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  1. Peter Achinstein (2007). Atom's Empirical Eve: Methodological Disputes and How to Evaluate Them. Perspectives on Science 15 (3):359-390.
    : This paper examines the debate in the late 19th and early 20th centuries over the acceptability of atomic and molecular physics. It focuses on three prominent figures: Maxwell, who defended atomic physics, Ostwald, who initially rejected it but changed his mind as a result of experiments by Thomson and Perrin, and Duhem, who never accepted it. Each scientist defended the position he did in the light of strongly held methodological views concerning empirical evidence. The paper critically evaluates each of (...)
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  2. A. D. Allen (1973). The Bootstrap From the Perspective of Formal Logic. Foundations of Physics 3 (4):473-475.
    The rules of formal logic favor the bootstrap over the fundamentalist interpretation of hadronic constituents.
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  3. Anderson Jr & C. Lcbiere (forthcoming). The Atomic Components Of. Thought: A Journal of Philosophy.
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  4. Grant Babkenovich Arakeli͡an (2007). Ot Logicheskikh Atomov K Fizicheskim Zakonam. Izd-Vo. "Lusanbat͡s".
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  5. Lawrence Badash (1983). The Cult of the Atom: The Secret Papers of the Atomic Energy CommissionDaniel Ford. Isis 74 (4):622-623.
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  6. Charles Baily, Atomic Modeling in the Early 20th Century: 1904-1913.
    The early years of the 20th century was a time when great strides were made in understanding the nature of atoms, which had been theretofore thought of as indivisible components of matter, with no internal structure. The laws of physics as they were then known were inadequate in accounting for a mounting number of mysteries, including: the periodicity of the known elements, the discrete character of atomic spectra, the origin of atomic radiation, and the large-angle scattering of radiation by matter. (...)
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  7. Niels Bohr (1963). Essays 1958-1962 on Atomic Physics and Human Knowledge. Ox Bow Press.
    Quantum physics and philosophy--causality and complementarity -- The unit of human knowledge -- The connection between the sciences -- Light and life revisited -- The Rutherford memorial lecture 1958 -- The genesis of quantum mechanics -- The Solvay meetings and the development of quantum physics.
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  8. Niels Bohr (1958). Essays 1932-1957 on Atomic Physics and Human Knowledge. Ox Bow Press.
    Introduction -- Light and life -- Biology and atomic physics -- Natural philosophy and human cultures -- Discussion with Einstein on epistemological problems in atomic physics -- Unity of knowledge -- Atoms and human knowledge -- Physical science and the problem of life.
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  9. Niels Bohr (1958). Atomic Physics and Human Knowledge. New York: Wiley.
    These articles and speeches by the Nobel Prize-winning physicist date from 1934 to 1958. Rather than expositions on quantum physics, the papers are philosophical in nature, exploring the relevance of atomic physics to many areas of human endeavor. Includes an essay in which Bohr and Einstein discuss quantum and_wave equation theories. 1961 edition.
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  10. Max Born (1969). Atomic Physics. Blackie // Son.
    For this eighth edition he also wrote a new chapter on the quantum theory of solids.
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  11. C. Carson (1996). The Peculiar Notion of Exchange Forces--I: Origins in Quantum Mechanics, 1926-1928. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 27 (1):23-45.
  12. Eduardo Castro (2013). Defending the Indispensability Argument: Atoms, Infinity and the Continuum. Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 44 (1):41-61.
    This paper defends the Quine-Putnam mathematical indispensability argument against two objections raised by Penelope Maddy. The objections concern scientific practices regarding the development of the atomic theory and the role of applied mathematics in the continuum and infinity. I present two alternative accounts by Stephen Brush and Alan Chalmers on the atomic theory. I argue that these two theories are consistent with Quine’s theory of scientific confirmation. I advance some novel versions of the indispensability argument. I argue that these new (...)
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  13. L. Cerruti (1999). Marco Ciardi (Ed.), Amedeo Avogadro, Saggi E Memorie Sulla Teoria Atomica (1811-1838). History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 21 (2):228-228.
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  14. José Antonio Chamizo & Andoni Garritz (2014). Historical Teaching of Atomic and Molecular Structure. In Michael R. Matthews (ed.), International Handbook of Research in History, Philosophy and Science Teaching. Springer. pp. 343-374.
