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  1. Marcus P. Adams (2013). Explaining the Theory of Mind Deficit in Autism Spectrum Disorder. Philosophical Studies 163 (1):233-249.
    The theory of mind (ToM) deficit associated with autism has been a central topic in the debate about the modularity of the mind. Most involved in the debate about the explanation of the ToM deficit have failed to notice that autism’s status as a spectrum disorder has implications about which explanation is more plausible. In this paper, I argue that the shift from viewing autism as a unified syndrome to a spectrum disorder increases the plausibility of the explanation of the (...)
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  2. Marcus P. Adams (2011). Modularity, Theory of Mind, and Autism Spectrum Disorder. Philosophy of Science 78 (5):763-773.
    The theory of mind (ToM) deficit associated with autism spectrum disorder has been a central topic in the debate about the modularity of the mind. In a series of papers, Philip Gerrans and Valerie Stone argue that positing a ToM module does not best explain the deficits exhibited by individuals with autism (Gerrans 2002; Stone & Gerrans 2006a, 2006b; Gerrans & Stone 2008). In this paper, I first criticize Gerrans and Stone’s (2008) account. Second, I discuss various studies of individuals (...)
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  3. Jami L. Anderson (2014). Discipline and Punishment in Light of Autism. In Selina Doran & Laura Botell (eds.), Reframing Punishment: Making Visible Bodies, Silence and De-humanisation.
    If one can judge a society by how it treats its prisoners, one can surely judge a society by how it treats cognitively- and learning-impaired children. In the United States children with physical and cognitive impairments are subjected to higher rates of corporal punishment than are non-disabled children. Children with disabilities make up just over 13% of the student population in the U.S. yet make up over 18% of those children who receive corporal punishment. Autistic children are among the most (...)
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  4. Jami L. Anderson (2013). A Dash of Autism. In Jami L. Anderson Simon Cushing (ed.), The Philosophy of Autism. Rowman & Littlefield.
    In this chapter, I describe my “post-diagnosis” experiences as the parent of an autistic child, those years in which I tried, but failed, to make sense of the overwhelming and often nonsensical information I received about autism. I argue that immediately after being given an autism diagnosis, parents are pressured into making what amounts to a life-long commitment to a therapy program that (they are told) will not only dramatically change their child, but their family’s financial situation and even their (...)
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  5. Jami L. Anderson & Simon Cushing (eds.) (2013). The Philosophy of Autism. Rowman & Littlefield.
    The Philosophy of Autism examines autism from the tradition of analytic philosophy, working from the premise that so-called autism spectrum disorders raise interesting philosophical questions that need to be and can be addressed in a manner that is clear, jargon-free, and accessible. The goal of the original essays in this book is to provide a philosophically rich analysis of issues raised by autism and to afford dignity and respect to those living with autism by placing it at the center of (...)
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  6. Nancy Bagatell (2010). From Cure to Community: Transforming Notions of Autism. Ethos: Journal of the Society for Psychological Anthropology 38 (1):33-55.
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  7. Deborah R. Barnbaum (2008). The Ethics of Autism. Indiana University Press.
    Taken from Indiana University Press website: Autism is one of the most compelling, controversial, and heartbreaking cognitive disorders. It presents unique philosophical challenges as well, raising intriguing questions in philosophy of mind, cognitive science, and philosophy of language that need to be explored if the autistic population is to be responsibly served. Starting from the "theory of mind" thesis that a fundamental deficit in autism is the inability to recognize that other persons have minds, Deborah R. Barnbaum considers its implications (...)
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  8. Deborah R. Barnbaum (2008). The Ethics of Autism: Among Them, but Not of Them. Indiana University Press.
    Autism is one of the most compelling, controversial, and heartbreaking cognitive disorders. It presents unique philosophical challenges as well, raising intriguing questions in philosophy of mind, cognitive science, and philosophy of language that need to be explored if the autistic population is to be responsibly served. Starting from the "theory of mind" thesis that a fundamental deficit in autism is the inability to recognize that other persons have minds, Deborah R. Barnbaum considers its implications for the nature of consciousness, our (...)
