Atonement

Edited by Daniel von Wachter (International Academy of Philosophy In The Principality of Liechtenstein)
About this topic
Summary Christianity claims that through Jesus Christ's death on the cross a man can receive forgiveness and thus ‘eternal life’. This is expressed by saying that Christ ‘atoned’ for man's sin. The texts in this category discuss whether and how this is possible. Different views of the atonement are for example the penal substitution theory and the reparation view.
Key works Davis et al 2006 is a collection of new articles about the atonement. Swinburne 1989 is a detailed theory of the atonement, arguing that Christ enabled man to pay the debt. Porter 2004 defends penal substitution. Anselm's Cur deus homo? is the most thorough early treaties about the atonement.
Introductions Porter 2004
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215 found
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  1. Conceptualizing the Atonement.Kathryn Pogin - forthcoming - In Michelle Panchuk & Michael C. Rea (eds.), Marginalized Identities, Peripheral Theologies: Expanding Conversations in Analytic Theology.
    If belief in the redemptive nature of the life and death of Christ is to be intellectually defensible, Christian philosophers must have an account of it that is not only philosophically coherent, but also morally unobjectionable. Drawing on feminist theology, this paper explores the epistemological and gendered implications of traditional approaches to the atonement; namely, the normalization of submission to violence and the idealization of suffering. Conceiving of redemption as arising out of sacrificial submission to violence has corrupted the shared (...)
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  2. INTERPRETASI HUKUM KELIMA DALAM KELUARAN 20:12 BERDASARKAN PENDEKATAN SEJARAH PENEBUSAN.Made Nopen Supriadi - 2020 - Bonafide 1 (1):65-83.
    The fifth commandment is part of the Ten Commandments that God gave to Moses on Mount Sinai. The Bible is the eternal word of God, so this fifth Law has a meaning that must be understood in the infinite dimension. The Bible gives the principle that if the man fails to do one of the commandments in the Law, then he has failed. There are many interpretations of this Law, but it only comes down to practical, ethical, and moral dimensions (...)
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  3. TINJAUAN TEOLOGIS REALISASI PERINTAH JANGAN MENCURI DALAM KELUARAN 20: 15 BERDASARKAN PERSPEKTIF SEJARAH PENEBUSAN.Made Nopen Supriadi - 2020 - Luxnos 6 (2):213-234.
    Tulisan ini berjudul tinjauan teologis perintah jangan mencuri dalam Keluaran 20: 15 berdasarkan perspektif sejarah penebusan. Tujuan tulisan ini adalah melakukan kajian tentang perintah jangan mencuri dalam Keluaran 20: 15. Kajian ini dilakukan sebagai pengembangan untuk memahami perintah jangan mencuri dalam Keluaran 20: 15. Kajian ini juga bertujuan memberikan penjelasan bagaimana penggenapan yang Yesus lakukan terhadap perintah jangan mencuri dalam Keluaran 20: 15, selain itu kajian ini akan menyoroti realisasi perintah jangan mencuri dalam Keluaran 20: 15 pada masa orang percaya (...)
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  4. The Satanic and the Theomimetic: Distinguishing and Reconciling "Sacrifice" in René Girard and Gregory the Great.Jordan Joseph Wales - 2020 - Contagion: Journal of Violence, Mimesis, and Culture 27 (1):177-214.
    Compelling voices charge that the theological notion of “sacrifice” valorizes suffering and fosters a culture of violence by the claim that Christ’s death on the Cross paid for human sins. Beneath the ‘sacred’ violence of sacrifice, René Girard discerns a concealed scapegoat-murder driven by a distortion of human desire that itself must lead to human self-annihilation. I here ask: can one speak safely of sacrifice; and can human beings somehow cease to practice the sacrifice that must otherwise destroy them? Drawing (...)
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  5. Is the Atonement Necessary or Fitting?Anne Jeffrey - 2019 - Religious Studies 55:1-9.
