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  1. added 2019-01-02
    Bio-Agency and the Possibility of Artificial Agents.Anne Sophie Meincke - 2018 - In Alexander Christian, David Hommen, Nina Retzlaff & Gerhard Schurz (eds.), Philosophy of Science - Between the Natural Sciences, the Social Sciences, and the Humanities. Selected Papers from the 2016 conference of the German Society of Philosophy of Science. Dordrecht, Netherlands: pp. 65-93.
    Within the philosophy of biology, recently promising steps have been made towards a biologically grounded concept of agency. Agency is described as bio-agency: the intrinsically normative adaptive behaviour of human and non-human organisms, arising from their biological autonomy. My paper assesses the bio-agency approach by examining criticism recently directed by its proponents against the project of embodied robotics. Defenders of the bio-agency approach have claimed that embodied robots do not, and for fundamental reasons cannot, qualify as artificial agents because they (...)
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  2. added 2018-10-07
    Artificial Life: A Feast for the Imagination. A Review of Christopher G. Langton , "Artificial Life". [REVIEW]Daniel C. Dennett - 1990 - Biology and Philosophy 5 (4):489.
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  3. added 2018-06-23
    Should Machines Be Tools or Tool-Users? Clarifying Motivations and Assumptions in the Quest for Superintelligence.Dan J. Bruiger - manuscript
    Much of the basic non-technical vocabulary of artificial intelligence is surprisingly ambiguous. Some key terms with unclear meanings include intelligence, embodiment, simulation, mind, consciousness, perception, value, goal, agent, knowledge, belief, optimality, friendliness, containment, machine and thinking. Much of this vocabulary is naively borrowed from the realm of conscious human experience to apply to a theoretical notion of “mind-in-general” based on computation. However, if there is indeed a threshold between mechanical tool and autonomous agent (and a tipping point for singularity), projecting (...)
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  4. added 2018-06-14
    Modelo de Aprendizaje Biocibernetico BLM.Cesar Rommel Salas - 2017 - Computers and Society.
    La educación en el periodo digital en el que vivimos está alcanzando retos nunca antes vistos, precedidos por fenómenos que involucran no solamente a unidades sociales tradicionales, sino también a las nuevas comunidades virtuales; innovar es difícil, es un reto, no obstante, hay que pensar en nuevos métodos de enseñanza que impacten a la actual generación de estudiantes, los mismos que llegan con nuevas necesidades y expectativas. La construcción del conocimiento desde el sujeto y el mundo virtual que lo rodea, (...)
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  5. added 2018-06-14
    Two Theoretical Dimensions of the Cyber Hate Crime.Cesar Rommel Salas - 2017 - Social Research 1 (01):1-4.
    The impact and relationship between technologies and society establish the development of certain adaptive models, based on coexistence (Human-information-Machine), as well as several behavioral and cognitive changes of the human being, and new models of influence and social control through ubiquitous communication. which is the basis of a new social units called "virtual communities". The rupture of social norms that accompanies rapid social change, and subsequently the appearance of sub-cultural values establishes gaining status of participation in criminal activities, the components (...)
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  6. added 2018-06-14
    Antropología de la Informática Social: Teoría de la Convergencia Tecno-Social.Cesar Rommel Salas - 2016 - Computers and Society.
    El humanismo tradicional del siglo XX, inspirado por la cultura del libro, se distanció sistemáticamente de la nueva sociedad de la información digital; el Internet y las herramientas de procesamiento de información revolucionaron el mundo, la sociedad en el transcurso de este periodo desarrolló ciertas características adaptativas, basadas en la convivencia (Humano – Maquina), esta transformación establece su base en el impacto de tres segmentos tecnológicos: Los dispositivos, las aplicaciones y la infraestructura de comunicación social, las cuales están envueltas en (...)
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  7. added 2018-05-31
    Nanotechnology and Nature: On Two Criteria for Understanding Their Relationship.Gregor Schiemann - 2005 - Hyle 11 (1):77 - 96.