    Besides the presentation and conclusions, the chapter is divided into two equally important sections. The first one describes the modern development of atomic and molecular structure, emphasising some of the philosophical problems that have been taken, and those that have to be faced in its understanding. The second discusses the alternative conceptions and difficulties of students of different educational levels and also the different approaches to its historical or philosophical teaching. Finally, we recognise the necessity for science teachers to assume (...)
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  15. R. Delbourgo & D. Lashmar (2008). Born Reciprocity and the 1/R Potential. Foundations of Physics 38 (11):995-1010.
    Many structures in nature are invariant under the transformation pair, (p,r)→(b r,−p/b), where b is some scale factor. Born’s reciprocity hypothesis affirms that this invariance extends to the entire Hamiltonian and equations of motion. We investigate this idea for atomic physics and galactic motion, where one is basically dealing with a 1/r potential and the observations are very accurate, so as to determine the scale b≡mΩ. We find that an Ω∼1.5×10−15 s−1 has essentially no effect on atomic physics but might (...)
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  16. E. Di Grezia & S. Esposito (2008). Majorana and the Quasi-Stationary States in Nuclear Physics. Foundations of Physics 38 (3):228-240.
    A complete theoretical model describing artificial disintegration of nuclei by bombardment with α-particles, developed by Majorana as early as 1930, is discussed in detail jointly with the basic experimental evidences that motivated it. By following the quantum dynamics of a state resulting from the superposition of a discrete state with a continuum one, whose interaction is described by a given potential term, Majorana obtained (among the other predictions) the explicit expression for the integrated cross section of the nuclear process, which (...)
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  17. E. Di Grezia & S. Esposito (2004). Fermi, Majorana and the Statistical Model of Atoms. Foundations of Physics 34 (9):1431-1450.
    We give an account of the appearance and first developments of the statistical model of atoms proposed by Thomas and Fermi, focusing on the main results achieved by Fermi and his group in Rome. Particular attention is addressed to the unknown contribution to this subject by Majorana, anticipating some important results reached later by leading physicists.
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  18. R. H. Dicke (1986). On Observing the Absence of an Atom. Foundations of Physics 16 (2):107-113.
    An atom is confined to a box in its ground state. An attempt is made to observe it in the left half of the box by scattering photons out of a photon wave packet passing through this half of the box. If no photons are scattered, the atom is missing. It is located on the right side of the box and its wave function is changed. The expectation value of the combined atom and photon energy is increased. For the other (...)
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  19. A. Hunter Dupree (1991). Atoms for Peace and War, 1953-1961: Eisenhower and the Atomic Energy CommissionRichard G. Hewlett Jack M. Holl. Isis 82 (2):399-399.
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  20. Joseph Earley (2011). Alan Chalmers: The Scientist's Atom and the Philosopher's Stone: How Science Succeeded and Philosophy Failed to Gain Knowledge of Atoms. Foundations of Chemistry 13 (1):79-83.
  21. S. Esposito & A. Naddeo (2012). Majorana Solutions to the Two-Electron Problem. Foundations of Physics 42 (12):1586-1608.
    The two-electron atom is the simplest nontrivial quantum system not amenable to exact solutions. Today, its relevance in the development of quantum mechanics and its pedagogical value within the realm of atomic physics are widely recognized. In this work, an historical review of the known different methods and results devised to study such a problem is presented, with an emphasis to the calculations of the ground state energy of helium. Then we discuss several, related, unpublished results obtained around the same (...)
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  22. W. V. Farrar (1967). The Atomic Debates. [REVIEW] British Journal for the History of Science 3 (4):405-406.
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  23. Nicholas Fisher (1974). The Evolution of the Atomic Theory. [REVIEW] British Journal for the History of Science 7 (3):288-289.
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  24. Paul Forman (1968). The Doublet Riddle and Atomic Physics Circa 1924. Isis 59 (2):156-174.
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  25. G. S. Fullerton (1902). The Atomic Self. Philosophical Review 11:528.
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  26. Arthur Greenberg (1999). The Atom in the History of Human ThoughtBernard Pullman Axel Reisinger. Isis 90 (3):575-576.
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  27. Leon O. Jacobson (1981). From Atom to Eve. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 24 (2):195-216.
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  28. J. Josephson (1980). An Alternative Formulation for the Analysis and Interpretation of the Dirac Hydrogen Atom. Foundations of Physics 10 (3-4):243-266.