    In her impressive Atonement, Eleonore Stump claims that her novel Marian theory of the atonement meets a desideratum for a successful theory that Aquinas's theory does not, namely, showing that Christ's passion and death are essential to the solution to the problem of human sin. Here I suggest reasons to side with Aquinas, who says that Christ's suffering and death are not necessary, but merely a fitting way of solving the problem. If the fittingness of Christ's passion and death is (...)
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  6. Stump's Forgiveness.Brandon Warmke - 2019 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 11 (1):145-163.
    To love someone, Eleonore Stump tells us, is to have two desires: a desire her objective good and a desire for union with her. In Atonement, Stump claims that loving someone—understood as having these desires—is necessary and sufficient for morally appropriate forgiveness. I offer several arguments against this claim.
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  7. The Atonement.William Lane Craig - 2018 - Cambridge University Press.
    How did Christ's death overcome the estrangement and condemnation of sinners before a holy God, so as to reconcile them to Him? A great variety of theories of the atonement have been offered over the centuries to make sense of the fact that Christ by his death has provided the means of reconciliation with God: ransom theories, satisfaction theories, moral influence theories, penal substitution theories, and so on. Competing theories need to be assessed by their accord with biblical data and (...)
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  8. Atonement’s Axiological Boundaries.Yishai Cohen - 2017 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 9 (3):177-195.
    According to the Felix Culpa Theodicy, worlds containing atonement and incarnation are of such great value that God is justified in actualizing such a world, despite all of the moral evil that has accompanied it. Focusing upon Alvin Plantinga’s articulation of this theodicy, I argue against FCT on the basis of normative ethical considerations. On the one hand, the deontic status of at least some actions depends upon the consequences of those actions. On the other hand, the existence of atonement (...)
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  9. The Promise of a New Past.Samuel Lebens & Tyron Goldschmidt - 2017 - Philosophers' Imprint 17:1-25.
    In light of Jewish tradition and the metaphysics of time, we argue that God can and will change the past. The argument makes for a new answer to the problem of evil and a new theory of atonement.
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  10. Eternal Immolation: Could a Trinitarian Coordinating-Concept for Theistic Metaphysics Solve the Problems of Theodicy?Damiano Migliorini - 2017 - International Journalof Philosophy and Theology 5 (1).
    The author contextualizes the Problem of Evil in Open Theism system, listing its main theses, primarily the logicof- love-defense (and free-will-defense) connected to Trinitarian speculation. After evaluating the discussion in Analytic Philosophy of Religion, the focus is on the personal mystery of evil, claiming that, because of mystery and vagueness, the Problem of Evil is undecidable. Recalling other schools of thought (Pareyson: ontology of freedom; Moltmann: Dialectical theology; Kenotic theology; Original Sin hermeneutics), the author tries to grasp their common insights. (...)
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  11. Divine Forgiveness and Mercy in Evolutionary Perspective.Isaac Wiegman - 2017 - In Matthew Nelson Hill & Wm Curtis Holtzen (eds.), Connecting Faith and Science. Claremont: Claremont Press. pp. 189-220.
  12. C.S. Lewis on Atonement: A Unified Model and Event, the Drama of Redemption—Understanding and Rationalizing the Tradition.P. H. Brazier - 2015 - Heythrop Journal 56 (2):285-305.
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  13. Locating Atonement.Oliver D. Crisp & Fred Sanders (eds.) - 2015 - Zondervan.
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  14. Atonement and the Concept of Punishment.Daniel J. Hill & Joseph Jedwab - 2015 - In Oliver D. Crisp & Fred Sanders (eds.), Locating Atonement. Zondervan. pp. 139-153.
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  15. The Mystery of Atonement and Swinburne's Reparation Theory.Alexander Hyun - 2015 - Religious Studies:1-9.
