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Siblings:History/traditions: Atheism

417 found
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  1. The Problem of Evil.Leslie Allan - manuscript
    The existence of evil, pain and suffering is considered by many philosophers to be the most vexed question concerning the existence of an omnipotent, omniscient and morally perfect deity. Why would a loving God permit wanton acts of cruelty and misery on the scale witnessed throughout human history? In this essay, Leslie Allan evaluates four common theistic responses to this problem, highlighting the benefits and challenges faced by each approach. He concludes with a critical examination of a theistic defence designed (...)
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  2. The Soul-Making Theodicy: A Response to Dore.Leslie Allan - manuscript
    The soul-making theodicy seeks to explain how belief in the existence of God is compatible with the evil, pain and suffering we experience in our world. It purports to meet the problem of evil posed by non-theists by articulating a divine plan in which the occurrence of evil is necessary for enabling the greater good of character building of free moral agents. Many philosophers of religion have levelled strong objections against this theodicy. In this essay, Leslie Allan considers the effectiveness (...)
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  3. Nonexistence of Gods: An Inductive Proof.Christian Buth - manuscript
    I prove the nonexistence of gods. The proof is based on three axioms: Ockham’s razor (OR), religiosity is endogenous in humans, and, there are no miracles. The OR is formulated operationally, to remove improper postulates, such that it yields not only a plausible argument but truth. The validity of the second and the third axiom is established empirically by inductive reasoning relying on a thorough analysis of the psychiatric literature and skeptical publications. With these axioms I prove that gods are (...)
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  4. On Atonement.S. Chattopadhyay - manuscript
    This paper deals with the theme of Atonement. It is a rudimentary paper which has been prepared in a hurry in these trying times; especially for the use of students all over the world during the ongoing pandemic of COVID 19. It deals with the title of Atonement. The article should be cited properly if referred to by anyone. It is made open access since the author believes any knowledge worth sharing should be freely available to all.
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  5. Descartes' Refutation of Atheism: A Defense.Steven M. Duncan - manuscript
    Descartes argues that, apart from the existence of a veracious God, we can have no reason to believe that we possess reliable cognitive faculties, with the result that, if atheism is true, not even our seemingly most certain beliefs can count as knowledge for us. Since the atheist denies the existence of God, he or she will be precisely in this position. I argue that Descartes' argument is sound, and that atheism is therefore self-refuting.
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  6. The End of the Teapot Argument for Atheism (and All Its Tawdry Imitators).Mark Sharlow -
    Atheists sometimes use Bertrand Russell's teapot argument, and its variants with other objects in place of the teapot, to argue for the rationality of atheism. In this paper I show that this use of the teapot argument and its variants is unacceptably circular. The circularity arises because there is indirect evidence against the objects invoked in the arguments.
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  7. VARIETIES OF ATHEISM What is Analytical Atheism?Aaron Sloman - manuscript
    William James wrote about varieties of religious experience (See http://etext.virginia.edu/toc/modeng/public/JamVari.html) but I don't know of anyone who has documented the varieties of atheism. Unlike James I don't here attempt to collect data about what atheists say and do, and how they came by their atheism. This is, instead, an analytical paper describing how various sorts of atheistic position can arise in opposition to various sorts of theistic position. Clarity about this could help to make debates about atheism and theism more (...)
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  8. Playing Fast and Loose with Complexity: A Critique of Dawkins' Atheistic Argument From Improbability.Mark Sharlow - 2009
    This paper is a critique of Richard Dawkins’ “argument from improbability” against the existence of God. This argument, which forms the core of Dawkins’ book The God Delusion, provides an interesting example of the use of scientific ideas in arguments about religion. Here I raise three objections: (1) The argument is inapplicable to philosophical conceptions of God that reduce most of God’s complexity to that of the physical universe. (2) The argument depends on a way of estimating probabilities that fails (...)
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  9. Private Evidence for Atheism.Aaron Bartolome - forthcoming - Religious Studies:1-18.
    This article presents an argument for atheism that contains a premise stated from the first-person perspective and that is intended to rationally persuade people who satisfy certain conditions. The argument also contains a premise about what God would do, if God existed, that is acceptable to theists and is affirmed in some major monotheistic religious traditions. This article explains how the argument differs from some other familiar arguments for atheism and then discusses some critical responses to it.