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  9. Simon Baron-Cohen, Alan M. Leslie & Uta Frith (1985). Does the Autistic Child Have a “Theory of Mind”? Cognition 21 (1):37-46.
    We use a new model of metarepresentational development to predict a cognitive deficit which could explain a crucial component of the social impairment in childhood autism. One of the manifestations of a basic metarepresentational capacity is a ‘ theory of mind ’. We have reason to believe that autistic children lack such a ‘ theory ’. If this were so, then they would be unable to impute beliefs to others and to predict their behaviour. This hypothesis was tested using Wimmer (...)
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  10. Simon Baron-Cohen, Sally Wheelwright, Amy Burtenshaw & Esther Hobson (2007). Mathematical Talent is Linked to Autism. Human Nature 18 (2):125-131.
    A total of 378 mathematics undergraduates (selected for being strong at “systemizing”) and 414 students in other (control) disciplines at Cambridge University were surveyed with two questions: (1) Do you have a diagnosed autism spectrum condition? (2) How many relatives in your immediate family have a diagnosed autism spectrum condition? Results showed seven cases of autism in the math group (or 1.85%) vs one case of autism in the control group (or 0.24%), a ninefold difference that is significant. Controlling for (...)
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  11. Ralf-Peter Behrendt (2005). Affiliative Drive: Could This Be Disturbed in Childhood Autism? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (3):350-351.
    Affect mirroring allows infants to distinguish emotional and intentional states of significant others, which – in the pursuit of their own drive satisfaction, including satisfaction of the affiliative drive – become important contextual stimuli predictive of reward. Learning to perceive and manipulate others' attitudes toward oneself in pursuit of affiliative reward may be an important step in social development that is impaired in autism.
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  12. D. Ben Shalom (2000). Developmental Depersonalization: The Prefrontal Cortex and Self-Functions in Autism. Consciousness and Cognition 9 (3):457-460.
    The human self model suggests that the construct of self involves functions such as agency, body-centered spatial perspectivity, and long-term unity. Vogeley, Kurthen, Falkai, and Maieret (1999) suggest that agency is subserved by the prefrontal cortex and other association areas of the cortex, spatial perspectivity by the prefrontal cortex and the parietal lobes, and long-term unity by the prefrontal cortex and the temporal lobes and that all of these functions are impaired in schizophrenia. Exploring the connections between the prefrontal cortex (...)
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  13. Armando Bertone, Laurent Mottron & Jocelyn Faubert (2004). Autism and Schizophrenia: Similar Perceptual Consequence, Different Neurobiological Etiology? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (4):592-593.
    Phillips & Silverstein (P&S, 2003) propose that NMDA-receptor dysfunction may be the fundamental neurobiological mechanism underlying and associating impaired holistic perception and cognitive coordination with schizophrenic psychopathology. We discuss how the P&S hypothesis shares different aspects of the weak central coherence account of autism from both theoretical and experimental perspectives. Specifically, we believe that neither those persons with autism nor those with schizophrenia integrate visuo-perceptual information efficiently, resulting in incongruous internal representations of their external world. However, although NMDA-hypofunction may be (...)
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  14. Miro Brada, The Existence.
    In 1995, I wrote an essay 'Existence'. From the analysis of the process of self-consciousness, I concluded: "All I know, only I know", because if YOU know 'what I know', only I know that 'YOU know 'what I know'', and if you know that 'only I know that 'YOU know 'what I know''', only I know that... etc. At every moment, I know something more (I know that YOU know), or something less (I don't know that YOU know that I (...)
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  15. R. H. S. Carpenter (1995). RMJ Cotterill: Autism, Intelligence and Consciousness [Book Review]«. Journal of Consciousness Studies 2:86.
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  16. Tony Charman (2001). Understanding the Imitation Deficit in Autism May Lead to a More Specific Model of Autism as an Empathy Disorder. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (1):29-30.
