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Summary In his On the Soul, Aristotle offers one of the first systematic accounts of the soul and of its role in explaining living activities. In book one he criticizes the views of his predecessors, Plato and the Pre-Socratics. In books two and three, Aristotle develops his own account of the soul, characterizing it as the fulfillment or actuality of an organic body. The soul is the principle that makes the bodies of living things actually be alive. Thus, on his account, living things are composites of matter and form: they are hylomorphic (the technical term for Aristotle's view, based on the Greek words for matter and form). After laying out this general account, Aristotle discusses three fundamentally different kinds of soul power: a nutritive or vegetative power that allows living things to grow, nourish themselves and reproduce; a perceptual power that allows animals to perceive and respond to the world around them; and an intellectual power that allows human beings to understand the natures of things. Aristotle characterizes the powers these souls have by analyzing their activities and the objects these activities involve (e.g. in order to define the power of perception, he gives an account of the activity of perception and an account of perceptible objects). Aristotle's text was the key reference point for much of ancient and medieval psychology and philosophy of mind and has continued to have a significant influence up to the present day. There has been continuing debate on the extent to which Aristotle's hylomorphism represents a distinct or viable position when seen from the vantage point of contemporary philosophy of mind (see Aristotle:Soul for further details). Both the overall orientation of Aristotle's philosophy of mind (e.g. is it naturalistic or not?) and the details are highly controversial, as the articles in this category and its subcategories make clear.
Key works Aristotle's most important work in this area is his De Anima (the work is usually referred to by its Latin name) or On the Soul (editions include Aristotle 2002, and Ross 1956). There are two excellent recent translations into English by Christopher Shields (Shields 2016) and C.D.C. Reeve (Reeve & Aristotle 2017). Important commentaries on the work include Hicks (Hicks & Aristotle 1907), Ross (Aristotle 1956), Rodier (Aristotle & Rodier 1900), and Polansky (Polansky 2007). Aristotle's other psychological works are found in the Parva Naturalia, including De Sensu or On Sense and the Sensible and De Memoria or On Memory and Recollection (Aristotle & Ross 1955). He also discusses claims that are relevant to his philosophy of mind in a number of other works. His discussion of animal motion in De Motu Animalium sheds light on his discussion of locomotion in On the Soul while his biological works offer further information on how Aristotle thinks the soul and body interact (e.g. Balme 1992). Other relevant texts in other works include his treatment of different kinds of knowledge in book six of the Nicomachean Ethics and his discussion of the the nature of form and substance in the Metaphysics (Aristotle 1979; Bostock 1994).
Introductions Chapter four of Jonathan Lear's Aristotle: The Desire to Understand provides a helpful and very readable introduction to Aristotle's views on the soul and on cognition (Lear 1988). Christopher Shields' Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy article on Aristotle's Psychology gives an excellent overview of Aristotle's philosophy of mind and of the main interpretative disputes currently going on in the literature (Shields 2008). 
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  1. Aristotle and the Pain of Animals: Nicomachean Ethics 1154b7–9.Wei Cheng - forthcoming - Classical Quarterly.
    This paper explains the motivation behind Aristotle’s appeal in Nicomachean Ethics 1154b7–9 to the physiologoi, who notoriously declare that animals are constantly in pain. It argues that the physiologoi are neither the critical target of this chapter nor invoked to verify Aristotle’s commitment to the imperfection of the human condition. Rather, despite doctrinal disagreement, they help Aristotle develop a naturalistic story about how ordinary people easily indulge in sensory pleasures.
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  2. Aristotle on Earlier Definitions of Soul and Their Explanatory Power: DA I.2–5.Jason W. Carter - 2022 - In Caleb Cohoe (ed.), Aristotle's On the Soul: A Critical Guide. Cambridge, UK: pp. 32 - 49.
    In DA I.2–5, Aristotle offers a series of critical discussions of earlier Greek definitions of the soul. The status of these discussions and the role they play in the justification of Aristotle’s theory of soul in DA II–III is controversial. In contrast to a common view, I argue that these discussions are not dialectical but philosophical. I also contend that Aristotle does not consider earlier philosophical definitions of soul to be endoxa, but rather contradoxa – beliefs about which the many (...)
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  3. Aristotle on Intelligent Perception.Marc Gasser-Wingate - forthcoming - Philosophers' Imprint.