    Two criteria are proposed for characterizing the diverse and not yet perspicuous relations between nanotechnology and nature. They assume a concept of nature as that which is not made by human action. One of the criteria endorses a distinction between natural and artificial objects in nanotechnology; the other allows for a discussion of the potential nanotechnological modification of nature. Insofar as current trends may be taken as indicative of future development, nanotechnology might increasingly use the model of nature as a (...)
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  8. added 2018-04-10
    Programming the Emergence in Morphogenetically Architected Complex Systems.Franck Varenne, Pierre Chaigneau, Jean Petitot & René Doursat - 2015 - Acta Biotheoretica 63 (3):295-308.
    Large sets of elements interacting locally and producing specific architectures reliably form a category that transcends the usual dividing line between biological and engineered systems. We propose to call them morphogenetically architected complex systems (MACS). While taking the emergence of properties seriously, the notion of MACS enables at the same time the design (or “meta-design”) of operational means that allow controlling and even, paradoxically, programming this emergence. To demonstrate our claim, we first show that among all the self-organized systems studied (...)
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  9. added 2018-04-10
    The Mathematical Theory of Categories in Biology and the Concept of Natural Equivalence in Robert Rosen.Franck Varenne - 2013 - Revue d'Histoire des Sciences 66 (1):167-197.
    The aim of this paper is to describe and analyze the epistemological justification of a proposal initially made by the biomathematician Robert Rosen in 1958. In this theoretical proposal, Rosen suggests using the mathematical concept of “category” and the correlative concept of “natural equivalence” in mathematical modeling applied to living beings. Our questions are the following: According to Rosen, to what extent does the mathematical notion of category give access to more “natural” formalisms in the modeling of living beings? Is (...)
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  10. added 2018-02-17
    Effect of Environmental Structure on Evolutionary Adaptation.Jeffrey A. Fletcher, Mark A. Bedau & Martin Zwick - 1998 - In R. Belew C. Adami (ed.), Artificial Life VI: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Artificial Life. Cambridge: MIT Press. pp. 189-198.
    This paper investigates how environmental structure, given the innate properties of a population, affects the degree to which this population can adapt to the environment. The model we explore involves simple agents in a 2-d world which can sense a local food distribution and, as specified by their genomes, move to a new location and ingest the food there. Adaptation in this model consists of improving the genomic sensorimotor mapping so as to maximally exploit the environmental resources. We vary environmental (...)
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  11. added 2018-01-19
    Symbols Are Not Uniquely Human.Sidarta Ribeiro, Angelo Loula, Ivan Araújo, Ricardo Gudwin & Joao Queiroz - 2006 - Biosystems 90 (1):263-272.
    Modern semiotics is a branch of logics that formally defines symbol-based communication. In recent years, the semiotic classification of signs has been invoked to support the notion that symbols are uniquely human. Here we show that alarm-calls such as those used by African vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops), logically satisfy the semiotic definition of symbol. We also show that the acquisition of vocal symbols in vervet monkeys can be successfully simulated by a computer program based on minimal semiotic and neurobiological constraints. (...)
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  12. added 2018-01-11
    Towards the Emergence of Meaning Processes in Computers From Peircean Semiotics.Antônio Gomes, Ricardo Gudwin, Charbel Niño El-Hani & João Queiroz - 2007 - Mind and Society 6 (2):173-187.
    In this work, we propose a computational approach to the triadic model of Peircean semiosis (meaning processes). We investigate theoretical constraints about the feasibility of simulated semiosis. These constraints, which are basic requirements for the simulation of semiosis, refer to the synthesis of irreducible triadic relations (Sign–Object–Interpretant). We examine the internal organization of the triad S–O–I, that is, the relative position of its elements and how they relate to each other. We also suggest a multi-level approach based on self-organization principles. (...)