    Preston & de Waal are understandably cautious in applying their model to autism. They emphasise multiple cognitive impairments in autism, including prefrontal-executive, cerebellar-attention, and amygdala-emotion recognition deficits. Further empirical examination of imitation ability in autism may reveal deficits in the neural and cognitive basis of perception-action mapping that have a specific relation to the empathic deficit.
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  17. Kelso Cratsley & Richard Samuels (2013). Cognitive Science and Explanations of Psychopathology. In K. W. M. Fulford (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy and Psychiatry. Oxford University Press. pp. 413-433.
    This chapter examines the core explanatory strategies of cognitive science and their application to the study of psychopathology. In addition to providing a taxonomy of different strategies, we illustrate their application, with special attention to Autism Spectrum Disorder and Major Depressive Disorder. We conclude by considering two challenges to the prospects of a developed cognitive science of psychopathology.
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  18. Simon Cushing (2013). Autism: The Very Idea. In Jami L. Anderson & Simon Cushing (eds.), The Philosophy of Autism. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 17-45.
    If each of the subtypes of autism is defined simply as constituted by a set of symptoms, then the criteria for its observation are straightforward, although, of course, some of those symptoms themselves might be hard to observe definitively. Compare with telling whether or not someone is bleeding: while it might be hard to tell if someone is bleeding internally, we know what it takes to find out, and when we have the right access and instruments we can settle the (...)
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  19. Richard J. Davidson, Nacewicz, M. B., Dalton, M. K., Johnstone, T., Long, M., McAuliff, M. E., Oakes, R. T., Alexander & L. A., Amygdala Volume and Nonverbal Social Impairment in Adolescent and Adult Males with Autism.
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  20. Todd Davies (2016). Mind Change: How Digital Technologies Are Leaving Their Mark on Our Brains (Susan Greenfield). [REVIEW] New Media and Society 18 (9):2139-2141.
    This is a review of Susan Greenfield's 2015 book 'Mind Change: How Digital Technologies Are Leaving Their Mark On Our Brains'. Greenfield is a neuroscientist and a member of the UK House of Lords, who argues that digital technologies are changing the human environment "in an unprecedented way," and that by adapting to this environment, "the brain may also be changing in an unprecedented way." The book and its author have created a surprising amount of controversy. I discuss both Greenfield's (...)
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  21. K. Diesfeld (2000). Neither Consenting nor Protesting: An Ethical Analysis of a Man with Autism. Journal of Medical Ethics 26 (4):277-281.
    This article critically examines the 25 June 1998 decision by the House of Lords regarding the psychiatric admission of a man with autism.1 Mr L was able neither to consent to, nor refuse, that admission and the disposition of his case illuminates the current debate regarding best interests of vulnerable adults by the judiciary and the psychiatric profession. This article begins with the assumption that hospitalisation was not the optimum response to Mr L's condition, provides alternative approaches to the interpretation (...)
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  22. Michael D. Doan & Andrew Fenton (2013). Embodying Autistic Cognition: Towards Reconceiving Certain 'Autism-Related' Behavioral Atypicalities as Functional. In Jami L. Anderson & Simon Cushing (eds.), The Philosophy of Autism. Rowman & Littlefield.
    Some researchers and autistic activists have recently suggested that because some ‘autism-related’ behavioural atypicalities have a function or purpose they may be desirable rather than undesirable. Examples of such behavioural atypicalities include hand-flapping, repeatedly ordering objects (e.g., toys) in rows, and profoundly restricted routines. A common view, as represented in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) IV-TR (APA, 2000), is that many of these behaviours lack adaptive function or purpose, interfere with learning, and constitute the non-social behavioural (...)
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  23. Terence Rajivan Edward, The Definition of Systematizing in S. Baron-Cohen's Gender and Autism Research.
    The professor of psychopathology Simon Baron-Cohen is well-known for his thesis that males are on average stronger at systematizing than empathizing and females are on average stronger at empathizing than systematizing. In this paper, I note an ambiguity in how he defines systematizing.
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  24. Nirmala Erevelles (2002). Voices of Silence: Foucault, Disability, and the Question of Self-Determination. Studies in Philosophy and Education 21 (1):17-35.
