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  1. Truthmaker Semantics for Natural Language: Attitude Verbs, Modals, and Intensional Transitive Verbs.Friederike Moltmann - forthcoming - Theoretical Linguistics.
    This paper gives an outline of truthmaker semantics for natural language against the background of standard possible-worlds semantics. It develops a truthmaker semantics for attitude reports and deontic modals based on an ontology of attitudinal and modal objects and on a semantic function of clauses as predicates of such objects. It also présents new motivations for 'object-based truthmaker semantics' from intensional transitive verbs such as ‘need’, ‘look for’, ‘own’, and ‘buy’ and gives an outline of their semantics.
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  2. What the Metasemantics of "Know" is Not.Peter van Elswyk - 2020 - Linguistics and Philosophy 43 (1):69-82.
    Epistemic contextualism in the style of Lewis (1996) maintains that ascriptions of knowledge to a subject vary in truth with the alternatives that can be eliminated by the subject’s evidence in a context. Schaffer (2004, 2005, 2007, 2008, 2015), Schaffer and Knobe (2012), and Schaffer and Szabo ́ (2014) hold that the question under discussion or QUD always determines these alternatives in a context. This paper shows that the QUD does not perform such a role for "know" and uses this (...)
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  3. Attitudinal Objects.Friederike Moltmann - forthcoming - In Chris Tillman (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Propositions. Routledge.
    This paper defends the view that attitudinal objects such as claims, beliefs, judgments, and requests form an ontological category of its own sharply distinguished from that of events and states and that of propositions. Attitudinal objects play a central role in attitude reports and avoid the conceptual and empirical problems for propositions. Unlike the latter, attitudinal objects bear a particular connection to normativity. The paper will also discuss the syntactic basis of a semantics of attitude reports based on attitudinal objects.
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  4. El Enigma de Pierre y la Atribución de Actitudes Proposicionales. Una teoría Objetual de las Creencias.Markel Kortabarria - manuscript
    Este trabajo constituye un intento de arrojar luz sobre el problema de la atribución de creencias surgido a raíz del planteamiento que hizo Saul Kripke en su artículo ‘’A puzzle about belief'' publicado en ''Meaning & Use'' en el año 1979. El artículo de Kripke no pasó inadvertido, recibió una gran variedad de respuestas y generó una amplia bibliografía. De entre todas las respuestas que se ofrecieron, expondré la solución que ofreció Ruth Barcan Marcus en ''A proposed solution to a (...)
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  5. Acquaintance and First-Person Attitude Reports.Henry Ian Schiller - 2019 - Analysis 79 (2):251-259.
    It is often assumed that singular thought requires that an agent be epistemically acquainted with the object the thought is about. However, it can sometimes truthfully be said of someone that they have a belief about an object, despite not being interestingly epistemically acquainted with that object. In defense of an epistemic acquaintance constraint on singular thought, it is thus often claimed that belief ascriptions are context sensitive and do not always track the contents of an agent’s mental states. This (...)
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  6. Philosophie des modalités épistémiques (la logique assertorique revisitée).Fabien Schang - 2007 - Dissertation, Nancy Université
    The relevance of any logical analysis lies in its ability to solve paradoxes and trace conceptual troubles back; with this respect, the task of epistemic logic is to handle paradoxes in connection with the concept of knowledge. Epistemic logic is currently introduced as the logical analysis of crucial concepts within epistemology, namely: knowledge, belief, truth, and justification. An alternative approach will be advanced here in order to enlighten such a discourse, as centred upon the word assertion and displayed in terms (...)
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  7. Attitudinal Objects: Their Ontology and Importance for Philosophy and Natural Language Semantics.Friederike Moltmann - 2019 - In Brian Brian & Christoph Schuringa (eds.), Judgment. Act and Object. Routledge Studies in Contemporary Philosophy. Routledge. pp. 180-201.
    This paper argues for the philosophical and semantic importance of attitudinal objects, entities such as judgments, claims, beliefs, demands, and desires, as an ontological category distinct from that of events and states and from that of propositions. The paper presents significant revisions and refinements of the notion of an attitudinal object as it was developed in my previous work.
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  8. Logics for Modelling Collective Attitudes.Daniele Porello - 2018 - Fundamenta Infromaticae 158 (1-3):239-27.