    Aristotle presents perception as a potentially intelligent form of cognition—a form of cognition that allows us to respond in knowing ways to a range of different situations, or to develop certain insights into some topic of scientific inquiry. But it’s not clear how we should understand the interaction between our rational and perceptual powers in these cases, or how widespread we should take their interaction to be. In this paper I argue against views on which human perception would always involve (...)
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  4. Aristotle and Aristoxenus on Effort.John Bagby - 2021 - Conatus 6 (2):51-74.
    The discussions of conatus – force, tendency, effort, and striving – in early modern metaphysics have roots in Aristotle’s understanding of life as an internal experience of living force. This paper examines the ways that Spinoza’s conatus is consonant with Aristotle on effort. By tracking effort from his psychology and ethics to aesthetics, I show there is a conatus at the heart of the activity of the ψυχή that involves an intensification of power in a way which anticipates many of (...)
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  5. When Life Imitates Art: Vital Locomotion and Aristotle’s Craft Analogy.Patricio A. Fernandez & Jorge Mittelmann - 2020 - In Colin Guthrie King & Hynek Bartoš (eds.), Heat, Pneuma and Soul in Ancient Philosophy and Science. Cambridge: pp. 260-287.
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  6. Forms of Representation in the Aristotelian Tradition. Volume Three: Concept Formation.Christina Thomsen Thörnqvist & Juhana Toivanen (eds.) - 2022 - Brill.
    _Concept Formation_ is the final part of the trilogy _Forms of Representation in the Aristotelian Tradition_. It investigates some of the most perplexing and provocative discussions on conceptual thinking in the Greek, Latin, and Arabic reception of Aristotle’s psychology.
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  7. Forms of Representation in the Aristotelian Tradition. Volume Two: Dreaming.Christina Thomsen Thörnqvist & Juhana Toivanen (eds.) - 2022 - Brill.
    _Dreaming_ is the second part of the trilogy _Forms of Representation in the Aristotelian Tradition_. It investigates some of the most fascinating and enduring discussions on dreams in the Greek, Latin, and Arabic reception of Aristotle’s psychology.
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  8. Desires, Their Objects, and the Things Leading to Pursuit.Duane Long - forthcoming - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy.
    I offer a novel analysis of the relations between Aristotle’s three species of desire - appetite, temper, and wish - and the three things he says in EN 2.3 lead to pursuit - the pleasant, the beneficial, and the noble. It has long been tempting to think that these trios line up with one another in some way, ideally relating their members in one-to-one fashion. One account, by John Cooper, has gathered prominent adherents, but other authors, notably Giles Pearson, have (...)
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  9. Review of Pearson, Aristotle on Desire. [REVIEW]Thornton Lockwood - 2013 - Bryn Mawr Classical Review 9:24.
    The image of a copy of Praxiteles’ Aphrodite—nude but demurely shielding her pubic region—which adorns the dust cover of Pearson’s superb monograph, Aristotle on Desire</i>), suggests to the casual book buyer that the volume encased therein will explain Aristotle’s thoughts about sexual desire—perhaps as a central part or the paradigm case of his general theory of desire. But the goddess likes being tricky: Aristotle has very little to say about sexual desire (at best it is a subcategory of <i>epithumia</i>, set (...)
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  10. Animism, Aristotelianism, and the Legacy of William Gilbert’s De Magnete.Jeff Kochan - 2021 - Perspectives on Science 29 (2):157-188.
    William Gilbert’s 1600 book, De magnete, greatly influenced early modern natural philosophy. The book describes an impressive array of physical experiments, but it also advances a metaphysical view at odds with the soon to emerge mechanical philosophy. That view was animism. I distinguish two kinds of animism – Aristotelian and Platonic – and argue that Gilbert was an Aristotelian animist. Taking Robert Boyle as an example, I then show that early modern arguments against animism were often effective only against Platonic (...)
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  11. Aristotle on Light and Vision: An ‘Ecological’ Interpretation.Sean M. Costello - 2022 - Apeiron 55 (2).
    Scholarship on Aristotle’s theory of visual perception has traditionally held that Aristotle had a single, static, conception of light and that he believed that illumination occurred prior to and independent of the actions of colours. I contend that this view precludes the medium from becoming actually transparent, thus making vision impossible. I here offer an alternative to the traditional interpretation, using contemporary conceptual tools to make good philosophical sense of Aristotle’s position. I call my view the ‘ecological’ interpretation. It postulates (...)