    In this paper I examine two controversialissues that occurred in two different centuriesbut that are inextricably linked with eachother – the 1835 murder committed by a Frenchpeasant, Pierre Riviere and documented byMichel Foucault and the 1990's debate regardingthe controversial methods of FacilitatedCommunication used with students labeledautistic in the United States. In this paper Iargue that both controversies foreground thecrisis of the humanist subject. In other words,I argue that both controversies are generatedby a seemingly simple question: Are personsidentified as mentally disabledcapable/incapable (...)
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  25. R. Eric Barnes & McCabe Helen (2012). Should We Welcome a Cure for Autism? A Survey of the Arguments. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 15 (3):255-269.
    Substantial research efforts have been devoted to developing a cure for autism, but some advocates of people with autism claim that these efforts are misguided and even harmful. They claim that there is nothing wrong with people with autism, so there is nothing to cure. Others argue that autism is a serious and debilitating disorder and that a cure for autism would be a wonderful medical breakthrough. Our goal in this essay is to evaluate what assumptions underlie each of these (...)
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  26. Bonnie Evans (2013). How Autism Became Autism: The Radical Transformation of a Central Concept of Child Development in Britain. History of the Human Sciences 26 (3):3-31.
    This article argues that the meaning of the word ‘autism’ experienced a radical shift in the early 1960s in Britain which was contemporaneous with a growth in epidemiological and statistical studies in child psychiatry. The first part of the article explores how ‘autism’ was used as a category to describe hallucinations and unconscious fantasy life in infants through the work of significant child psychologists and psychoanalysts such as Jean Piaget, Lauretta Bender, Leo Kanner and Elwyn James Anthony. Theories of autism (...)
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  27. Jocelyn Faubert & Armando Bertone (2004). A Common Link Between Aging, Schizophrenia, and Autism? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (4):593-594.
    Phillips & Silverstein (P&S, 2003) have proposed that NMDA-receptor hypofunction is the central reason for impaired cognitive coordination and abnormal gestalt-like perceptual processing in schizophrenia. We suggest that this model may also be applicable to non-pathological (or normal) aging given the compelling evidence of NMDA-receptor involvement during the aging process that results in age-related change in higher-level perceptual performance. Given that such deficits are present in other neurological disorders such as autism, an argument for a systematic assessment of perceptual functioning (...)
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  28. Stephen Flusberg & Helen Tager-Flusberg (2006). Autism, Language, and the Folk Psychology of Souls. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (5):473-473.
    Anecdotal evidence suggests that people with autism, with known impairments in mechanisms supporting a folk psychology of mind or souls, can hold a belief in an afterlife. We focus on the role language plays, not just in acquiring the specific content of beliefs, but more significantly, in the acquisition of the concept of life after death for all people.
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  29. Shaun Gallagher (2004). Understanding Interpersonal Problems in Autism. Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 11 (3):199-217.
    A BSTRACT: I argue that theory theory approaches to autism offer a wholly inadequate explanation of autistic symptoms because they offer a wholly inadequate account of the non-autistic understanding of others. As an alternative I outline interaction theory, which incorporates evidence from both developmental and phenomenological studies to show that humans are endowed with important capacities for intersubjective understanding from birth or early infancy. As part of a neurophenomenological analysis of autism, interaction theory offers an account of interpersonal problems that (...)
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  30. Richard Gipps (2004). Autism and Intersubjectivity: Beyond Cognitivism and the Theory of Mind. Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 11 (3):195-198.
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  31. Kathrin Gluer & Peter Pagin (2003). Meaning Theory and Autistic Speakers. Mind and Language 18 (1):23-51.
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  32. Kathrin Glüer-Pagin, Meaning Theory and Autistic Speakers.
    b> Some theories of linguistic meaning, such as those of Paul Grice and David Lewis, make appeal to higher order thoughts: thoughts about thoughts. Because of this, such theories run the risk of being empirically refuted by the existence of speakers who lack, completely or to a high degree, the capacity of thinking about thoughts. Research on autism during the past 15 years provides strong evidence for the existence of such speakers. Some persons with autism have linguistic abilities that qualify (...)