    We introduce a number of logics to reason about collective propositional attitudes that are defined by means of the majority rule. It is well known that majoritarian aggregation is subject to irrationality, as the results in social choice theory and judgment aggregation show. The proposed logics for modelling collective attitudes are based on a substructural propositional logic that allows for circumventing inconsistent outcomes. Individual and collective propositional attitudes, such as beliefs, desires, obligations, are then modelled by means of minimal modalities (...)
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  9. From A Rational Point Of View.Tim Henning - 2018 - Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    When we discuss normative reasons, oughts, requirements of rationality, hypothetical imperatives (or “anankastic conditionals”), motivating reasons and so on, we often use verbs like “believe” and “want” to capture a relevant subject’s perspective. According to the received view about sentences involving these verbs, what they do is describe the subject’s mental states. Many puzzles concerning normative discourse have to do with the role that mental states consequently appear to play in this discourse. This book uses tools from formal semantics and (...)
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  10. Transparent Quantification Into Hyperpropositional Contexts de Re.Duží Marie & Bjørn Jespersen - 2012 - Logique & Analyse 55 (220):513-554.
    This paper is the twin of (Duží and Jespersen, in submission), which provides a logical rule for transparent quantification into hyperprop- ositional contexts de dicto, as in: Mary believes that the Evening Star is a planet; therefore, there is a concept c such that Mary be- lieves that what c conceptualizes is a planet. Here we provide two logical rules for transparent quantification into hyperpropositional contexts de re. (As a by-product, we also offer rules for possible- world propositional contexts.) One (...)
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  11. Attitude Reports, Cognitive Products, and Attitudinal Objects: A Response to G. Felappi On Product‐Based Accounts of Attitudes.Friederike Moltmann - 2017 - Thought: A Journal of Philosophy 6 (1):3-12.
    In a range of recent and not so recent work, I have developed a novel semantics of attitude reports on which the notion of an attitudinal object or cognitive product takes center stage, that is, entities such as thoughts claims and decisions. The purpose of this note is to give a brief summary of this account against the background of the standard semantics of attitude reports and to show that the various sorts of criticism that Felappi recently advanced against it (...)
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  12. Arabic Numerals in Propositional Attitude Sentences.M. J. Cresswell - 2006 - Analysis 66 (1):92-93.
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  13. Reply to Ezcurdia and Gómez-Torrente.Scott Soames - 2004 - Critica 36 (108):83-114.
    Contra Ezcurdia, it is argued that my thesis --that substitution of coreferential names or indexicals in attitude ascriptions preserves truth values of propositions semantically expressed, although it often changes truth values of propositions asserted-- is compatible with the fact that belief ascriptions play important explanatory roles. Contra Gomez-Torrente, it is argued that although single-word natural kind terms are rigid in Kripke's original sense, natural kind predicates containing them are neither rigid nor obstinately essential --in the sense of applying to the (...)
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  14. The Importance of Being Erroneous: Prospects for Animal Intentionality.David Beisecker - 1999 - Philosophical Topics 27 (1):281-308.
    The question of animal belief (or animal intentionality) often degenerates into a frustrating and unproductive exchange. Foes of animal intentionality point out that non-linguistic animals couldn’t possibly possess the kinds of mental states we linguistic beings enjoy. They claim that linguistic ability enables us to become sensitive to intensional contexts or to the states of mind of others in a way that is unavailable to the non-linguistic, and that would be necessary for proper attributions of intentionality. To attribute mental states (...)
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  15. Official Reports.Peter Mankowski & Ulrich Magnus - 2009 - In Peter Mankowski & Ulrich Magnus (eds.), Brussels I Regulation. Sellier de Gruyter.
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  16. Salmon’s Translation Argument.David Sackris - 2016 - Southwest Philosophy Review 32 (2):163-182.
    In this paper I take a careful look at Nathan Salmon’s translation argument from his paper “The Very Possibility of Language: A Sermon on Missing Church” to see if it proves as much as Salmon claims. In particular, should we consider the translation argument conclusive evidence that belief ascriptions must be relations between individuals and propositions and that a sentential account is completely inadequate? I don’t think so. Salmon is too quick to dismiss the sentential account on the basis of (...)