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  12. Partaking of Reason in a Way: Aristotle on the Rationality of Human Desire.Duane Long - 2022 - Apeiron: A Journal for Ancient Philosophy and Science 55 (1):35-63.
    Three times in Book 1 chapter 13 of the Nicomachean Ethics, Aristotle says desire partakes of reason in a way. There is a consensus view in the literature about what that claim means: desire has no intrinsic rationality, but can partake of reason by being blindly obedient to the commands of reason. I argue this consensus view is mistaken: for Aristotle, adult human desire has its own intrinsic rationality, and while it is to be obedient to reason, it is not (...)
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  13. Philosophical Problems in Sense Perception: Testing the Limits of Aristotelianism.David Bennett & Juhana Toivanen (eds.) - 2020 - Cham: Springer.
    This volume focuses on philosophical problems concerning sense perception in the history of philosophy. It consists of thirteen essays that analyse the philosophical tradition originating in Aristotle’s writings. Each essay tackles a particular problem that tests the limits of Aristotle’s theory of perception and develops it in new directions. The problems discussed range from simultaneous perception to causality in perception, from the representational nature of sense-objects to the role of conscious attention, and from the physical/mental divide to perception as quasi-rational (...)
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  14. Antecedents of Aristotle's Psychology and Scale of Beings.Friedrich Solmsen - 1955 - American Journal of Philology 76 (2):148.
  15. Some Presuppositions of Aristotle's Psychology.George Boas - 1937 - American Journal of Philology 58 (3):275.
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  16. Kritik über Jedan (2000): Willensfreiheit bei Aristoteles?Edward C. Halper - 2002 - Bochumer Philosophisches Jahrbuch Fur Antike Und Mittelalter 7 (1):243-249.
  17. Aristotle on Motion in Incomplete Animals.Daniel Coren - 2020 - Apeiron 53 (3):285-314.
    I explain what Aristotle means when, after puzzling about the matter of motion in incomplete animals, he suggests in De Anima III 11.433b31–434a5 that just as incomplete animals are moved indeterminately, desire and phantasia are present in those animals, but present indeterminately. I argue that self-motion and its directing faculties in incomplete animals differ in degree but not in kind from those of complete animals. I examine how an object of desire differs for an incomplete animal. Using a comparison with (...)
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  18. The Sleep of Reason: Sleep and the Philosophical Soul in Ancient Greece.Victoria Wohl - 2020 - Classical Antiquity 39 (1):126-151.
    Freud tracked the psyche along the paths of sleep, following the “royal road” of dreams. For the ancient Greeks, too, the psyche was revealed in sleep, not through the semiotics of dreams but through the peculiar state of being we occupy while asleep. As a “borderland between living and not living”, sleep offered unique access to the psukhē, that element within the self unassimilable to waking consciousness. This paper examines how Greek philosophers theorized the sleep state and the somnolent psukhē, (...)
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  19. Perception in Aristotle’s Ethics, Written by Eve Rabinoff.Deborah Achtenberg - 2020 - Polis 37 (2):382-385.
  20. Advancing the Aristotelian Project in Contemporary Metaphysics: A Review Essay.Robert C. Koons - 2019 - Philosophia Christi 21 (2):435-442.
    In a recent book, Substance and the Fundamentality of the Familiar, Ross Inman demonstrates the contemporary relevance of an Aristotelian approach to metaphysics and the philosophy of nature. Inman successfully applies the Aristotelian framework to a number of outstanding problems in metaphysics, philosophy of mind, and the philosophy of physics. Inman tackles some intriguing questions about the ontological status of proper parts, questions which constitute a central focus of ongoing debate and investigation.
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  21. Aristotle’s Akrasia: The Role of Potential Knowledge and Practical Syllogism.Imge Oranli - 2018 - Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy 2 (2):233-238.
    In Nicomachean Ethics VII Aristotle describes akrasia as a disposition. Taking into account that it is a disposition, I argue that akrasia cannot be understood on an epistemological basis alone, i.e., it is not merely a problem of knowledge that the akratic person acts the ways he does, but rather one is akratic due to a certain kind of habituation, where the person is not able to activate the potential knowledge s/he possesses. To stress this point, I focus on the (...)
