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  1. Knowledge‐Making Distinctions in Synthetic Biology.Maureen A. O'Malley, Alexander Powell, Jonathan F. Davies & Jane Calvert - 2008 - Bioessays 30 (1):57-65.
  2. Cybernetics and Theoretical Approaches in 20th Century Brain and Behavior Sciences.Tara H. Abraham - 2006 - Biological Theory 1 (4):418-422.
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  3. Artificial Intelligence and Meaning — Some Philosophical Aspects of Decision-Making.Pascal Acot, Sandrine Charles & Marie-Laure Delignette-Muller - 2000 - Acta Biotheoretica 48 (3-4):173-179.
  4. Gender/Body/Machine.Alison Adam - 2002 - Ratio 15 (4):354–375.
    This article considers the question of embodiment in relation to gender and whether there are models of artificial intelligence (AI) which can enrol a concept of gender in their design. A central concern for feminist epistemology is the role of the body in the making of knowledge. I consider how this may inform a critique of the AI project and the related area of artificial life (A-Life), the latter area being of most interest in this paper. I explore briefly the (...)
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  5. Metabolism in a-Life: Reply to Boden.Mark Alliksaar - 2001 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 52 (1):131-135.
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  6. Advances in Artificial Life. ECAL 2007.Almeida E. CostaF (ed.) - 2007 - Springer Verlag.
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  7. Synthetic Life, What for and What Future?Armando Aranda-Anzaldo - 2011 - Ludus Vitalis 19 (36):213-215.
    This text answers the question, posed by the editor, on the philosophical and social issues resulting from the synthetic assembly of a modified bacterial genome that was introduced in an existing bacterial species (M.mycoides)and so it was claimed to represent the first ever kind of synthetic life produced by human manipulation.
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  8. Biocentrism and Artificial Life.Robin Attfield - 2012 - Environmental Values 21 (1):83 - 94.
    Biocentrism maintains that all living creatures have moral standing, but need not claim that all have equal moral significance. This moral standing extends to organisms generated through human interventions, whether by conventional breeding, genetic engineering, or synthetic biology. Our responsibilities with regard to future generations seem relevant to non-human species as well as future human generations and their quality of life. Likewise the Precautionary Principle appears to raise objections to the generation of serious or irreversible changes to the quality of (...)
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  9. Life.R. J. B. - 1961 - Review of Metaphysics 14 (3):570-570.
  10. “We Can Rebuild Him!”: The Essentialisation of the Human/Cyborg Interface in the Twenty-First Century, or Whatever Happened to The Six Million Dollar Man? [REVIEW]Simon Bacon - 2013 - AI and Society 28 (3):267-276.
    This paper aims to show how recent cinematic representations reveal a far more pessimistic and essentialised vision of Human/Cyborg hybridity in comparison with the more enunciative and optimistic ones seen at the end of the twentieth century. Donna Haraway’s still influential 1985 essay “A Cyborg Manifesto” saw the combination of the organic and the technological as offering new and exciting ways beyond the normalised culturally constructed categories of gender and identity formation. However, more recently critics see her later writings as (...)
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  11. MODELS AND LOGIC OF SUBJECTIVE REALITY. SUBJECTIVE WORLDS.Alexey Bakhirev - manuscript
  12. Unnatural: The Heretical Idea of Making People.Philip Ball - 2011 - Bodley Head.
    From the legendary inventor Daedalus to Goethe's tragic Faust, from the automata-making magicians of E.T.A Hoffmann to Mary Shelley's Victor Frankenstein – ...
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  13. Artificial Life and the Inhuman Condition.Gary Banham - manuscript
    Paper published on author's website available at http://www.garybanham.net/PAPERS_files/Artificial%20Life%20and%20the%20Inhuman%20Condition.pdf.
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  14. Transcendental Philosophy and Artificial Life.Gary Banham - 2001 - CultureMachine 3.
  15. The Good of Non-Sentient Entities: Organisms, Artifacts, and Synthetic Biology.John Basl & Ronald Sandler - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 44 (4):697-705.
    Synthetic organisms are at the same time organisms and artifacts. In this paper we aim to determine whether such entities have a good of their own, and so are candidates for being directly morally considerable. We argue that the good of non-sentient organisms is grounded in an etiological account of teleology, on which non-sentient organisms can come to be teleologically organized on the basis of their natural selection etiology. After defending this account of teleology, we argue that there are no (...)
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  16. Towards a Behavioral-Matching Based Compilation of Synthetic Biology Functions.Adrien Basso-Blandin & Franck Delaplace - 2015 - Acta Biotheoretica 63 (3):325-339.