    Traditional Christianity holds that Jesus Christ somehow helps to bring about our salvation. A ‘theory of atonement’ is a theory about how he does this. One influential and elegant theory of atonement is Richard Swinburne's reparation theory. In this article, I contend that this theory fails to satisfy an important condition of adequacy on theories of atonement that has been overlooked in the literature. I first argue that in order to be plausible, a theory of atonement must not imply that (...)
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  16. ‘Harsh Love’ and Forgiveness.James Turner Johnson - 2015 - Studies in Christian Ethics 28 (3):266-272.
    While Biggar in chapter 2 of his In Defence of War cites Augustine in support of an argument for forgiveness and reconciliation, this paper argues through a close look at Augustine’s Letters 95 and 139 and Book I of his On Christian Doctrine that Augustine’s view of how the Donatists should be treated focused on their punishment, not on reconciliation in the sense Biggar describes.
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  17. Atonement and the Completed Perfection of Human Nature.Rolfe King - 2015 - International Journal of Philosophy and Theology (1):1-16.
    The ‘perfection account’ of atonement is discussed,under which Christ, on the cross,completed the perfection of human nature,establishing the full perfection of loving filial obedience, offering to the Father a perfected humanity, where these features were fundamental to the atonement. A basic perfection account is first set out. Two additional elements of the perfection account are then discussed: first, that Christ established a perfect victory over evil in our humanity; second, that on the cross Christ put to death the pull to (...)
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  18. On Radical Forgiveness, Duty, and Justice.Sanjay Lal - 2015 - Heythrop Journal 56 (4):677-684.
    In this essay. I explore questions pertaining to ‘radical’ acts of forgiveness as they relate to considerations of duties and justice. I will survey recent examples and show a possible philosophical basis for understanding them in terms of self-duty. Thus I will try to show that a little noticed basis exists for understanding acts of radical forgiveness as morally required (and not simply admirable or reserved for the saintly). I argue both that considerations of self-duty can provide a secular basis (...)
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  19. Forgiveness and the Limits of Language in The Shrine at Altamira.Brent Little - 2015 - Renascence 67 (3):167-180.
    Jacques Derrida’s description of forgiveness as a kind of “madness” certainly applies to John L’Heureux’s novel, The Shrine at Altamira. In the novel’s climax, forgiveness is manifested between Russell Whitaker and his son John through an incomprehensible tragedy. But although the novel harmonizes with much of Derrida’s thought, it resists a complete coherence. This article will explore the gaps between the novelistic and philosophic discourses on the subject of forgiveness. I argue that while the story painfully portrays an event of (...)
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  20. The Ethics of Forgiveness: A Collection of Essays. Edited by Christel Fricke. Pp. 212, Routledge, 2011, £28.49. [REVIEW]Zenon Szablowinski - 2015 - Heythrop Journal 56 (5):866-867.
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  21. Communal Substitutionary Atonement.Joshua Thurow - 2015 - Journal of Analytic Theology 3:47-69.
    In this paper I develop and defend a new theory of the Atonement - the Communal Substitution Theory. According to the Communal Substitution Theory, by dying on the cross Jesus either takes on the punishment for, or offers satisfaction for, the sins of the human community. Individual humans have sinned, but human communities have sinned as well. Jesus dies for the communal sins. As a result, human communities are forgiven and reconciled to God, and through the event of communal forgiveness, (...)
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  22. Atonement and the Wrath of God.Eric Yang & Stephen T. Davis - 2015 - In Oliver Crisp & Fred Sanders (eds.), Locating Atonement. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Academic. pp. 154-167.
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  23. Convenient Redemption: A Participatory Account of the Atonement.Anthony D. Baker - 2014 - Modern Theology 30 (1):96-113.
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  24. The Authority of God and the Meaning of the Atonement.Ryan W. Davis - 2014 - Religious Studies 50 (4):405-423.
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  25. En Torno a la Legitimidad y El Sentido Del Castigo Por El Delito.Xabier Etxeberria Mauleon - 2014 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 70 (4):765-786.