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  13. added 2018-01-08
    The Emergence of Symbol-Based Communication in a Complex System of Artificial Creatures.Angelo Loula, Ricardo Gudwin, Charbel El-Hani & João Queiroz - unknown
    We present here a digital scenario to simulate the emergence of self-organized symbol-based communication among artificial creatures inhabiting a virtual world of predatory events. In order to design the environment and creatures, we seek theoretical and empirical constraints from C.S.Peirce Semiotics and an ethological case study of communication among animals. Our results show that the creatures, assuming the role of sign users and learners, behave collectively as a complex system, where self-organization of communicative interactions plays a major role in the (...)
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  14. added 2017-10-22
    Towards a Behavioral-Matching Based Compilation of Synthetic Biology Functions.Adrien Basso-Blandin & Franck Delaplace - 2015 - Acta Biotheoretica 63 (3):325-339.
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  15. added 2017-10-22
    The Good of Non-Sentient Entities: Organisms, Artifacts, and Synthetic Biology.John Basl & Ronald Sandler - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 44 (4):697-705.
    Synthetic organisms are at the same time organisms and artifacts. In this paper we aim to determine whether such entities have a good of their own, and so are candidates for being directly morally considerable. We argue that the good of non-sentient organisms is grounded in an etiological account of teleology, on which non-sentient organisms can come to be teleologically organized on the basis of their natural selection etiology. After defending this account of teleology, we argue that there are no (...)
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  16. added 2017-10-22
    Is Metabolism Necessary?M. Boden - 1999 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 50 (2):231-248.
    Metabolism is a criterion of life. Three senses are distinguished. The weakest allows strong A-Life: virtual creatures having physical existence in computer electronics, but not bodies, are classes as 'alive'. The second excludes strong A-Life but allows that some non-biochemical A-Life robots could be classed as alive. The third, which stresses the body's self-production by energy budgeting and self-equilibrating energy exchanges of some (necessary) complexity, excludes both strong A-Life and living non-biochemical robots.
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  17. added 2017-10-02
    Knowledge‐Making Distinctions in Synthetic Biology.Maureen A. O'Malley, Alexander Powell, Jonathan F. Davies & Jane Calvert - 2008 - Bioessays 30 (1):57-65.
  18. added 2017-09-29
    Synthesis as a Route to Knowledge.Steven A. Benner - 2013 - Biological Theory 8 (4):357-367.
    A science is an intellectual activity defined by its mechanisms that prevent its scientists from always reaching the conclusions that they set out to reach. Such mechanisms are needed because, if scientists are given full control over what hypotheses they select, what data they discard, and what results they publish, they can communicate any conclusion that they desire. Synthesis, by setting a grand challenge, forces scientists across uncharted territory where they encounter and solve unscripted problems. When theory is inadequate, the (...)
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  19. added 2017-09-29
    Synthetic Biology As a Replica of Synthetic Chemistry? Uses and Misuses of History.Bernadette Bensaude-Vincent - 2009 - Biological Theory 4 (4):314-318.
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  20. added 2017-09-29
    Playing God in Frankenstein's Footsteps: Synthetic Biology and the Meaning of Life.H. Belt - unknown
    The emergent new science of synthetic biology is challenging entrenched distinctions between, amongst others, life and non-life, the natural and the artificial, the evolved and the designed, and even the material and the informational. Whenever such culturally sanctioned boundaries are breached, researchers are inevitably accused of playing God or treading in Frankenstein’s footsteps. Bioethicists, theologians and editors of scientific journals feel obliged to provide an authoritative answer to the ambiguous question of the ‘meaning’ of life, both as a scientific definition (...)
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  21. added 2017-09-11
    Artificial in its Own Right.Keith Elkin - manuscript
    Artificial Cells, , Artificial Ecologies, Artificial Intelligence, Bio-Inspired Hardware Systems, Computational Autopoiesis, Computational Biology, Computational Embryology, Computational Evolution, Morphogenesis, Cyborgization, Digital Evolution, Evolvable Hardware, Cyborgs, Mathematical Biology, Nanotechnology, Posthuman, Transhuman.
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  22. added 2017-07-16
    Metabolism in a-Life: Reply to Boden.Mark Alliksaar - 2001 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 52 (1):131-135.