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  17. Open Problems in Artificial Life Mark A. Bedau∗,†.Mark Bedau - manuscript
    artificial life, each of which is a grand challenge requiring a major advance on a fundamental issue for its solution. Each problem is briefly explained, and, where deemed helpful, some promising paths to its solution are indicated.
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  18. 1 Arti Cial Life's Working Hypothesis.Mark Bedau - manuscript
    Arti cial life studies computer models of the processes characteristic of complex adaptive systems|processes like self-organization, self-reproduction, adaptation, and evolution. Complex adaptive systems take many forms, each of which di ers from the others in myriad ways. By abstracting away from the diverse details, arti cial life hopes to reveal fundamental principles governing broad classes of complex adaptive systems. This hope rests on arti cial life's working hypoth-.
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  19. The Scientific and Philosophical Scope of Artificial Life.Mark Bedau - manuscript
    The new interdisciplinary science of artificial life has had a connection with the arts from its inception. This paper provides an overview of artificial life, reviews its key scientific challenges, and discusses its philosophical implications. It ends with a few words about the implications of artificial life for the arts.
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  20. Artificial Life Illuminates Human Hyper-Creativity.Mark Bedau - manuscript
    The aim of this chapter is to show how the technological research activity called “artificial life” is shedding new light on human creativity. Artificial life aims to understanding the fundamental behavior of life-like systems by synthesizing that behavior in artificial systems (more on artificial life below). One of the most interesting behaviors of living systems is their creativity. Biological creativity can be found in both individual living organisms and in the whole biosphere—the entire interconnected system comprised of all forms of (...)
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  21. Artificial Life.Mark Bedau - 2003 - In Luciano Floridi (ed.), Blackwell Guide to the Philosophy of Computing and Information. Blackwell. pp. 505-512.
    Artificial life (also known as “ALife”) is a broad, interdisciplinary endeavor that studies life and life-like processes through simulation and synthesis. The goals of this activity include modelling and even creating life and life-like systems, as well as developing practical applications using intuitions and methods taken from living systems. Artificial life both illuminates traditional philosophical questions and raises new philosophical questions. Since both artificial life and philosophy investigate the essential nature of certain fundamental aspects of reality like life and adaptation, (...)
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  22. Three Illustrations of Artificial Life's Working Hypothesis.Mark A. Bedau - unknown
    Artificial life uses computer models to study the essential nature of the characteristic processes of complex adaptive systems proceses such as self-organization, adaptation, and evolution. Work in the field is guided by the working hypothesis that simple computer models can capture the essential nature of these processes. This hypothesis is illustrated by recent results with a simple population of computational agents whose sensorimotor functionality undergo open-ended adaptive evolution. These might illuminate three aspects of complex adaptive systems in general: punctuated equilibrium (...)
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  23. Artificial Life: Organization, Adaptation and Complexity From the Bottom Up.Mark A. Bedau - 2003 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 7 (11):505-512.
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  24. Philosophical Content and Method of Artificial Life.Mark A. Bedau - 1998 - In T. W. Bynum & J. Moor (eds.), The Digital Phoenix. Cambridge: Blackwell. pp. 135--152.
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  25. Cryptographic Hash Functions Based on ALife.Mark A. Bedau, Richard Crandall & Michael J. Raven - 2009 - PSIpress.
    There is a long history of cryptographic hash functions, i.e. functions mapping variable-length strings to fixed-length strings, and such functions are also expected to enjoy certain security properties. Hash functions can be effected via modular arithmetic, permutation-based schemes, chaotic mixing, and so on. Herein we introduce the notion of an artificial-life (ALife) hash function (ALHF), whereby the requisite mixing action of a good hash function is accomplished via ALife rules that give rise to complex evolution of a given system. Various (...)
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  26. Playing God in Frankenstein's Footsteps: Synthetic Biology and the Meaning of Life.H. Belt - unknown
    The emergent new science of synthetic biology is challenging entrenched distinctions between, amongst others, life and non-life, the natural and the artificial, the evolved and the designed, and even the material and the informational. Whenever such culturally sanctioned boundaries are breached, researchers are inevitably accused of playing God or treading in Frankenstein’s footsteps. Bioethicists, theologians and editors of scientific journals feel obliged to provide an authoritative answer to the ambiguous question of the ‘meaning’ of life, both as a scientific definition (...)
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  27. Synthesis as a Route to Knowledge.Steven A. Benner - 2013 - Biological Theory 8 (4):357-367.
    A science is an intellectual activity defined by its mechanisms that prevent its scientists from always reaching the conclusions that they set out to reach. Such mechanisms are needed because, if scientists are given full control over what hypotheses they select, what data they discard, and what results they publish, they can communicate any conclusion that they desire. Synthesis, by setting a grand challenge, forces scientists across uncharted territory where they encounter and solve unscripted problems. When theory is inadequate, the (...)