    Resumo O plural e conflituoso entendimento da legitimação da pena no Direito, tem origem nas diversas intencionalidades que lhe conferem sentido. Neste artigo são analisadas as intencionalidades mais relevantes, destacando os seus modelos justificativos: retribuição, reparação, prevenção, expiação, reabilitação e restauração . Para melhor análise destes são também consideradas a variável da temporalidade e a variável dos sujeitos, que protagonizam a dinâmica do castigo . Depois, num momento comparativo, destacam-se críticamente as confluências e as oposições. Assim será possível concluir que (...)
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  26. Forgiveness. By Eve Garrard and David McNaughton. Pp. Xi, 132, Durham, Acumen Publishing, 2010, £9.99. [REVIEW]Christopher Hrynkow - 2014 - Heythrop Journal 55 (2):339-340.
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  27. Collingwood on Religious Atonement.Dale Jacquette - 2014 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 76 (2):151-170.
    R. G. Collingwood’s philosophical analysis of religious atonement as a dialectical process of mortal repentance and divine forgiveness is explained and criticized. Collingwood’s Christian concept of atonement, in which Christ \ the Atonement the Incarnation), is subject in turn to another kind of dialectic, in which some of Collingwood’s leading ideas are first surveyed, and then tested against objections in a philosophical evaluation of their virtues and defects, strengths and weaknesses. Collingwood’s efforts to synthesize objective and subjective aspects of atonement, (...)
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  28. On the Ambiguity of Forgiveness.Stuart Jesson - 2014 - Philosophy and Theology 26 (1):131-150.
    This article highlights some of the difficulties that accompany any attempt to articulate an understanding of forgiveness that is at once coherent, just and desirable. Through a close examination of Charles Griswold’s book Forgiveness: A Philosophical Exploration, I suggest that there are good reasons to think that forgiveness is intrinsically ambiguous, both conceptually and morally. I argue that there is an underlying tension between the concerns that shape the definition, and those that are invoked when affirming the good of forgiveness. (...)
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  29. Shakespeare and the Grammar of Forgiveness by Sarah Beckwith , Xi + 228 Pp. [REVIEW]Terrance W. Klein - 2014 - Modern Theology 30 (1):164-166.
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  30. Sacrifice Imagined: Violence, Atonement, and the Sacred. By Douglas Hedley. Pp. Viii, 248, London/NY, Continuum, 2011, £19.99. [REVIEW]Patrick Madigan - 2014 - Heythrop Journal 55 (2):305-305.
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  31. Probing the Logic of Forgiveness, Human and Divine.Cristian Mihut - 2014 - Studies in Christian Ethics 27 (3):288-298.
    Danaher suggests that doxological justice, grounded in an acute receptivity of the generosity of God, can decenter our current notions of justice. Instead I focus on what might be called doxological forgiveness, that is, grace-responsive forgiveness. The first section argues that a conception of forgiveness which I dub repentance-responsive is compatible with and even requires holding punitive attitudes. The second section sketches the alternative account of grace-responsive forgiveness. Those who embody this virtue have epistemic and theological warrant to entirely disavow (...)
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  32. The Absence of Atonement in Atonement.Charles Pastoor - 2014 - Renascence 66 (3):203-215.
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  33. Book Review: Glen Pettigrove, Forgiveness and Love. [REVIEW]Travis Ryan Pickell - 2014 - Studies in Christian Ethics 27 (3):374-377.
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  34. Kierkegaard on the Atonement: The Complementarity of Salvation as a Gift and Salvation as a Task.Lee C. Barrett - 2013 - Kierkegaard Studies Yearbook 2013 (1).
    Name der Zeitschrift: Kierkegaard Studies Yearbook Jahrgang: 2013 Heft: 1 Seiten: 3-24.
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  35. Merciful Justice.Jeanine Diller - 2013 - Philosophia 41 (3):719-735.