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  17. Levels of Linguistic Acts and the Semantics of Saying and Quoting.Friederike Moltmann - 2017 - In Savas L. Tsohatzidis (ed.), Interpreting Austin: Critical Essays. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 34-59.
    This paper will outline a novel semantics of verbs of saying and of quotation based on Austin’s (1962) distinction among levels of linguistic acts (illocutionary, locutionary, rhetic, phatic, and phonetic acts). It will propose a way of understanding the notion of a rhetic act and argue that it is well-reflected in the semantics of natural language. The paper will furthermore outline a novel, unified and compositional semantics of quotation which is guided by two ideas. First, quotations convey properties related to (...)
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  18. Uch Tepe II: Technical Reports.Glenn M. Schwartz & McGuire Gibson - 1993 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 113 (1):107.
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  19. Christopher S. LIGHTFOOT , Amorium Reports II. Research Papers and Technical Reports. BAR International Series, 1170.Beate Böhlendorf-Arslan - 2006 - Byzantinische Zeitschrift 98 (2):592-596.
    Nach der ersten Publikation der Ergebnisse der Ausgrabungen von Amorium . BAR Int. Series, 1070), Oxford 2002) liegt nun der zweite Band vor, der neben Forschungsberichten auch technische Untersuchungen verschiedener Bearbeiter umfaßt.
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  20. On Ascribing Beliefs.William W. Taschek - 1998 - Journal of Philosophy 95 (7):323-353.
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  21. Conference Reports. Various - 1998 - Logic Journal of the IGPL 6 (4):651-663.
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  22. V—Are Belief Ascriptions Opaque?Charles Travis - 1984 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 85 (1):73-100.
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  23. Conference Reports.Steven Shapin & N. Sivin - 1980 - Isis 71 (2):284-285.
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  24. Intentional Identity Revisited.Ahti Pietarinen - 2010 - Nordic Journal of Philosophical Logic 6 (2):147-188.
    The problem of intentional identity, as originally offered by Peter Geach, says that there can be an anaphoric link between an indefinite term and a pronoun across a sentential boundary and across...
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  25. Berg’s Answer to Frege’s Puzzle.Wayne Davis - 2017 - Philosophia 45 (1):19-34.
    Berg seeks to defend the theory that the meaning of a proper name in a belief report is its reference against Frege’s puzzle by hypothesizing that when substituting coreferential names in belief reports results in reports that seem to have different truth values, the appearance is due to the fact that the reports have different metalinguistic implicatures. I review evidence that implicatures cannot be calculated in the way Grice or Berg imagine, and give reasons to believe that belief reports do (...)
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  26. A Model for Structural Changes of Belief.Eleonora Cresto - 2008 - Studia Logica 88 (3):431-451.
    The paper suggests a way of modeling belief changes within the tradition of formal belief revision theories. The present model extends the scope of traditional proposals, such as AGM, so as to take care of “structural belief changes” – a type of radical shifts that is best illustrated with, but not limited to, instances of scientific discovery; we obtain AGM expansions and contractions as limiting cases. The representation strategy relies on a non-standard use of a semantic machinery. More precisely, the (...)
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  27. I and You, He* and She.Tomis Kapitan - 1992 - Analysis 52 (2):125-128.
    In 'You and She*' (ANALYSIS 51.3, June 1991) C.J.F. Williams notes the importance of reflexive pronouns in attributions of propositional attitudes, and claims to improve upon an earlier account of Hector-Neri Castaneda's in [1]. However, to the extent which his remarks are accurate, they reveal nothing that Castaneda hasn't already said, while insofar as they are new, they obliterate distinctions vital to Castaneda's theory. Castaneda called these pronouns quasi-indicators and noted that they function as linguistic devices used for attributing indexical (...)
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  28. Substitution, Simple Sentences, and Sex Scandals.Jennifer M. Saul - 1999 - Analysis 59 (2):106-112.
  29. Davidson, McFetridge, and the Counting Problem.R. Holton - 1996 - Analysis 56 (1):46-50.
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  30. Kripke’s Revenge.Theodore Sider & David Braun - 2006 - Philosophical Studies 128 (3):669-682.