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  28. Great Expectations—German Debates About Artificial Insemination in Humans Around 1912.Christina Benninghaus - 2007 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 38 (2):374-392.
    In May 1912, reports on successful attempts at artificial insemination hit the German papers. Over the following months, the topic was taken up in medical lectures, in the debates of medical associations, and in medical journals. The technique—which had not much changed since the days of James Marion Sims—apparently triggered the imagination of scientists, medical doctors, journalists and authors. That artificial insemination met such interest, however, was not primarily due to its medical usefulness or proven success. Given that insemination with (...)
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  29. Synthetic Biology As a Replica of Synthetic Chemistry? Uses and Misuses of History.Bernadette Bensaude-Vincent - 2009 - Biological Theory 4 (4):314-318.
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  30. How Artificial Life Relates to Theoretical Biology.Hugues Bersini - 2009 - In Maryvonne Gérin & Marie-Christine Maurel (eds.), Origins of Life: Self-Organization and/or Biological Evolution? Edp Sciences. pp. 61--78.
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  31. Is Defining Life Pointless? Operational Definitions at the Frontiers of Biology.Leonardo Bich & Sara Green - 2017 - Synthese:1-28.
    Despite numerous and increasing attempts to define what life is, there is no consensus on necessary and sufficient conditions for life. Accordingly, some scholars have questioned the value of definitions of life and encouraged scientists and philosophers alike to discard the project. As an alternative to this pessimistic conclusion, we argue that critically rethinking the nature and uses of definitions can provide new insights into the epistemic roles of definitions of life for different research practices. This paper examines the possible (...)
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  32. Identifying Roles for Neurotransmission in Circuit Assembly: Insights Gained From Multiple Model Systems and Experimental Approaches.Adam Bleckert & Rachel Ol Wong - 2011 - Bioessays 33 (1):61-72.
  33. The Philosophy of Artificial Life.A. Boden Margaret (ed.) - 1996 - Oxford University Press.
    This new volume in the acclaimed Oxford Readings in Philosophy sereis offers a selection of the most important philosophical work being done in the new and fast-growing interdisciplinary area of artificial life. Artificial life research seeks to synthesize the characteristics of life by artificial means, particularly employing computer technology. The essays here explore such fascinating themes as the nature of life, the relation between life and mind, and the limits of technology.
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  34. The Intellectual Context of Artificial Life.M. A. Boden - 1996 - In Margaret A. Boden (ed.), The Philosophy of Artificial Life. Oxford University Press. pp. 1--35.
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  35. Is Metabolism Necessary?MA Boden - 1999 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 50 (2):231-248.
    Metabolism is a criterion of life. Three senses are distinguished. The weakest allows strong A-Life: virtual creatures having physical existence in computer electronics, but not bodies, are classes as 'alive'. The second excludes strong A-Life but allows that some non-biochemical A-Life robots could be classed as alive. The third, which stresses the body's self-production by energy budgeting and self-equilibrating energy exchanges of some (necessary) complexity, excludes both strong A-Life and living non-biochemical robots.
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  36. Life and Mind.Margaret A. Boden - 2009 - Minds and Machines 19 (4):453-463.
    It’s sometimes said, and even more often assumed, that life is necessary for mind. If so, and if A-Life promises to throw light on the nature of life as such, then A-Life is in principle highly relevant to the philosophy of mind and cognitive science. However, very few philosophers have attempted to argue for the relation between life and mind. It’s usually taken for granted. Even those (mostly in the Continental tradition, including some with a following in A-Life) who have (...)
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  37. Artificial Life as It Could Be.Eric Bonabeau & Paul Bourgine - 1994 - World Futures 40 (4):227-249.
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  38. Perspectives on Adaptation in Natural and Artificial Systems: Proceedings Volume in the Santa Fe Institute Studies in the Sciences of Complexity.Lashon Booker, Stephanie Forrest, Melanie Mitchell & Rick Riolo (eds.) - 2004 - Oxford University Press USA.
    This book is a collection of essays exploring adaptive systems from many perspectives, ranging from computational applications to models of adaptation in living and social systems. The essays on computation discuss history, theory, applications, and possible threats of adaptive and evolving computations systems. The modeling chapters cover topics such as evolution in microbial populations, the evolution of cooperation, and how ideas about evolution relate to economics. The title Perspectives on Adaptation in Natural and Artificial Systems honors John Holland, whose 1975 (...)
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  39. Building a Bird Brain: Sculpting Neural Circuits for a Learned Behavior.Sarah W. Bottjer - 1997 - Bioessays 19 (12):1109-1116.
