education behind them, and classroom teachers and religious education coordinators, whose training is (...)
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  30. A Response to the End of the Bob Era.Robert Cummings Neville - 2020 - American Journal of Theology and Philosophy 40 (3):90-102.
    Both individually and collectively, the five essays in this groups are brilliant. Each of the authors has worked with extraordinary care and success to represent my position, and they all succeed. The essays work to expound my thought in a progressive order. Bin Song's lays out my approach to comparison, setting it within the larger whole of my philosophy. David Rohr's explores in depth my epistemology and shows its relevance to my philosophy as a whole and also to its application (...)
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  31. Richard Kearney’s Anatheistic Wager: Philosophy, Theology, Poetics. Edited by Chris Doude van Troostwijk and Matthew Clemente. Pp. Xi, 264, Bloomington, IN, Indiana University Press, 2018, $65.00. [REVIEW]Paul Niesiobedzki - 2020 - Heythrop Journal 61 (4):708-709.
  32. Andrew Shanks, German Idealism, and the Speculative Redemption of Theodicy.Cyril O’Regan - 2020 - Modern Theology 36 (3):662-671.
  33. Arguing to Theism From Consciousness.Ben Page - 2020 - Faith and Philosophy 37 (3):336-362.
    I provide an argument from consciousness for God’s existence. I first consider a version of the argument which is ultimately difficult to evaluate. I then consider a stronger argument, on which consciousness, given our worldly laws of nature, is rather substantial evidence for God’s existence. It is this latter argument the paper largely focuses on, both in setting it out and defending it from various objections.
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  34. Creation as Sacrament: Reflections on Ecology and Spirituality by JohnChryssavgis (London: T&T Clark, 2018), Xi + 220 Pp. [REVIEW]Aristotle Papanikolaou - 2020 - Modern Theology 36 (3):690-692.
  35. Natural Theology as a Medium of Communication.David Pickering - 2020 - Heythrop Journal 61 (4):660-670.
  36. Zeitschriftenschau.Horst Georg Pöhlmann - 2020 - Neue Zeitschrift für Systematicsche Theologie Und Religionsphilosophie 62 (1):138-148.
  37. Mystagogy and Cyrillian Orthodoxy: Christology as Fidelity to a Carnal Presence.Aaron Riches - 2020 - Modern Theology 36 (3):1-23.
    Henry Chadwick's contention that the “nerve‐center” of Cyril's Christology is the Eucharist reconfigures the urgency of his polemic against Nestorius: it is not a question of abstract doctrine, but of the mystery encountered in the liturgy. This contention has been corroborated by patrologists, but its theological implication has not been fully drawn – viz. that mystagogy is the basis of Cyrillian orthodoxy. When this implication is grasped, it entails that the orthodox doctrine of the “unity of Christ” concerns not merely (...)
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  38. Fereydun Vahman: 175 Years of Persecution. A History of the Babis & Baha’is of Iran, London: Oneworld Publications 2019, 352 S. [REVIEW]Johannes Rosenbaum - 2020 - Zeitschrift für Religions- Und Geistesgeschichte 72 (3):362-365.
  39. Analyzing the Muddles of Analysis: (Some of) What Analytic Theologians Can Learn From the History of Analytic Feminism.Jonathan C. Rutledge - 2020 - Modern Theology 36 (3):569-581.
    Analytic theologians have ironically experienced difficulties in precisely defining the meaning of ‘analytic’ with respect to their style of theology. In this article, I turn to the history of a similar research project, analytic feminism, to see how it went about defining ‘analytic’ in relation to the typically non-analytic subject area of feminist studies. I then consider two commonly referred to attempts to define analytic theology, one methodological and the other socio-historical, and discuss shortcomings of each. I close with a (...)
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  40. I Walk the Line: Comment on Mikael Leidenhag on Theistic Evolution and Intelligent Design.Christoffer Skogholt - 2020 - Zygon 55 (3):685-695.
    Is theistic evolution (TE) a philosophically tenable position? Leidenhag argues in his article “The Blurred Line between Theistic Evolution and Intelligent Design” that it is not, since it, Leidenhag claims, espouses a view of divine action that he labels “natural divine causation” (NDC), which makes God explanatory redundant. That is, in so far as TE does not invoke God as an additional cause alongside natural causes, it is untenable. Theistic evolutionists should therefore “reject NDC and affirm a more robust notion (...)
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  41. Robert C. Neville: A Systematic, Nonconformist, Comparative Philosopher of Religion.Bin Song - 2020 - American Journal of Theology and Philosophy 40 (3):11-30.
    As his student, colleague, and friend, my learning process with Robert Neville has experienced two stages of perplexity, which I think represent to a large extent other scholars' similar experience of engaging Neville's thought. The two stages can be described as follows. First, given their familiarity with existing divisions of human knowledge of religion within modern research universities, scholars reading Neville's work may be confused by questions concerning its disciplinary nature, or what it is all about. Is it theology, philosophy, (...)