    The second-order radial differential equations for the relativistic Dirac hydrogen atom are derived from the Dirac equation treated as a system of partial differential equations. The quantum operators which arise in the development are defined and interpreted as they appear. The splitting in the energy levels is computed by applying the theory of singularities for second-order differential equations to the Klein-Gordon and Dirac relativistic equations. In the Dirac radial equation additional terms appear containing a constant, which is shown to be (...)
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  29. P. F. K. (1964). The Philosophy of Matter in the Atomic Era. [REVIEW] Review of Metaphysics 17 (4):632-633.
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  30. H. Kleinert (1993). Group Theory and Orbital Fluctuations of the Hydrogen Atom. Foundations of Physics 23 (5):769-807.
    We review some of the progress made in the past 27 years in understanding the group theoretic and path integral aspects of the hydrogen atom. The group theoretic development was triggered by A. O. Barut who suggested to me the search for a dynamical group larger than SO(4). In this way he became indirectly responsible also for important recent path integral developments.
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  31. Olga Kocharovskaya & Y. V. Radeonychev (1998). Spontaneous Emission From the Ground Atomic State Due to Its Crossing with the Dynamic Stark Level. Foundations of Physics 28 (4):561-584.
    The ground state of the driven three-level atomic system becomes unstable as a result of its spontaneous decay to the dynamic Stark level when the last one falls below this state. Different peculiarities of the atomic response may appear depending on the intensity and detuning of the driving field providing such level crossing.
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  32. Daniel Kuby (2016). Feyerabend's ‘The Concept of Intelligibility in Modern Physics’ (1948). Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 57:57–63.
    This essay introduces the transcription and translation of Paul Feyerabend's "Der Begriff der Verständlichkeit in der modernen Physik" [The concept of intelligibility in modern physics] (1948), which is an early essay written by Paul Feyerabend in 1948 on the topic of intelligibility (Verständlichkeit) and visualizability (Anschaulichkeit) of physical theories. The existence of such essay was likely. It is listed in his bibliography as his first publication. Yet the content of the essay was unknown, as no original or copy is extant (...)
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  33. Gregory Lavers (2016). Carnap on Abstract and Theoretical Entities. In Ontology After Carnap.
    Carnap’s ‘Empiricism, Semantics, and Ontology’ (Carnap (1950a), ESO hereafter) is certainly a classic of twentieth century analytic philosophy. For decades now, most undergraduates are expected to read it at some point in their studies. Lately, it is being seen as the inspiration for a host of positions in the field of metaontology. Despite the widespread agreement on the importance of the paper, there is a lack of agreement on what Carnap attempts to do in the paper. My main aim in (...)
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  34. G. Ludwig (1989). Atoms: Are They Real or Are They Objects? Foundations of Physics 19 (8):971-983.
    The reality of atoms can be deduced from the reality of the devices by which the atoms are prepared and registered. A new, most general definition of the concept of “physical object” is given. The objects must not be classical; nevertheless they can be described objectively. Atoms are not such objects.
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  35. R. J. Macdonald (1970). Sputtered Atom Ejection Patterns From Ge Surfaces. Philosophical Magazine 21 (171):519-531.
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  36. Trevor W. Marshall (2006). Are Atoms Waves or Particles? Foundations of Physics 36 (3):333-349.
    It is shown that the Kapitza-Dirac effect with atoms, which has been considered to be evidence for their wavelike character, can be interpreted as a scattering of pointlike objects by the periodic laser field.
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  37. S. Habib Mazharimousavi & M. Halilsoy (2012). Ground State H-Atom in Born-Infeld Theory. Foundations of Physics 42 (4):524-530.
    Within the context of Born-Infeld (BI) nonlinear electrodynamics (NED) we revisit the non-relativistic, spinless H-atom. The pair potential computed from the Born-Infeld equations is approximated by the Morse type potential with remarkable fit over the critical region where the convergence of both the short and long distance expansions slows down dramatically. The Morse potential is employed to determine both the ground state energy of the electron and the BI parameter.
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  38. Louis T. More (1908). Atomic Theories and Modern Physics. Hibbert Journal 7:864.
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  39. Masaki Murata, Akira Sasaki, Toshiyuki Kanamaru, Tamotsu Shirado & Hitoshi Isahara (2008). Toolbar to Highlight Important Expressions in Scientific Articles on Atomic and Molecular Physics. Transactions of the Japanese Society for Artificial Intelligence 23:457-462.