    I offer a solution to an old puzzle about how God can be both just and merciful at the same time—a feat which seems required of God, but at the same time seems impossible since showing mercy involves being more lenient than justice demands. Inspired by two of Jesus’ parables and work by Feinberg, Johnson and Smart, I suggest that following a “principle of merciful justice”—that persons ought to receive what they deserve or better—delivers mercy and justice simultaneously, certainly in (...)
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  36. Atonement Theory Revisited: Calvin, Beza, and Amyraut on the Extent of the Atonement.Matthew S. Harding - 2013 - Perichoresis 11 (1):51-75.
    Throughout the bulk of the Reformed Tradition’s history within both Europe and the United States, most scholars have dismissed pastor and theologian Moïse Amyraut as a seventeenth century French heretic whose actions and theology led to the demise of the Huguenots in France. However, upon further introspection into Amyraut’s claims as being closer to Calvin (soteriologically) than his Genevan successors, one finds uncanny parallels in the scriptural commentaries and biblical insight into the expiation of Christ between Calvin and Amyraut. By (...)
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  37. Jankélévitch and Gusdorf on Forgiveness of Oneself.Andrew Kelley - 2013 - Sophia 52 (1):159-184.
    In this article, I examine the issue of forgiveness of oneself by looking at the writings of two postwar French philosophers: Georges Gusdorf and Vladimir Jankélévitch. Gusdorf believes that forgiving oneself is necessary for being able to forgive others. On the other hand, Jankélévitch sees no possibility of forgiveness for oneself and for similar reasons is very suspicious of traditional views of the role accorded to repenting and penitence. In short, the main view that separates the thinkers is, quite literally, (...)
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  38. Punishing and Atoning: A New Critique of Penal Substitution.Brent G. Kyle - 2013 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 74 (2):201-218.
    The doctrine of penal substitution claims that it was good (or required) for God to punish in response to human sin, and that Christ received this punishment in our stead. I argue that this doctrine’s central factual claim—that Christ was punished by God—is mistaken. In order to punish someone, one must at least believe the recipient is responsible for an offense. But God surely did not believe the innocent Christ was responsible for an offense, let alone the offense of human (...)
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  39. Imitating Christ's Cross: Lonergan and Girard on How and Why.Mark T. Miller - 2013 - Heythrop Journal 54 (2):859-879.
    The article begins with the gospels’ admonition to take up one's cross and asks how Christians might understand Christ's work on the cross so that we might better imitate or participate in it. Using tools from recent advances in literary analysis and systematic theology, the article attempts to provide some answer to this question. It considers contemporary feminist and liberation theologians’ criticism of the common but problematic interpretation of Christ's cross, what is often called ‘substitutionary penal atonement.’ It compares this (...)
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  40. Atonement.Linda Radzik - 2013 - In Hugh LaFollette (ed.), The International Encyclopedia of Ethics. Wiley-Blackwell.
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  41. Can God Forgive Our Trespasses?N. Verbin - 2013 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 74 (2):181-199.
    Believers regularly refer to God as “forgiving and merciful” when praying for divine forgiveness. If one is committed to divine immutability and impassability, as Maimonides is, one must deny that God is capable, in principle, of acting in a forgiving manner. If one rejects divine impassability, maintaining that God has a psychology, as Muffs does, one must reckon with biblical depictions of divine vengeance and rage. Such depictions suggest that while being capable, in principle, of acting in a forgiving way, (...)
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  42. “What Could Possibly Be Given?”: Towards an Exploration of Kenosis as Forgiveness-Continuing the Conversation Between Coakley, Hampson, and Papanikolaou1.Carolyn A. Chau - 2012 - Modern Theology 28 (1):1-24.
    This article engages the conversation between Sarah Coakley, Daphne Hampson, and Aristotle Papanikolaou on the appropriateness of kenosis as a theological trope for women and deeply oppressed and vulnerable others. It affirms Coakley's and Papanikolaou's stance, which maintains that kenosis is a necessary or at least distinctively valuable category in Christian theology for understanding the transformation and redemption of all persons. The paper expands on Papanikolaou's analysis of the kenosis involved in the healing and recovery of personhood, arguing that the (...)