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  40. Creative Agency: A Clearer Goal for Artificial Life in the Arts.Oliver Bown & Jon McCormack - unknown
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  41. The Relationship Between Matter and Life.Rodney Brooks - 2001 - Nature 409 (6818):409-411.
    Researchers in artificial intelligence (AI) Moore’s law states that computational complexity of the models is still far below that and artificial life (Alife) are interested resources for a fixed price roughly double of any living system. New experiments in evo- in understanding the properties of liv- every 18 months. From about 1975 into the lution simulate spatially isolated populations ing organisms so that they can build artificial early 1990s all the gains of Moore’s law went to investigate speciation. Over the (...)
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  42. Artificial Life and Real Robots.Rodney A. Brooks - unknown
    The first part of this paper explores the general issues in using Artificial Life techniques to program actual mobile robots. In particular it explores the difficulties inherent in transferring programs evolved in a simulated environment to run on an actual robot. It examines the dual evolution of organism morphology and nervous systems in biology. It proposes techniques to capture some of the search space pruning that dual evolution offers in the domain of robot programming. It explores the relationship between robot (...)
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  43. Concepts in Artificial Organisms.Angelo Cangelosi & Domenico Parisi - 1998 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (1):68-69.
    Simulations with neural networks living in a virtual environment can be used to explore and test hypotheses concerning concepts and language. The advantages that result from this approach include (1) the notion that a concept can be precisely defined and examined, (2) that concepts can be studied in both nonverbal and verbal artificial organisms, and (3) concepts have properties that depend on the environment as well as on the organism's adaptive behavior in response to the environment.
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  44. The Evolution of Learning: An Experiment in Genetic Connectionism.David Chalmers - 1992 - In Connectionist Models: Proceedings of the 1990 Summer School Workshop. Morgan Kaufmann.
    This paper explores how an evolutionary process can produce systems that learn. A general framework for the evolution of learning is outlined, and is applied to the task of evolving mechanisms suitable for supervised learning in single-layer neural networks. Dynamic properties of a network’s information-processing capacity are encoded genetically, and these properties are subjected to selective pressure based on their success in producing adaptive behavior in diverse environments. As a result of selection and genetic recombination, various successful learning mechanisms evolve, (...)
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  45. How Cartesian Dualism Might Have Been True.David J. Chalmers - manuscript
    We could have been characters in a huge computer simulation. It is a familiar idea that the whole world might be simulated on a computer, and things would seem exactly the same to us (and indeed, who is to say that we are not).
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  46. Biorobotics Researcher: To Be or Not to Be?Carolina Chang - 2001 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (6):1054-1054.
    Much confusion exists within the robotics and the biology communities regarding the definition of biorobotics and the aims and strategies that characterize this approach. Not even the basic criteria for identifying biorobotic research are being applied consistently. Barbara Webb has taken a crucial step towards setting a common ground from which biorobotic systems can be described, analyzed, and compared.
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  47. The Vital Machine: A Study of Technology and Organic Life.David F. Channell - 1991 - Oxford University Press.
    In 1738, Jacques Vaucanson unveiled his masterpiece before the court of Louis XV: a gilded copper duck that ate, drank, quacked, flapped its wings, splashed about, and, most astonishing of all, digested its food and excreted the remains. The imitation of life by technology fascinated Vaucanson's contemporaries. Today our technology is more powerful, but our fascination is tempered with apprehension. Artificial intelligence and genetic engineering, to name just two areas, raise profoundly disturbing ethical issues that undermine our most fundamental beliefs (...)
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  48. How Situated Cognition is Different From Situated Robotics.William Clancey - 1995 - In Luc Steels & Rodney Brooks (eds.), The "Artificial Life" Route to "Artificial Intelligence": Building Situated Embodied Agents. Hillsdale, Nj: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. pp. 227-236.
  49. Computational Neuroethology: A Provisional Manifesto.D. Cliff - 1990 - In Jean-Arcady Meyer & Stewart W. Wilson (eds.), From Animals to Animats: Proceedings of the First International Conference on Simulation of Adaptive Behavior (Complex Adaptive Systems). Cambridge University Press.
  50. Robot Rights? Towards a Social-Relational Justification of Moral Consideration.Mark Coeckelbergh - 2010 - Ethics and Information Technology 12 (3):209-221.
    Should we grant rights to artificially intelligent robots? Most current and near-future robots do not meet the hard criteria set by deontological and utilitarian theory. Virtue ethics can avoid this problem with its indirect approach. However, both direct and indirect arguments for moral consideration rest on ontological features of entities, an approach which incurs several problems. In response to these difficulties, this paper taps into a different conceptual resource in order to be able to grant some degree of moral consideration (...)
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