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  10. What We Can and Cannot Say: An Apophatic Response to Atheism.Joshua Matthan Brown - forthcoming - In Joshua Matthan Brown & James Siemens (eds.), Eastern Christian Approaches to Philosophy. Palgrave Macmillan.
    Joshua Matthan Brown contrasts the concept of God assumed by most analytic philosophers, what he refers to as theistic personalism, with that of the apophatic conception of God endorsed by Eastern Christian thinkers. He maintains that the most powerful and economical response to contemporary arguments for atheism is to reject theistic personalism and adopt apophatic theism. Apophatic theists believe there is a lot we cannot say about God, taking the divine nature to be completely ineffable. Brown develops a coherent account (...)
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  11. Atheismus. Begriffsbestimmung, Verbreitung, Geschichte, Argumente.Godehard Brüntrup - forthcoming - In Heinrich Oberreuter (ed.), Staatslexikon der Görres-Gesellschaft. Herder.
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  12. Great Minds Do Not Think Alike: Philosophers’ Views Predicted By Reflection, Education, Personality, And Other Demographic Differences.Nick Byrd - forthcoming - Review of Philosophy and Psychology:1-38.
    Prior research found correlations between reflection test performance and philosophical tendencies among laypeople. In two large studies (total N = 1299)—one pre-registered—many of these correlations were replicated in a sample that included both laypeople and philosophers. For example, reflection test performance predicted preferring atheism over theism and instrumental harm over harm avoidance on the trolley problem. However, most reflection-philosophy correlations were undetected when controlling for other factors such as numeracy, preferences for open-minded thinking, personality, philosophical training, age, and gender. Nonetheless, (...)
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  13. Believing in Dawkins: The New Spiritual Atheism. By Eric Steinhart. [REVIEW]Helen De Cruz - forthcoming - Journal of the American Academy of Religion.
    (in lieu of abstract, first paragraphs here) For philosophers, reading Richard Dawkins is often a frustrating experience. Many of Dawkins’ writings treat important philosophical topics, such as the existence of God, the meaning of life, the relationship of randomness to order. Dawkins has original ideas, but he lacks the philosophical training and vocabulary to articulate these ideas properly and to develop them coherently. In Believing in Dawkins, Eric Steinhart sets himself an ambitious task: to use the writings of Dawkins to (...)
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  14. Should Atheists Wish That There Were No Gratuitous Evil?Guy Kahane - forthcoming - Faith and Philosophy.
    Many atheists argue that because gratuitous evil exists, God (probably) doesn’t. But doesn’t this commit atheists to wishing that God did exist, and to the protheist view that the world would have been better had God existed? This doesn’t follow. I argue that if all that evil still remains but is just no longer gratuitous, then, from an atheist perspective, that wouldn’t have been better. And while a counterfactual from which that evil is literally absent would have been impersonally better, (...)
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  15. Optimism Without Theism? Nagasawa on Atheism, Evolution, and Evil.Guy Kahane - forthcoming - Religious Studies.
    Nagasawa has argued that the suffering associated with evolution presents a greater challenge to atheism than to theism because that evil is incompatible with ‘existential optimism’ about the world—with seeing the world as an overall good place, and being thankful that we exist. I argue that even if atheism was incompatible with existential optimism in this way, this presents no threat to atheism. Moreover, it’s unclear how the suffering associated with evolution could on its own undermine existential optimism. Links between (...)
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  16. Aspirational Theism and Gratuitous Suffering.Jimmy Alfonso Licon - forthcoming - Religious Studies.
    Philosophers have long wondered whether God exists; and yet, they have ignored the question of whether we should hope that He exists – call this stance aspirational theism. In this article, I argue that we have a weighty pro tanto reason to adopt this stance: theism offers a metaphysical guarantee against gratuitous suffering (i.e. God would not permit gratuitous suffering). On the other hand, few atheist alternatives offer such a guarantee – and even then, there are reasons to worry that (...)
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  17. The Pure Sky and the Eternal Return: Zarathustra’s Affirmative Atheism.Gideon Baker - 2022 - Nietzsche Studien 51 (1):195-217.