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  23. added 2017-03-10
    Is Defining Life Pointless? Operational Definitions at the Frontiers of Biology.Leonardo Bich & Sara Green - 2017 - Synthese:1-28.
    Despite numerous and increasing attempts to define what life is, there is no consensus on necessary and sufficient conditions for life. Accordingly, some scholars have questioned the value of definitions of life and encouraged scientists and philosophers alike to discard the project. As an alternative to this pessimistic conclusion, we argue that critically rethinking the nature and uses of definitions can provide new insights into the epistemic roles of definitions of life for different research practices. This paper examines the possible (...)
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  24. added 2017-02-15
    How Did the Computer Disappear?: HCI During the Experience of Second Life.Maeva Veerapen - unknown
  25. added 2017-02-15
    Artificial Presence: Philosophical Studies in Image Theory.Lambert Wiesing - 2009 - Stanford University Press.
  26. added 2017-02-13
    The Anatomy of Artificial Life: An Eighteenth-Century Perspective.Joan B. Landes - 2007 - In Jessica Riskin (ed.), Genesis Redux: Essays in the History and Philosophy of Artificial Life. University of Chicago Press. pp. 96--116.
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  27. added 2017-02-13
    The Meaningful Body: On the Differences Between Artificial and Organic Creatures.W. F. G. Haselager & M. E. Q. Gonzalez - 2006 - In A. Loula, R. Gudwin & J. Queiroz (eds.), Artificial Cognition Systems. Idea Group Publishers.
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  28. added 2017-02-13
    On the Nature of Programs, Simulations, and Organisms.R. J. Harvey - 1985 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 8 (4):741.
  29. added 2017-02-12
    After Life.Peter Weigel - 2012 - Review of Metaphysics 65 (3):692-693.
  30. added 2017-02-12
    What is Life? Among Other Things, It's a Synergistic Effect!Peter Corning - 2008 - Cosmos and History 4 (1-2):233-243.
    There have been many different ways of characterizing and describing the phenomenon of life over the years. One aspect that has not often been stressed is life’s emergent properties—the synergies that are produced when many elements or parts combine to produce distinctive new “wholes”. Indeed, complex living systems represent a multi-leveled, multi-faceted hierarchy of synergistic effects that has evolved over several billion years. Some of the many examples of synergy at various levels of life are briefly described, and it is (...)
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  31. added 2017-02-10
    Life.R. J. B. - 1961 - Review of Metaphysics 14 (3):570-570.
  32. added 2017-02-09
    This Philosophical Life.Chris Fotinopoulos - 2005 - Philosophy Now 51:34-35.
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  33. added 2017-02-08
    The Art of Life.Gary Scott - 2003 - Review of Metaphysics 57 (2):423-424.
  34. added 2017-02-07
    Great Expectations—German Debates About Artificial Insemination in Humans Around 1912.Christina Benninghaus - 2007 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 38 (2):374-392.
    In May 1912, reports on successful attempts at artificial insemination hit the German papers. Over the following months, the topic was taken up in medical lectures, in the debates of medical associations, and in medical journals. The technique—which had not much changed since the days of James Marion Sims—apparently triggered the imagination of scientists, medical doctors, journalists and authors. That artificial insemination met such interest, however, was not primarily due to its medical usefulness or proven success. Given that insemination with (...)
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  35. added 2017-02-07
    The Artificial Between Culture and Nature.Giuseppe Padovani - 2000 - AI and Society 14 (3-4):300-313.
    This paper aims to show that to think of the artificial means to think at the same time of man, nature, culture and society not as separate entities but as elements of one and the same system; since, in its field of action, the artificial articulates its component dimensions, which altogether are natural, human, cultural and social. Usually we call artificial both the procedure through which we project the realisation of something and the product of our project: the realisation of (...)
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  36. added 2017-02-07
    Natural Substances and Artificial Products.P. Laszlo - 1995 - Diogenes 43 (172):105-125.
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  37. added 2017-02-03
    Synthetic Life, What for and What Future?Armando Aranda-Anzaldo - 2011 - Ludus Vitalis 19 (36):213-215.