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  40. Shmuel Nussinov & Jeff Tollaksen (2012). Extreme Sub-Radiance: Can Quantum Effects Generate Dramatically Longer Atomic Lifetimes? [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 42 (9):1186-1199.
    The prolongation of lifetimes for an excited atom due to the presence of nearby atoms in the ground state is shown to follow simply from unitarity of the time evolution. We also discuss possible approaches to the detection and the overcoming of various technical obstacles.
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  41. William Pohle (1971). The Mathematical Foundations of Plato's Atomic Physics. Isis 62 (1):36-46.
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  42. José Edmar Arantes Ribeiro (2010). Was the Stern-Gerlach Phenomenon Classically Described? Foundations of Physics 40 (11):1779-1782.
    A criticism of a recent article published in this journal, claiming to have reached a classical description of the Stern-Gerlach phenomenon, is presented here. The author of the article, among other mistakes, wrongly writes the total energy of each silver atom and, moreover, presents a nonsensical equation, from which his results and the conclusion of his article are derived.
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  43. D. S. Robinson (1946). Philosophy for an Atomic Age. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 27 (3):229.
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  44. R. Rompe & H. -J. Treder (1983). Is Physics at the Threshold of a New Stage of Evolution? Foundations of Physics 13 (3):347-361.
    Starting from Planck's thesis concerning the aims and methods of theoretical physics as stated in his famous lecture (Leiden, 1908) onDie Einheit des physikalischen Weltbildes and his lectures in the next year at Columbia University, we discuss some aspects of physics and mathematics in our time. We compare relativity theory, quantum mechanics, and atomic physics at their inception with the situation today in field theories, elementary particle physics, and mathematical physics.
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  45. Yu P. Rybakov & B. Saha (1995). Soliton Model of Atom. Foundations of Physics 25 (12):1723-1731.
    The Einstein-de Broglie soliton concept is applied to simulate stationary states of an electron in a hydrogen atom. According to this concept, the electron is described by the localized regular solutions to some nonlinear equations. It is shown that the electron-solilon center travels along some stationary orbit around the Coulomb center. The electromagnetic radiation is absent as the Poynting vector has non-wave asymptote O(r −3)after averaging over angles.
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  46. J. R. Partington M. B. E. D. Sc (1939). The Origins of the Atomic Theory. Annals of Science 4 (3):245-282.
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  47. L. S. Schulman (2007). Decoherence Induced Equilibration. Foundations of Physics 37 (12):1716-1726.
    A pair of harmonic oscillators come in contact and then separate. This could be a model of an atom encountering an electromagnetic field. We explore the coherence properties of the resulting state as a function of the sort of initial condition used. A surprising result is that if one imagines a large collection of these objects repeatedly coming in contact and separating, the asymptotic distribution functions are not Boltzmann distributions, but rather exponentials with the same rate of dropoff.
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  48. Monique Sené (1987). Guy Hartcup, TE Allibone, Cockroft and the Atom. Revue d'Histoire des Sciences 40 (1):135-136.
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  49. Shant Shahbazian (2014). Letter to the Editor: Are There “Really” Atoms in Molecules? [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 16 (1):77-84.
    To be, or not to be, that is the question…In his wonderful Facts and Mysteries, Martinus Veltman terminates a section with an anecdote: “When quarks were not immediately discovered after the introduction by Gell-Mann he took to calling them symbolic, saying they were indices. In the early seventies I met him at CERN and he again said something in that spirit. I then jumped up, coming down with some impact that made the floor tremble, and asked him: Do I look (...)
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  50. Michael A. Sherbon (2014). Fundamental Nature of the Fine-Structure Constant. International Journal of Physical Research 2 (1):1-9.
    Arnold Sommerfeld introduced the fine-structure constant that determines the strength of the electromagnetic interaction. Following Sommerfeld, Wolfgang Pauli left several clues to calculating the fine-structure constant with his research on Johannes Kepler's view of nature and Pythagorean geometry. The Laplace limit of Kepler's equation in classical mechanics, the Bohr-Sommerfeld model of the hydrogen atom and Julian Schwinger's research enable a calculation of the electron magnetic moment anomaly. Considerations of fundamental lengths such as the charge radius of the proton and mass (...)
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