    Kripke's objections to descriptivism may be modified to apply to Scott Soames's pragmatic account from his book Beyond Rigidity. Further, intuitions about argument-validity threaten any theory in the vicinity of Soames's.
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  31. Meaning and Attitude Ascriptions.M. Richard - 2006 - Philosophical Studies 128 (3):683-709.
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  32. Kaplan, Quine, and Suspended Belief.Tyler Burge - 1977 - Philosophical Studies 31 (3):197-203.
  33. Ix.—Reports.James Sully - 1876 - Mind 1 (4):555-560.
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  34. Researches and Reports.John T. Dingle - 1927 - Australasian Journal of Psychology and Philosophy 5 (3):227-231.
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  35. Unbound Anaphoric Pronouns: E-Type, Dynamic, and Structured-Propositions Approaches.Friederike Moltmann - 2006 - Synthese 153 (2):199-260.
    Unbound anaphoric pronouns or ‘E-type pronouns’ have presented notorious problems for semantic theory, leading to the development of dynamic semantics, where the primary function of a sentence is not considered that of expressing a proposition that may act as the object of propositional attitudes, but rather that of changing the current information state. The older, ‘E-type’ account of unbound anaphora leaves the traditional notion of proposition intact and takes the unbound anaphor to be replaced by a full NP whose semantics (...)
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  36. Individual Concepts in Modal Predicate Logic.Maria Aloni - 2005 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 34 (1):1-64.
    The article deals with the interpretation of propositional attitudes in the framework of modal predicate logic. The first part discusses the classical puzzles arising from the interplay between propositional attitudes, quantifiers and the notion of identity. After comparing different reactions to these puzzles it argues in favor of an analysis in which evaluations of de re attitudes may vary relative to the ways of identifying objects used in the context of use. The second part of the article gives this analysis (...)
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  37. Speaking About Oneself.Isidora Stojanovic - 2015 - In Stephan Torre & Manuel Garcia-Carpintero (eds.), About Oneself: De Se Thought and Communication. Oxford University Press. pp. 200-219.
    It has long been known (cf. Frege 1918, Castañeda 1968, Anscombe 1975 , Perry 1977, 1979, Lewis 1981) that de se attitudes, that is beliefs, desires, hopes etc. that one has about oneself as oneself,1 are interestingly different fromthe attitudes that one holds in a third-personal mode about some individual, who might or might not turn out to be them. Frege suggested that Dr. Lauben’s belief that he has been wounded is a belief that only Dr. Lauben himself can entertain. (...)
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  38. Empty Singular Terms in the Mental-File Framework.François Recanati - 2013 - In Manuel Garcia-Carpintero & Genoveva Marti (eds.), Empty Representations. Oxford University Press. pp. 162-185.
    Mental files, in Recanati's framework, function as 'singular terms in the language of thought' ; they serve to think about objects in the world (and to store information about them). But they have a derived, metarepresentational function : they serve to represent how other subjects think about objects in the world. To account for the metarepresentational use of files, Recanati introduces the notion of an 'indexed file', i.e. a vicarious file that stands, in the subject's mind, for another subject's file (...)
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  39. Belief And The Principle Of Identity.Cara Spencer - 2001 - Synthese 129 (3):297-318.
    In "Propositional Attitudes". Mark Richard claims that some natural and formal language sentences of the form are false. He suggests a substitution for α that is sensitive to certain ancillary features of the variable letter as well as the assignment, and then argues that this substitution generates a false instance of the above-mentioned schema. I reject Richard's argument and argue further that the sentence is not an instance of that schema. I then argue that his putative natural language example fails (...)
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  40. Sprawozdania z przekonań w perspektywie filozofii języka i kognitywistyki.Karolina Krzyżanowska - 2010 - Przeglad Filozoficzny - Nowa Seria 75:297-319.
    Zdania o przekonaniach nurtują filozofów od samego początku filozofii analitycznej. Wszystkie próby ujęcia języka naturalnego w ramy kompozycyjnej semantyki muszą się zmierzyć z generowanymi przez sprawozdania z przekonań łamigłówkami. Obecne w tradycji filozoficznej teorie nie tylko borykają się z różnymi problemami, ale ponadto nie uwzględniają psychologicznych aspektów przypisywania przekonań innym. W artykule formułuję postulaty, które psychologicznie adekwatna teoria powinna uwzględniać, a następnie przybliżam pojęcie ikoniczności, które stało się osią teorii zaproponowanej przez François Recanati’ego. Chociaż Recanati stara się brać pod uwagę (...)