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  33. Marine Grandgeorge, Michel Deleau, Eric Lemonnier, Sylvie Tordjman & Martine Hausberger (2012). Children with Autism Encounter an Unfamiliar Pet: Application of the Strange Animal Situation Test. Interaction Studies 13 (2):165-188.
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  34. Antonia F. De C. Hamilton, Rachel Brindley & Uta Frith (2009). Visual Perspective Taking Impairment in Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder. Cognition 113 (1):37-44.
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  35. Francesca G. E. Happé (1993). Communicative Competence and Theory of Mind in Autism: A Test of Relevance Theory. Cognition 48 (2):101-119.
  36. Calum Hartley & Melissa L. Allen (2014). Intentions Vs. Resemblance: Understanding Pictures in Typical Development and Autism. Cognition 131 (1):44-59.
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  37. Ruud Hendriks (2012). Autistic Company. Editions Rodopi.
    Social interactions of autistic and non-autistic persons are intriguing. In all sorts of situations people with autism are part of the daily life of those around them. Such interactions exist despite the lack of familiar ways of attuning to one another. In Autistic Company, the anthropologist and philosopher Ruud Hendriks—himself trained as a care worker for young people with autism—investigates what alternative means are sometimes found by autistic and non-autistic people to establish a shared existence. Unprecedented in scholarly work on (...)
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  38. Peter Hobson (2011). Autism and the Self. In Shaun Gallagher (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of the Self. Oxford University Press.
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  39. Peter R. Hobson & Jessica A. Hobson (2013). Autism: Self and Others. In Simon Baron-Cohen, Michael Lombardo & Helen Tager-Flusberg (eds.), Understanding Other Minds: Perspectives From Developmental Social Neuroscience. Oxford University Press. pp. 397.
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  40. Pier Jaarsma, Petra Gelhaus & Stellan Welin (2012). Living the Categorical Imperative: Autistic Perspectives on Lying and Truth Telling–Between Kant and Care Ethics. [REVIEW] Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 15 (3):271-277.
    Lying is a common phenomenon amongst human beings. It seems to play a role in making social interactions run more smoothly. Too much honesty can be regarded as impolite or downright rude. Remarkably, lying is not a common phenomenon amongst normally intelligent human beings who are on the autism spectrum. They appear to be ‘attractively morally innocent’ and seem to have an above average moral conscientious objection against deception. In this paper, the behavior of persons with autism with regard to (...)
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  41. Pier Jaarsma & Stellan Welin (2015). Autism, Accommodation and Treatment: A Rejoinder to Chong‐Ming Lim's Critique. Bioethics 29 (9):684-685.
    We are very grateful to Chong-Ming Lim for his thoughtful reply published in this journal on one of our articles, which motivated us to think more carefully about accommodating autistic individuals and treating autism. However we believe there are some confusions in Lim's argument. Lim uses the accommodation thesis, according to which we should accommodate autistic individuals rather than treat autism, as the starting point for his reasoning. He claims that if the accommodation thesis is right, then we should not (...)
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  42. Pier Jaarsma & Stellan Welin (2012). Autism as a Natural Human Variation: Reflections on the Claims of the Neurodiversity Movement. [REVIEW] Health Care Analysis 20 (1):20-30.
    Neurodiversity has remained a controversial concept over the last decade. In its broadest sense the concept of neurodiversity regards atypical neurological development as a normal human difference. The neurodiversity claim contains at least two different aspects. The first aspect is that autism, among other neurological conditions, is first and foremost a natural variation. The other aspect is about conferring rights and in particular value to the neurodiversity condition, demanding recognition and acceptance. Autism can be seen as a natural variation on (...)
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  43. Therese Jolliffe & Simon Baron-Cohen (1999). A Test of Central Coherence Theory: Linguistic Processing in High-Functioning Adults with Autism or Asperger Syndrome: Is Local Coherence Impaired? Cognition 71 (2):149-185.