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  22. Aristotle on Motion in Incomplete Animals.Daniel Coren - forthcoming - Apeiron: A Journal for Ancient Philosophy and Science.
    I explain what Aristotle means when, after puzzling about the matter of motion in incomplete animals (those without sight, smell, hearing), he suggests in De Anima III 11.433b31-434a5 that just as incomplete animals are moved indeterminately, desire and phantasia are present in those animals, but present indeterminately. I argue that self-motion and its directing faculties in incomplete animals differ in degree but not in kind from those of complete animals. I examine how an object of desire differs for an incomplete (...)
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  23. Perception in Aristotle’s Ethics, by Eve Rabinoff. [REVIEW]Dhananjay Jagannathan - 2019 - Ancient Philosophy 39 (2):489-493.
  24. Aristotle on the Uses of Contemplation, by Matthew Walker. [REVIEW]Eve Rabinoff - 2019 - Ancient Philosophy 39 (2):484-489.
  25. Discovering Parallels with Aristotle’s De Anima Iii 5.Jonathan A. Buttaci - 2019 - Ancient Philosophy 39 (2):381-408.
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  26. Review of Erick Raphael Jiménez, Aristotle's Concept of Mind. [REVIEW]Matthew D. Walker - 2018 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews.
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  27. Approaching Other Animals with Caution: Exploring Insights From Aquinas's Psychology.Daniel D. De Haan - 2019 - New Blackfriars 100 (1090):715-737.
    In this essay I explore the resources Thomas Aquinas provides for enquiries concerning the psychological abilities of nonhuman animals. I first look to Aquinas’s account of divine, angelic, human, and nonhuman animal naming, to help us articulate the contours of a ‘critical anthropocentrism’ that aims to steer clear of the mistakes of a na¨ıve anthropocentrism and misconceived avowals to entirely eschew anthropocentrism. I then address the need for our critical anthropocentrism both to reject the mental-physical dichotomy endorsed by ‘folk psychology’ (...)
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  28. Another Dissimilarity Between Moral Virtue and Skills: An Interpretation of Nicomachean Ethics II 4.Javier Echenique - 2018 - In Marcelo Boeri, Y. Kanayama & Jorge Mittelmann (eds.), Soul and Mind in Greek Thought. Psychologial Issues in Plato and Aristotle. Springer. pp. 199-215.
  29. Mind and Body in Ancient Greek Thought. Ostenfeld Ancient Greek Psychology and the Modern Mind–Body Debate. Second Edition. Pp. 179. Baden-Baden: Academia Verlag, 2018 . Paper, €32.50. Isbn: 978-3-89665-759-6. [REVIEW]David G. Welch - forthcoming - The Classical Review:1-2.
  30. Alexander of Aphrodisias on Pleasure and Pain in Aristotle.Wei Cheng - 2018 - In William Harris (ed.), Pleasure and Pain in Classical Times. Leiden: pp. 174-200..
  31. Die Philosophie des Aristoteles. Von Dr.Theol. E. Rolfes. Pp. vii + 380. Leipzig, Meiner: 1923. - Aristoteles Lehre vom Schiuse oder Erste Analytik. Pp. x + 209. Lehre vom Beweis oder Zweite Analytik. Pp. xviii + 164. Politik . Pp. xxxi + 341. Neu übersetzt von Dr.Theol. E. Rolfes. Leipzig: Meiner, 1922. - Aristoteles Über die Dichtkunst. Neu übersetzt von Alfred Gudeman. Pp. xxiv + 91. Leipzig: Meiner, 1921. [REVIEW]L. S. J. - 1924 - Journal of Hellenic Studies 44 (1):114-115.
  32. Fortenbaugh Aristotle on Emotion: A Contribution to Philosophical Psychology, Rhetoric, Poetics, Politics and Ethics. London: Duckworth. 1975. Pp. [101]. £3·95. [REVIEW]C. J. Rowe - 1977 - Journal of Hellenic Studies 97:183-183.
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  33. Sorabji Aristotle on Memory. London: Duckworth. 1972. Pp. X + 122. 1 Plate. 1 Text Fig. £3·25 ; £1·50.C. J. Rowe - 1974 - Journal of Hellenic Studies 94:194-195.
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  34. The Psychology of Aristotle . By C. Shute. Pp. 148. New York: Columbia University Press. London: Humphrey Milford, 1941. 13s. 6d. [REVIEW]D. J. Allan - 1943 - Journal of Hellenic Studies 63:129-129.