    Zarathustra initially describes churches as the stale caves of world-denying priests. However, following his encounter with the eternal return of the same, Zarathustra overcomes this resentful atheism. The pure sky that Zarathustra desires above all else, a sky emptied of the gods, is not visible again through the holes in ruined church roofs, but really thanks to these holes. The pure sky is an image of the world liberated from the teleological time of theistic providence, indeed even from the divine (...)
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  18. John R. Shook. "Systematic Atheology: Atheism’s Reasoning with Theology.".Christopher Dorn - 2022 - Philosophy in Review 42 (2):41-43.
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  19. Psychedelics, Atheism, and Naturalism Myth and Reality.Chris Letheby - 2022 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 29 (7-8):69-92.
    An emerging body of research suggests that psychedelic experiences can change users’ religious or metaphysical beliefs. Here I explore issues concerning psychedelic-induced belief change via a critique of some recent arguments by Wayne Glausser. Two scientific studies seem to show that psychedelic experiences can convert atheists to belief in God, but Glausser holds that academic and popular discussions of these studies are misleading. I offer a different analysis of the relevant findings, attempting to preserve the insights of Glausser’s critique while (...)
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  20. What the Problem of Evil Properly Entails.I. Neminemus - 2022 - Social Sciences Research Network.
    It is sometimes thought that the Problem of Evil entails the inexistence of God. However, this is not the case: it only entails the inexistence of an omnipotent-benevolent god, of which the God of Classical Theism is an example. As for ‘limited’ deities such as that of process theology, or malevolent deities such as that of dystheism, the problem of evil is not a problem at all.
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  21. On an Epistemic Cornerstone of Skeptical Theism: In Defense of CORNEA.Timothy Perrine - 2022 - Sophia 61 (3):533-555.
    Skeptical theism is a family of responses to arguments from evil. One important member of that family is Stephen Wykstra’s CORNEA-based criticism of William Rowe’s arguments from evil. A cornerstone of Wykstra’s approach is his CORNEA principle. However, a number of authors have criticized CORNEA on various grounds, including that it has odd results, it cannot do the work it was meant to, and it problematically conflicts with the so-called common sense epistemology. In this paper, I explicate and defend a (...)
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  22. Review of "Positive Atheism" by Charles Devellennes. [REVIEW]Lloyd Strickland - 2022 - Eighteenth-Century Studies 55:413-415.
  23. ATHEISM AS AN EXTREME REJECTION OF RATIONAL EVIDENCE FOR THE EXISTENCE OF GOD.Carlo Alvaro - 2021 - Heythrop Journal 62 (2):1-16.
    Explicit atheism is a philosophical position according to which belief in God is irrational, and thus it should be rejected. In this paper, I revisit, extend, and defend against the most telling counter arguments the Kalām Cosmological Argument in order to show that explicit atheism must be deemed as a positively irrational position.
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  24. The Cambridge History of Atheism.Stephen Bullivant (ed.) - 2021 - Cambridge University Press.
    The two-volume Cambridge History of Atheism offers an authoritative and up to date account of a subject of contemporary interest. Comprised of sixty essays by an international team of scholars, this History is comprehensive in scope. The essays are written from a variety of disciplinary perspectives, including religious studies, philosophy, sociology, and classics. Offering a global overview of the subject, from antiquity to the present, the volumes examine the phenomenon of unbelief in the context of Christian, Islamic, Buddhist, Hindu, and (...)
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  25. Bayesian Reasoning’s Power to Challenge Religion and Empirically Justify Atheism.Richard Carrier - 2021 - Socio-Historical Examination of Religion and Ministry 3 (1):75-95.
    Bayes’ Theorem is a simple mathematical equation that can model every empirical argument. Accordingly, once understood it can be used to analyze, criticize, or improve any argument in matters of fact. By extension, it can substantially improve an overall argument for atheism by revealing that god apologetics generally operates through the omission of evidence, and how every argument for there being a god becomes an argument against there being a god once you reintroduce all the pertinent evidence that the original (...)
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  26. Living Without God: A Multicultural Spectrum of Atheism, Sophia, Springer.Sanjit Chakraborty & Anway Mukhopadhyay - 2021 - Switzerland Township, OH, USA: Springer Nature.