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  43. Stump on the Nature of Atonement.E. J. Coffman - 2012 - In Kelly James Clark & Michael Rea (eds.), Science, Religion, and Metaphysics: New Essays on the Philosophy of Alvin Plantinga. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 144-151.
    In “The Nature of the Atonement”, Eleonore Stump explores the problem of human sin that the atonement is meant to solve, helpfully uncovering important adequacy conditions for theories of atonement. She then uses those conditions to critically evaluate Anselmian and Thomistic theories of atonement, arguing (among many other interesting things) that the Thomist has a leg up on the Anselmian when it comes to the atonement-motivating problem of human sin (pp.11-12 of ms.). I argue for two claims in what follows. (...)
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  44. Swinburne on the Atonement: Reflections on Philosophical Theology and Religious Dialogue.Amir Dastmalchian - 2012 - Journal of Inter-Religious Dialogue (10):49-60.
    This study examines an important part of Richard Swinburne’s case for the plausibility of Christianity, namely his Atonement theory. My examination begins by presenting Swinburne’s theory before alluding to the many criticisms it has attracted. I conclude with some lessons which can be learnt about philosophical theology and its use in interreligious dialogue. My main contention is that if philosophical theology is going to be used for inter-religious dialogue, then it should not be used with the expectation that disagreements will (...)
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  45. Radical Forgiveness and Human Justice.Andrew Fiala - 2012 - Heythrop Journal 53 (3):494-506.
    The most substantial source for thinking about forgiveness is Christian ethics. Some Christians offer forgiveness even for atrocities in the absence of repentance and reparations. The paper critically examines Christian idealism about forgiveness, while looking beyond Christianity toward a humanistic approach that acknowledges the tragic conflict between forgiveness and justice. Christian forgiveness is part of a radical revaluation of values regarding the goods of this world, personal identity, and temporality. Humanistic approaches, as found in Kant and the Greeks, do not (...)
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  46. Forgiveness. By Eve Garrard and David McNaughton. Pp. Xi, 132, Durham, Acumen Publishing, 2010, £9.99.Christopher Hrynkow - 2012 - Heythrop Journal 53 (3):537-538.
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  47. Change of Heart: Forgiveness, Resentment, and Empathy.Cristian Mihut - 2012 - Philosophia Christi 14 (1):109-124.
    This paper proposes an answer to a puzzle regarding robust notions of forgiveness. Robust forgiveness occurs when victims extend grace to perpetrators in the absence of moral reparation or repentance. If unmerited grace is one of its necessary features, is robust forgiveness a moral and rational response to perpetrators? The paper sketches an empathetic model of forgiveness as a plausible candidate for answering this puzzle. However, this particular model must be refined to handle cases where resentment infiltrates and cements deeply (...)
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  48. The Challenge to Virtue, Character, and Forgiveness From Psychology and Philosophy.Christian Miller - 2012 - Philosophia Christi 14 (1):125-143.
    In several recent articles and in a forthcoming book, I have tried to articulate what I take the real challenge to virtue ethics to be from social psychology. In this article, I develop that challenge again by looking specifically at the virtue of forgiveness.
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  49. Demands for Forgiveness.Juha Räikkä - 2012 - Heythrop Journal 53 (5):724-730.
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  50. Self‐Forgiveness and Forgiveness.Zenon Szablowinski - 2012 - Heythrop Journal 53 (4):678-689.
    If the notion of a victim's forgiveness encounters scepticism in today's world, more so the notion of self‐forgiveness by the offender. However, a failure to forgive oneself, when self‐forgiveness is appropriate, may be detrimental to one's moral and psychological well‐being. Self‐forgiveness is called for when guilt, self‐hatred and shame reach high levels. Further, a third party's assurance that the offence is forgivable may contribute considerably to the completion of the self‐forgiveness process. This article explores the notion of forgiveness of self (...)
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