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  41. Propositional Attitudes.Eric Swanson - 2010 - In Claudia Maienborn, Klaus von Heusinger & Paul Portner (eds.), Semantics: An International Handbook of Natural Language Meaning. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter (Draft -- Forthcoming).
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  42. The Superman/Kent Hypothesis: On the Epistemological Limit Between Human and Superhuman.Alexandros Schismenos - 2015 - SOCRATES 3 (1):57-65.
    Everybody knows that Superman is Clark Kent. Nobody knows that Superman is Clark Kent. Located between these two absolute statements is the epistemological limit that separates the superhero fictitious universe from our universe of causal reality. The superheroic double identity is a secret shared by the superhero and the reader of the comic or the viewer of the movie, and quite often the superhero winks at the outside world, thus breaking the 4th wall and establishing this collusive relationship. However, in (...)
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  43. De Re Belief and Cumming's Puzzle.James R. Shaw - 2015 - Analytic Philosophy 56 (1):45-74.
    Cumming (2008) uses a puzzle about belief ascription to argue against a Millian semantics, and in favor of a semantics on which names are assigned denotations relative to a shiftable variable assignment. I use Cumming's puzzle to showcase the virtues of a rival, broadly Stalnakerian, treatment of attitude ascriptions that safeguards Millianism. I begin by arguing that Cumming's solution seems unable to account for substitutivity data that helps constitute the very puzzle he uses to motivate his account. Once the substitutivity (...)
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  44. Editor Reports. von Johnson - 1938 - Classical World: A Quarterly Journal on Antiquity 31:27-28.
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  45. An Argument Against Disquotation: A Nonuniformity in the 'de Dicto' Belief Modality.Mary Christina Wood - 1990 - Dissertation, The University of Wisconsin - Madison
    A prime shaping force in current and not so current problems and puzzles in the philosophy of belief is the distinction between the de dicto and de re belief modalities. A very vivid current expression of this is the primacy of the de dicto modality in Saul Kripke's puzzle about belief. An earlier and subtler expression is in Alonzo Church's 1950 translation argument. In both of these, de dicto comes in the form of a principle called disquotation, which says basically (...)
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  46. Problems Regarding the Ascription of Knowledge.Joseph Margolis - 1977 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 58 (1):5.
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  47. Empty Thoughts and Vicarious Thoughts in the Mental File Framework.François Recanati - 2014 - Croatian Journal of Philosophy 14 (1):1-11.
    Mental files have a referential role—they serve to think about objects in the world—but they also have a meta-representational role: when ‘indexed’, they serve to represent how other subjects think about objects in the world. This additional, meta-representational function of files is invoked to shed light on the uses of empty singular terms in negative existentials and pseudo-singular attitude ascriptions. -/- For a longer version see "Empty Singular Terms in the Mental-File Framework" In Manuel Garcia-Carpintero & Genoveva Marti (eds.), Empty (...)
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  48. Belief and Agency. [REVIEW]Lubomira Radoilska - 2014 - Philosophical Quarterly 64 (255):377-380.
  49. On the Roads to de Se.Emar Maier - 2011 - Proceedings of Salt 21 (1):393--412.
    It is rather uncontroversial that there are different ways to report de se attitudes, but there is still disagreement about the number and the nature of the different mechanisms at work. Following Anand (2006), I distinguish three types of de se reporting: one a special case of de re, another expressed by shifted indexicals, and a third expressed by dedicated de se pronouns. For the first two I propose reductions to de re and de dicto reporting, respectively, couched in a (...)
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  50. Propositions, Attitudinal Objects, and the Distinction Between Actions and Products.Friederike Moltmann - 2013 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy, Supplementary Volume on Propositions, Edited by G. Rattan and D. Hunter 43 (5-6):679-701.
    This paper argues that attitudinal objects, entities of the sort of John's judgment, John's thought, and John's claim, should play the role of propositions, as the cognitive products of cognitive acts, not the acts themselves.
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