    This special issue of Sophia, titled Living without God: A Multicultural Spectrum of Atheism, deals with the intricate issue of approaching atheism—methodologically as well as conceptually—from the perspective of cultural pluralism. What does ‘atheism’ mean in different cultural contexts? Can this term be applied appropriately to different religious discourses which conceptualize God/gods/Goddess/goddesses (and also godlessness) in hugely divergent ways? Or would that rather be a sort of hegemonic homogenization of all possible modalities of living without God, as Jessica Frazier argues (...)
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  27. On the Death of God in Lacan – A Nuanced Atheism.Tom Dalzell - 2021 - Heythrop Journal 63 (1):27-34.
    This article examines the death of God theme in the work of Jacques Lacan and indicates some convergences with Christian theology. It distinguishes the ‘atheism’ of Lacan from the atheism of Freud. And it demonstrates that if Lacan does not believe in the God equated with Being, the God of the philosophers, the later Lacan’s argument for what he calls the ‘eksistence’ of God beyond language, the God of the mystics, makes for a highly nuanced atheism.
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  28. No-Fault Unbelief.Roberto Di Ceglie - 2021 - Sophia 60 (1):91-101.
    ‘No-fault unbelief’ can be named the view that there are those who do not believe in God through no moral or intellectual fault of their own. This view opposes a more traditional one, which can be named ‘flawed unbelief’ view, according to which religious unbelief signals a cognitive or moral flaw in the non-believer. Since this charge of mental or moral flaw causes a certain uneasiness, I oppose the former view, i.e. ‘no-fault unbelief’, with a strategy that has nothing to (...)
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  29. Progress on the Problem of Evil.Seyyed Mohsen Eslami & Dan Egonsson - 2021 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 29 (2):221-235.
    A standard reaction to the problem of evil is to look for a greater good that can explain why God (with the traditional attributes) might have created this world instead of a seemingly better one which has no (or less) evil. This paper proposes an approach we call the Moral Progress Approach: Given the value of progress, a non-perfect world containing evil may be preferable to a perfect world without evil. This makes room for the possibility that this world, with (...)
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  30. We Are Not in the Dark: Refuting Popular Arguments Against Skeptical Theism.Perry Hendricks - 2021 - American Philosophical Quarterly 58 (2):125-134.
    Critics of skeptical theism often claim that if it (skeptical theism) is true, then we are in the dark about whether (or for all we know) there is a morally justifying for God to radically deceive us. From here, it is argued that radical skepticism follows: if we are truly in the dark about whether there is a morally justifying reason for God to radically deceive us, then we cannot know anything. In this article, I show that skeptical theism does (...)
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  31. Atheism During the Time of the Ahlul-Bayt (Peace Be Upon Them), and Their Approach of Responding to It.Zawwar Hussein - 2021 - Al-Daleel 4 (13):156-182.
    Atheism is the deviation from integrity and the denial of the existence of God Almighty, monotheism and Islam. Even though that man has been created with the pure nature of Islam, he might incline to atheism because of some reasons and motives. However, the phenomenon of atheism was available at the time of the Ahlul-Bayt, but its general characteristics, at that time, were sensualism and naturalism, and that knowledge was limited to senses, imagination, and rationality tainted by illusion and imagination, (...)
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  32. The Path to Atheism Via God. [REVIEW]Rory Jeffs - 2021 - The European Legacy 27 (3-4):366-373.
    In Europe in the annus horriibilis of 1933, Edmund Husserl wrote in an unpublished manuscript: “If such a science indeed leads to God, its road would be to an atheistic God.” Initia...
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  33. Atheism is Nothing but an Expression of Buddha-Nature.Gereon Kopf - 2021 - Sophia 60 (3):607-622.
    The theism-atheism debate is foreign to many Mahāyāna Buddhist thinkers such as the Japanese Zen Master Dōgen. Nevertheless, his philosophy of ‘expression’ is able to shine a new light on the various incarnations of this debate throughout history. This paper will explore a/theism from Dōgen’s philosophical standpoint.Dōgen introduces the notion of ‘expression’ to describe the concomitant vertical and horizontal relationships of the religious project, namely the relationship between the individual and the divine as well as the relationship among a multiplicity (...)
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  34. On Affirming the Unintelligible God: Examining Denys Turner’s Account of Atheism.Kaz Kukiela - 2021 - Studia Gilsoniana 10 (3):749-761.