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  42. 有史以来最深刻的精神自传?- 阿迪达(弗兰克林·琼斯)的《倾听的膝盖》评论(1995年)(2019年修订版) (The most profound spiritual autobiography of all time? - a review of "The Knee of Listening" by Adi Da (Franklin Jones) (1995)).Michael Richard Starks - 2020 - In 欢迎来到地球上的地狱: 婴儿,气候变化,比特币,卡特尔,中国,民主,多样性,养成基因,平等,黑客,人权,伊斯兰教,自由主义,繁荣,网络,混乱。饥饿,疾病,暴力,人工智能,战争. Las Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press. pp. 221-224.
    简要回顾独特的美国神秘阿迪达(弗兰克林·琼斯)的生活和精神自传。一些版本封面上的贴纸上写着"有史以来最深刻的精神自传",这很可能是真的。我70多岁,读过许多由精神导师和灵性的书,这 是最伟大的之一。当然,这是迄今为止我所见过的启蒙过程最全面、最清晰的描述。即使你对人类最迷人的心理过程毫无兴趣,它还是一个惊人的文件,揭示了很多关于宗教、瑜伽和人类心理学的信息,并探讨了人类可能性的深 度和局限性。我详细地描述了它,并将他的教学与当代印度神秘奥修的教导进行比较。 那些希望从现代两个系统的观点来看为人类行为建立一个全面的最新框架的人,可以查阅我的书《路德维希的哲学、心理学、Min d和语言的逻辑结构》维特根斯坦和约翰·西尔的《第二部》(2019年)。那些对我更多的作品感兴趣的人可能会看到《会说话的猴子——一个末日星球上的哲学、心理学、科学、宗教和政治——文章和评论2006-20 19年第3次(2019年)和自杀乌托邦幻想21篇世纪4日 (2019).
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  43. An Avant‐Garde Theological Generation. By Jon Kirwan. Pp. 312, Oxford University Press, 2018, £70.00.John Sullivan - 2020 - Heythrop Journal 61 (4):707-708.
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  44. The ‘Divine Names’ and the ‘Attributes of Deity’: On the (Infinite) Analogical Interval in Forty‐Six Aphorisms.Oliver Tromans - 2020 - Modern Theology 36 (3):629-640.
  45. Die Bahá’Í-Religion.Wahied Wahdat-Hagh - 2020 - Zeitschrift für Religions- Und Geistesgeschichte 72 (3):239-241.
  46. An Examination of the Biblical Evidence for Open Theism.Ferhat Yöney - 2020 - Heythrop Journal 61 (2):253-266.
    Open Theist theologians argue that their view of divine foreknowledge and providence is the correct interpretation of the Bible, and suggest some biblical evidence to support this claim. Among these theologians, Gregory A. Boyd’s case is the most systematic, and also the most comprehensive and rigorous. Taking into consideration (1) the main philosophical claims of Open Theism and its main rivals, namely Calvinism and Molinism, and (2) Open Theist theologians’ interpretative principles for the Bible, the biblical evidence for Open Theism (...)
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  47. Words Into Silence.Grace Mariette Agolia - 2019 - Philosophy and Theology 31 (1):223-249.
    This essay explores Karl Rahner’s use of silence throughout his writings in relation to central themes of his theology. First, in his reflections about encountering the silent mystery of God in prayer, Rahner discovers that this painful silence may indeed be sacramental of God’s abiding nearness, inviting us to greater faith, hope, and love. Second, Rahner engages the transcendental character of this relationship between grace and freedom through the silence that permeates the existential divine-human dialogue. Third, Rahner’s meditations on Jesus, (...)
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  48. The Phenomenological Moral Argument.Jonathan Ashbach - 2019 - Philosophia Christi 21 (1):135-151.
    The moral argument for the existence of God is a popular and rhetorically effective element of natural theology, but both its traditional ontological and epistemological forms rely upon controversial premises. This article proposes a new variant—the phenomenological moral argument, or PMA—that is exclusively empirical in form. The PMA notes several empirical aspects of moral experience that cohere much more naturally with a theistic than with an atheistic account of conscience’s origins. It therefore concludes that divine creation best explains the nature (...)
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  49. C. G. Jung and Hans Urs von Balthasar: God and Evil: A Critical Comparison. By Les Oglesby. Pp. Xiv, 217, London: Routledge, 2014, $54.95. [REVIEW]Jason Paul Bourgeois - 2019 - Heythrop Journal 60 (5):807-807.
  50. Guest Editors’ Introduction.Andrei Buckareff & Yujin Nagasawa - 2019 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 11 (2):i.
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