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  1. Relational Hidden Variables and Non-Locality.Samson Abramsky - 2013 - Studia Logica 101 (2):411-452.
    We use a simple relational framework to develop the key notions and results on hidden variables and non-locality. The extensive literature on these topics in the foundations of quantum mechanics is couched in terms of probabilistic models, and properties such as locality and no-signalling are formulated probabilistically. We show that to a remarkable extent, the main structure of the theory, through the major No-Go theorems and beyond, survives intact under the replacement of probability distributions by mere relations.
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  2. Logical Bell Inequalities.Samson Abramsky & Lucien Hardy - 2012 - Physical Review A 85:062114-1 - 062114-11.
    Bell inequalities play a central role in the study of quantum nonlocality and entanglement, with many applications in quantum information. Despite the huge literature on Bell inequalities, it is not easy to find a clear conceptual answer to what a Bell inequality is, or a clear guiding principle as to how they may be derived. In this paper, we introduce a notion of logical Bell inequality which can be used to systematically derive testable inequalities for a very wide variety of (...)
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  3. The Violation of Bell Inequalities in the Macroworld.Diederik Aerts, Sven Aerts, Jan Broekaert & Liane Gabora - 2000 - Foundations of Physics 30 (9):1387-1414.
    We show that Bell inequalities can be violated in the macroscopic world. The macroworld violation is illustrated using an example involving connected vessels of water. We show that whether the violation of inequalities occurs in the microworld or the macroworld, it is the identification of nonidentical events that plays a crucial role. Specifically, we prove that if nonidentical events are consistently differentiated, Bell-type Pitowsky inequalities are no longer violated, even for Bohm's example of two entangled spin 1/2 quantum particles. We (...)
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  4. Altering the Remote Past.Alexander Afriat - unknown
    An abstract treatment of Bell inequalities is proposed, in which the parameters characterizing Bell’s observable can be times rather than directions. The violation of a Bell inequality might then be taken to mean that a property of a system can be changed by the timing of a distant measurement, which could take place in the future.
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  5. Causal Decision Theory and EPR Correlations.Arif Ahmed & Adam Caulton - 2014 - Synthese 191 (18):4315-4352.
    The paper argues that on three out of eight possible hypotheses about the EPR experiment we can construct novel and realistic decision problems on which (a) Causal Decision Theory and Evidential Decision Theory conflict (b) Causal Decision Theory and the EPR statistics conflict. We infer that anyone who fully accepts any of these three hypotheses has strong reasons to reject Causal Decision Theory. Finally, we extend the original construction to show that anyone who gives any of the three hypotheses any (...)
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  6. On von Neumann and Bell Theorems Applied to Quantumness Tests.Robert Alicki - 2009 - Foundations of Physics 39 (4):352-360.
    The issues, raised in Żukowski (arXiv:0809.0115v1, 2008), concerning the relevance of the von Neumann theorem for the single-system’s quantumness test proposed in Alicki and Van Ryn (J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 41:062001, 2008) and performed for the case of single photon polarization in Brida et al. (Opt. Express 16:11750, 2008; arXiv:0811.3376, 2008) and the usefulness of Bell’s inequality for testing the idea of macroscopic quantum systems are discussed in some details. Finally, the proper quantum mechanical description of the experiment with (...)
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  7. Book Review Of: "Do We Really Understand Quantum Mechanics?" by Franck Laloë. [REVIEW]Valia Allori - 2013 - Notre Dame Philosophical Review.
  8. Non-Locality in Electrodynamics.I. Antoniou, E. Karpov & G. Pronko - 2001 - Foundations of Physics 31 (11):1641-1655.
    We investigate the applicability of Hegerfeldts arguments on Quantum nonlocality in Quantum Electrodynamics following the work of Prigogine, Pronko, Petrosky, Ordonez and Karpov. We demonstrate the appearance of nonlocal effects at the level of quantum states. We show, however that the expectation values of some observables spread causally. Therefore the measurement of the nonlocality is questionable. We investigate an approach to classical measurement and conclude that the classical measurement cannot detect the “acausal” effects of the non-locality.
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  9. Relativistic Hidden Variable Theories?Frank Arntzenius - 1994 - Erkenntnis 41 (2):207 - 231.
    I show that for any quantum dynamics and any choice of observables as hidden variables an adequate hidden variable theory always exists. I argue that hidden variable theories have no more problems in reconciling non-locality with relativity than no-hidden-variable theories.
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  10. Stochastic Foundation for Microphysics. A Critical Analysis.J. C. Aron - 1981 - Foundations of Physics 11 (9-10):699-720.
    The stochastic scheme proposed in a previous paper as subjacent to quantum mechanics is analyzed in the light of the difficulties and criticisms encountered by similar attempts. It is shown that the limitation of the domain where the theory is valid gives a reply to the criticisms, but restricts its practical usefulness to the description of basic features. A stochastic approach of the hadron mass spectrum, allowing the scheme to emerge in the domain of experimental verification (to be worked out (...)
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  11. The Light of Quantum Mechanics.D. Atkinson - 1998 - Dialectica 52 (2):103–126.