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  35. Johansen Aristotle on the Sense-Organs. Cambridge UP, 1998. Pp. Xvi + 304. £37.50. 052158338.Alan Towey - 1999 - Journal of Hellenic Studies 119:192-193.
  36. . De Insomniis, De Divinatione per Somnum.T. K. Johansen - 1998 - Journal of Hellenic Studies 118:228.
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  37. Kenny Aristotle's Theory of the Will. London: Duckworth. 1979. Pp. X + 181. £18.00.C. J. Rowe - 1982 - Journal of Hellenic Studies 102:250-253.
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  38. Aristotle's Anthropology.Nora Kreft & Geert Keil (eds.) - 2019 - Cambridge University Press.
    This is the first collection of essays devoted specifically to the nature and significance of Aristotle's anthropological philosophy, covering the full range of his ethical, metaphysical and biological works. The book is organised into four parts, two of which deal with the metaphysics and biology of human nature and two of which discuss the anthropological foundations and implications of Aristotle's ethico-political works. The essay topics range from human nature and morality to friendship and politics, including original discussion and fresh perspectives (...)
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  39. A Battle Against Pain? Aristotle, Theophrastus and the Physiologoi in Aspasius, On Nicomachean Ethics 156.14-20.Wei Cheng - 2017 - Phronesis 62 (4):392-416.
  40. Alexandre Ničev: L'Énigme de la catharsis tragique dans Aristote. Pp. 252. Sofia: Éditions de l'Académie Bulgare des Sciences, 1970. Cloth. [REVIEW]B. R. Rees - 1975 - The Classical Review 25 (1):146-146.
  41. Aristotle on Memory - Richard Sorabji: Aristotle on Memory. Pp. X+122. London: Duckworth, 1972. Cloth, £3·25.Pamela M. Huby - 1975 - The Classical Review 25 (2):196-197.
  42. Friedo Ricken: Der Lustbegriff in der Nicomachischen Ethik des Aristoteles. Pp. 168. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1976. Paper. [REVIEW]Pamela Huby - 1978 - The Classical Review 28 (1):168-168.
  43. Franz Brentano: The Psychology of Aristotle . Translated by Rolf George. Pp. Xiv + 266. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1977. Cloth, £8·75. [REVIEW]J. L. Ackrill - 1979 - The Classical Review 29 (1):165-165.
  44. Jonathan Barnes, Malcolm Schofield, Richard Sorabji: Articles on Aristotle, 4. Psychology and Aesthetics. Pp. Xii + 212; 1 Photogravure. London: Duckworth, 1979. £12. [REVIEW]D. A. Rees - 1982 - The Classical Review 32 (1):99-100.
  45. Erik Ostenfeld: Ancient Greek Psychology and the Modern Mind–Body Debate. Pp. 109. Aarhus University Press, 1986. Paper, D. Kr. 79. [REVIEW]Christopher Gill - 1988 - The Classical Review 38 (2):427-427.
  46. Vivianna Cessi: Erkennen und Handeln in der Theorie des Tragischen bei Aristoteles. Pp. xx + 307. Frankfurt am Main: Athenäum, 1987. DM 68. [REVIEW]Malcolm Heath - 1988 - The Classical Review 38 (2):404-404.
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  47. Aristotle's De Anima - Michael Durrant : Aristotle's De Anima in Focus. Pp. Xiii+225. London, New York: Routledge, 1993. £35. [REVIEW]J. D. G. Evans - 1995 - The Classical Review 45 (1):60-61.
  48. ARISTOTLE, DE INTERPRETATIONE - Noriega-Olmos Aristotle's Psychology of Signification. A Commentary on De Interpretatione 16a3–18. Pp. X + 185. Berlin and Boston: De Gruyter, 2013. Cased, €79.95, US$112. ISBN: 978-3-11-028765-3. [REVIEW]Ana Maria Mora-Márquez - 2014 - The Classical Review 64 (2):403-404.
  49. The Aristotelian Psychology of Tragic Mimesis.José M. González - 2019 - Phronesis 64 (2):172-245.
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  50. The Role of Similar Vulnerability in Aristotle’s Account of Compassion.Gregory S. Poore - 2018 - Ancient Philosophy 38 (2):347-355.
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