    This paper investigates Denys Turner’s article, “On Denying the Right God: Aquinas on Atheism and Idolatry.” According to the author, Denys Turner’s account contributes to theist and atheist debates by treating the issue of whether God can be intelligibly comprehended with great emphasis.
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  35. The one, the true, the good… or not: Badiou, Agamben, and atheistic transcendentality.King-Ho Leung - 2021 - Continental Philosophy Review 54 (1):75-97.
    This article offers a reading of the “transcendental” character of Alain Badiou’s and Giorgio Agamben’s ontologies. While neither Badiou nor Agamben are “transcendental” philosophers in the Kantian sense, this article argues that their respective projects of ontology both recover aspects of the “classical” conception of the transcendentals. Not unlike how pre-modern philosophers conceived of oneness, truth and goodness as transcendental properties of all things, both Badiou’s and Agamben’s ontologies present various structures which can be universally predicated of all being. However, (...)
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  36. From a Certain Point of View… Jain Theism and Atheism.Jeffery D. Long - 2021 - Sophia 60 (3):623-638.
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  37. ‘Do You Believe in God, Doctor?’ The Atheism of Fiction and the Fiction of Atheism.Rukmini Bhaya Nair - 2021 - Sophia 60 (3):749-768.
    This paper is an enquiry into some commonalities between fiction and atheism. It suggests that ‘disbelief’ may be a state of mind shared by both and asks how a meaningful semantics might be derived from the mental stance of disbelief. Albert Camus’ The Plague, published in 1947 post the trauma of two successive world wars, is a key ‘existentialist’ text that focuses on this dilemma. Not only is this work of fiction especially relevant to our current times of natural, political, (...)
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  38. The Failed Atheism of Jean‐Paul Sartre.Marcos Antonio Norris - 2021 - Heythrop Journal 63 (1):96-110.
    The Heythrop Journal, Volume 63, Issue 1, Page 96-110, January 2022.
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  39. Defining ‘Religion’ and ‘Atheism’.Graham Oppy - 2021 - Sophia 60 (3):517-529.
    There are various background issues that need to be discussed whenever the topic of conversation turns to religion and atheism. In particular, there are questions about how these terms are to be used in the course of the conversation. While it is sometimes the case that all parties to a conversation about religion and atheism have agreed what they mean by ‘religion’ and ‘atheism’, it is often enough the case that such conversations go poorly because the parties mean different things (...)
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  40. Is There a God?: A Debate.Kenneth L. Pearce & Graham Oppy - 2021 - Little Debates About Big Questions.
    Each author first presents his own side, and then they interact through two rounds of objections and replies. Pedagogical features include standard form arguments, section summaries, bolded key terms and principles, a glossary, and annotated reading lists.
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  41. Does Atheism Entail a Contradiction?Joshua Rasmussen - 2021 - Manuscrito 44 (4):31-48.
    I consider whether a contradiction may be deducible from the proposition that God does not exist. First, I expose a candidate counterexample to a key premise in Swinburne’s argument against the deducibility of a contradiction from God’s non-existence. Second, I present two new strategies one might use to deduce a contradiction. Both strategies make use of Tarski's T-schema together with developments in other theistic arguments. One argument is a conceptualist argument from necessary truth for a necessary mind, and the other (...)
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  42. Tomáš Bubík, Atko Remmel Und David Václavík, Hg.: Freethought and Atheism in Central and Eastern Europe. The Development of Secularity and Nonreligion (London/New York: Routledge, 2020), 331 S., ISBN 978-0-367-22631–2 (Hardcover), 978-0-429-27607–1 (E-Book).Jenny Vorpahl Und Dirk Schuster, Hg.: Communicating Religion and Atheism in Central and Eastern Europe (Berlin/Boston: De Gruyter, 2020), 312 S., ISBN 978-3-11-054637–8 (Hardcover), 978-3-11-054655–2 (E-Book). [REVIEW]Sebastian Rimestad - 2021 - Zeitschrift für Religionswissenschaft 29 (2):326-328.
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  43. Hume's Skepticism and the Problem of Atheism.Paul Russell - 2021 - In Reacsting Hume and Early Modern Philosophy: Selected Essays. New York, NY, USA: Oxford University Press. pp. 303-339.