    This text answers the question, posed by the editor, on the philosophical and social issues resulting from the synthetic assembly of a modified bacterial genome that was introduced in an existing bacterial species (M.mycoides)and so it was claimed to represent the first ever kind of synthetic life produced by human manipulation.
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  38. added 2017-02-03
    Nature and Destiny: An Analysis and Synthesis of Means and Ends in Science, Art, and Life in General.Hans Christian Sandbeck - 1960 - [Oslo]Oslo University Press.
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  39. added 2017-02-02
    Biorobotic Simulations Might Offer Some Advantages Over Purely Computational Ones.Donald R. Franceschetti - 2001 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (6):1058-1059.
    A slight modification of Webb's diagrammatic representation of the dimensions for describing models is proposed which extends it to cover a range of theoretical models as well as material models. It is also argued that beyond a certain level robotic simulations could offer a number of real advantages over computer simulations of organisms interacting with their environment.
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  40. added 2017-01-29
    Artificial Life: An Overview.C. Langton & M. Boden - 1997 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 48 (4):587-601.
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  41. added 2017-01-27
    Spontaneous Order, Edge of Chaos and Artificial Life as Missing Ideas in Understanding Life.Andrzej Gecow - 2014 - Dialogue and Universalism 24 (2):63-80.
    The hypothesis “life on the edge of chaos” results from the stability of RBN, but living objects are not random; their structure and function are selected just for stability by Darwinian natural selection. The order of a crystal emerges spontaneously. The networks modeling living objects can be simultaneously ordered and chaotic on a similar level. They use chaotic parameters of RBNs. It is another edge of chaos. Definitions of artifacts are subjective and imprecise; problem should be described in other perspective. (...)
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  42. added 2017-01-27
    Review of FJ Varela & Paul Bourgine's (Eds) Towards a Practice of Autonomous Systems: Proceedings of the First European Conference on Artificial Life. [REVIEW]H. L. Roitblat - 1994 - Philosophical Psychology 7:139-139.
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  43. added 2017-01-26
    Neural Synthesis of Artificial Organisms Through Evolution.D. Floreano & S. Nolfi - 2002 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 6 (LIS-ARTICLE-2002-002):31-37.
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  44. added 2017-01-25
    Scientific Life: TrendsTalk.Shimon Edelman - 2012 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 16 (9).
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  45. added 2017-01-25
    Social Behaviour and Communication in Biological and Artificial Systems.James R. Hurford - 2007 - Interaction Studies 8 (3):501-517.
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  46. added 2017-01-25
    Artificial Life and Piaget.Ulrich Mueller & K. H. Grobman - 2003 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 7 (4):149-151.
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  47. added 2017-01-25
    Homeostasis and Life.Timothy Schallert & Sigmund Hsiao - 1979 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 2 (1):118.
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  48. added 2017-01-24
    On the Industrialisation of Biology.Peter Wellstead - 2011 - AI and Society 26 (1):21-33.
    The times required to develop new drugs is growing continuously and most drugs fail in the development process because we lack the detailed knowledge of biology and physiology needed to understand the result of a proposed treatment. The problem is one of complexity—we do not know the full complexity of living organisms, neither does traditional biology have the language to capture and integrate complexity. As a result, the life sciences are undergoing a period of radical change as the technological and (...)
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  49. added 2017-01-24
    From Natural to Artificial Life.Luís Miguel Parreira Correia - 2010 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 66 (4):789 - 802.
    Living organisms have long since been a source of inspiration for humans to build artifacts mimicking their behaviour. Usually models used are quite simple by comparison to their natural sources of inspiration. However, on computers, we have the freedom to test approaches both realistic and outnght speculative, from the biological point of view. This article overviews several Artificial Life (ALife) models and their application areas. On the one hand we have models that are currently used as tools in engineeering, especially (...)
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  50. added 2017-01-24
    A Literature of Working Life.R. Ennals - 2002 - AI and Society 16 (1-2):168-170.
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