  44. Jeanette Kennett (2002). Autism, Empathy and Moral Agency. Philosophical Quarterly 52 (208):340-357.
    Psychopaths have long been of interest to moral philosophers, since a careful examination of their peculiar deficiencies may reveal what features are normally critical to the development of moral agency. What underlies the psychopath's amoralism? A common and plausible answer to this question is that the psychopath lacks empathy. Lack of empathy is also claimed to be a critical impairment in autism, yet it is not at all clear that autistic individuals share the psychopath's amoralism. How is empathy characterized in (...)
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  45. Terhi Korkiakangas & John Rae (2014). The Interactional Use of Eye-Gaze in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Interaction Studies 15 (2):233-259.
    The well-known impairments in the social use of eye-gaze by children with autism have been chiefly explored through experimental methods. The present study aims to contribute to the naturalistic analysis of social eye-gaze by applying Conversation Analysis to video recordings of three Finnish children with a diagnosis of autism, each interacting with familiar others in ordinary settings . The analysis identifies two interactional environments where some children with autism show eye-gaze related competence with respect to gazing at their co-participants: these (...)
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  46. Sotiris Kotsopoulos (2000). Uncertainties in Aetiology and Treatment of Infantile Autism €” Assumptions and Evidence. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 3 (2):175-178.
    Uncertainty in the field of child psychiatry may at times lead to groundless assumptions about the aetiology and pathology of psychiatric disorders of childhood. Treatment based on non-validated assumptions may be ineffective and may cause more harm than good. The case is presented of infantile autism which was at first attributed by clinicians to a specific negative effect of parents on their children. Evidence grounded on research did subsequently refute the assumption implicating the parents in the aetiology of this disorder. (...)
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  47. Timothy Krahn & Andrew Fenton (2012). The Extreme Male Brain Theory of Autism and the Potential Adverse Effects for Boys and Girls with Autism. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 9 (1):93-103.
    Autism, typically described as a spectrum neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairments in verbal ability and social reciprocity as well as obsessive or repetitious behaviours, is currently thought to markedly affect more males than females. Not surprisingly, this encourages a gendered understanding of the Autism Spectrum. Simon Baron-Cohen, a prominent authority in the field of autism research, characterizes the male brain type as biased toward systemizing. In contrast, the female brain type is understood to be biased toward empathizing. Since persons with (...)
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  48. Lucia Kršková, Alžbeta Talarovičová & Lucia Olexová (2010). Guinea Pigs—The “Small Great” Therapist for Autistic Children, Or: Do Guinea Pigs Have Positive Effects on Autistic Child Social Behavior? Society and Animals 18 (2):139-151.
    The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of a small therapeutic animal on the social behavior of nine autistic children. The social contacts of the autistic children were evaluated by a descriptive method of direct observation that was performed without and with the presence of a TA. In period one, contacts with an unfamiliar person and acquaintances were registered; in period two, contacts with the acquaintances and the TA were registered. The frequency of contacts of autistic children (...)
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  49. Robyn Langdon Max Coltheart (1998). Autism, Modularity and Levels of Explanation in Cognitive Science. Mind and Language 13 (1):138-152.
    Over the past century or more, cognitive neuropsychologists have discussed many of the issues raised in this volume. On the basis of this literature, we argue that autism is not a single homogeneous condition, and so can have no single cause. Instead, each of its symptoms has a cause, and the proper study of autism is the separate study of each of these symptoms and its cause. We also offer evidence to support the radical view advanced by Stoljar and Gold (...)
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  50. Maxson J. McDowell (2010). Autism's Direct Cause? Failure of Infant--Mother Eye Contact in a Complex Adaptive System. Biological Theory 5 (4):344-356.
    This article attempts to show why an experimental hypothesis is plausible and merits testing; in brief, the hypothesis is that autism begins with a failure in early learning and that changing the environment of early learning would dramatically change its incidence. Strong statistical evidence supporting this hypothesis has been published by Waldman et al. , but to date this evidence has largely been ignored, perhaps because it challenges prevalent beliefs about autism. This article also suggests that the current epidemic of (...)
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