    David Hume was clearly a critic of religion. It is still debated, however, whether or not he was an atheist who denied the existence of God. According to some interpretations he was a theist of some kind and others claim he was an agnostic who simply suspends any belief on this issue. This essay argues that Hume’s theory of belief tells against any theistic interpretation – including the weaker, “attenuated” accounts. It then turns to the case for the view that (...)
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  44. Irreligion and the Impartial Spectator in Smith’s Moral System.Paul Russell - 2021 - In Recasting Hume and Early Modern Philosophy. New York, NY, USA: pp. 384-402.
    A number of commentators on Smith’s philosophy have observed that the relationship between his moral theory and his theological beliefs is “exceedingly difficult to unravel.” The available evidence, as generally presented, suggests that although Smith was not entirely orthodox by contemporary standards, he has no obvious or significant irreligious commitments or orientation. Contrary to this view of things, this essay argues that behind the veneer of orthodoxy that covers Smith’s discussion in The Theory of the Moral Sentiments there are significant (...)
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  45. Recasting Hume and Early Modern Philosophy: Selected Essays.Paul Russell - 2021 - New York, NY, USA: Oxford University Press.
    In this collection of essays, philosopher Paul Russell addresses major figures and central topics of the history of early modern philosophy. Most of these essays are studies on the philosophy of David Hume, one of the great figures in the history of philosophy. One central theme, connecting many of the essays, concerns Hume's fundamental irreligious intentions. Russell argues that a proper appreciation of the significance of Hume's irreligious concerns, which runs through his whole philosophy, serves to discredit the deeply entrenched (...)
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  46. David Hume and the Philosophy of Religion.Paul Russell - 2021 - In The Encyclopedia of Philosophy of Religion. New York, NY, USA: pp. 1-20.
    David Hume (1711-1776) is widely recognized as one of the most influential and significant critics of religion in the history of philosophy. There remains, nevertheless, considerable disagreement about the exact nature of his views. According to some, he was a skeptic who regarded all conjectures relating to religious hypotheses to be beyond the scope of human understanding – he neither affirmed nor denied these conjectures. Others read him as embracing a highly refined form of “true religion” of some kind. On (...)
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  47. Religions et vérité. De la pluralité au scepticisme.Yann Schmitt - 2021 - Paris: CNRS éditions.
    Dans les débats vifs et nourris sur le religieux, parler de vérité contribue rarement à une meilleure compréhension du phénomène. Les intégristes de tous poils, religieux ou scientistes, qui cherchent à lier ou opposer trop facilement religion et vérité, brouillent la réflexion. Pour ne pas renoncer au devoir d’examen rationnel et philosophique de la vie religieuse, cet ouvrage défend d’abord la pertinence du recours au concept de vérité pour l’analyse des croyances religieuses. Mais la prise en compte de la pluralité (...)
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  48. Review of "The New Atheism, Myth, and History: The Black Legends of Contemporary Anti-Religion" by Nathan Johnstone. [REVIEW]Lloyd Strickland - 2021 - Numen 68:303-305.
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  49. Fine‐Tuning, Weird Sorts of Atheism and Evidential Favouring.Tamaz Tokhadze - 2021 - Analytic Philosophy:1-12.
    This paper defends a novel sceptical response to the fine-tuning argument for the existence of God (FTA). According to this response, even if FTA can establish, what I call, the confirmation proposition: ‘fine-tuning confirms the God hypothesis’, there is no reason to think that a strengthening of FTA can establish the evidence-favouring proposition: ‘fine-tuning favours the God hypothesis over its competitors’. My argument is that, any criteria for the explanation of fine-tuning that permit us to take the God hypothesis seriously (...)
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  50. Marx and Wittgenstein on Religion.Robert Vinten - 2021 - In Moira De Iaco, Gabriele Schimmenti & Fabio Sulpizio (eds.), Wittgenstein and Marx. Marx and Wittgenstein. Berlin: Peter Lang. pp. 153-165.
    On the face of it Marx and Engels have a radically different account of religion to that offered by Wittgenstein in the 1930s and 1940s. Marx and Engels accepted Enlightenment criticisms of religion and thought of religion as being in direct conflict with science whereas Wittgenstein thought that religion and science involved very different kinds of activities and different kinds of belief, such that they could not come into direct conflict. It seems likely that Marx and Engels’s account would be (...)
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