    It is argued that while classical probability theory, as it is encapsulated in the axioms of Kolmogorov and in his criterion for the independence of two events, can consistently be employed in quantum mechanics, this can only be accomplished at an exorbitant price. By considering rst the classic two-slit experiment, and then the passage of one photon through three polarizers, the applicability of Kolmogorov's last axiom is called into question, but the standard rebu of the Copenhagen interpretation is shown to (...)
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  12. Nonlocality Is a Nonsequitur.David Atkinson - unknown
    Nonlocality in quantum mechanics does not follow from nonseparability, nor does classical stochastic independence imply physical independence. In this paper an explicit proof of a Bell inequality is recalled, and an analysis of the Aspect experiment in terms of noncontextual, but indefinite weights, or improper probabilities, is given.
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  13. Bell's Inequalities and Kolmogorov's Axioms.David Atkinson - unknown
    After recalling proofs of the Bell inequality based on the assumptions of separability and of noncontextuality, the most general noncontextual contrapositive conditional probabilities consistent with the Aspect experiment are constructed. In general these probabilities are not all positive.
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  14. Book Review:Perspectives in Quantum Theory: Essays in Honor of Alfred Lande Wolfgang Yourgrau, Alwyn Van Der Merwe. [REVIEW]Michael N. Audi - 1973 - Philosophy of Science 40 (2):323-.
  15. Niall Shanks," Philosophical Implications of Bell's Theorem." Advisor: W. David Sharp.E. Babette, Ali Errishi, Joan Jungbluth & Paul Kidder - 1987 - Review of Metaphysics 41:191-209.
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  16. Ontological Models, Preparation Contextuality and Nonlocality.Manik Banik, Some Sankar Bhattacharya, Sujit K. Choudhary, Amit Mukherjee & Arup Roy - 2014 - Foundations of Physics 44 (11):1230-1244.
    The ontological model framework for an operational theory has generated much interest in recent years. The debate concerning reality of quantum states has been made more precise in this framework. With the introduction of generalized notion of contextuality in this framework, it has been shown that completely mixed state of a qubit is preparation contextual. Interestingly, this new idea of preparation contextuality has been used to demonstrate nonlocality of some \(\psi \) -epistemic models without any use of Bell’s inequality. In (...)
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  17. Bell's Theorem and the Foundations of Modern Physics.F. Barone, A. O. Barut, E. Beltrametti, S. Bergia, R. A. Bertlmann, H. R. Brown, G. C. Ghirardi, D. M. Greenberger, D. Home & M. Jammer - 1991 - Foundations of Physics 21 (8).
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  18. Book Review: Quantum Chance and Non-Locality, by Michael Dickson. [REVIEW]Jeffrey A. Barrett - 1999 - Foundations of Physics 29 (6):1011-1018.
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  19. After All, There Are Some Inequalities Which Are Provable in ZFC.Tomek Bartoszyński, Andrzej Roslanowski & Saharon Shelah - 2000 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 65 (2):803-816.
    We address ZFC inequalities between some cardinal invariants of the continuum, which turned out to be true in spite of strong expectations given by [11].
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  20. How to Avoid “Quantum Paradoxes”.A. O. Barut - 1992 - Foundations of Physics 22 (1):137-142.
    The “theorems” showing the impossibility of ascribing to individual quantum systems a definite value of a set of observables, not necessarily commuting,1–4 are based on the tacit assumption that eachindividual spin component has a discrete dichotomic value. We show explicitly that it is possible to introduce continuous hidden variables for individual spins which avoid these quantum paradoxes without changing any of the observed quantum mechanical results.
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  21. From Quantum State Targeting to Bell Inequalities.H. Bechmann-Pasquinucci - 2005 - Foundations of Physics 35 (11):1787-1804.
    Quantum state targeting is a quantum game which results from combining traditional quantum state estimation with additional classical information. We consider a particular version of the game and show how it can be played with maximally entangled states. The optimal solution of the game is used to derive a Bell inequality for two entangled qutrits. We argue that the nice properties of the inequality are direct consequences of the method of construction.
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  22. Bohm, Spin, and the Bell Inequalities.Katherine Bedard - 1998 - Synthese 114 (3):405-444.
    In this paper I discuss how Bohm's interpretation models spin measurements and how the two ways in which spin is a contextual property pertains to the Kochen-Specker theorem. I then present locality principles from which a Bell Inequality can be derived, and I identify which of the locality principles Bohm's interpretation violates at which times. I also present reasons why the spin vector should not be attributed to the Bohmian particles.
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  23. Bell's Theorem in an Indeterministic Universe.Donald Bedford & Henry P. Stapp - 1995 - Synthese 102 (1):139 - 164.
    A variation of Bell's theorem that deals with the indeterministic case is formulated and proved within the logical framework of Lewis's theory of counterfactuals. The no-faster-than-light-influence condition is expressed in terms of Lewis would counterfactual conditionals. Objections to this procedure raised by certain philosophers of science are examined and answered. The theorem shows that the incompatibility between the predictions of quantum theory and the idea of no faster-than-light influence cannot be ascribed to any auxiliary or tacit assumption of either determinism (...)
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  24. Nonlocal Character of the Rastall Model.Donald Bedford & Henry P. Stapp - 1989 - Foundations of Physics 19 (4):397-406.
    The discussion of whether quantum theory is compatible with the locality idea that no causal influence can act outside the forward light cone has recently been tightly linked to the corresponding question for a much simpler model theory that enjoys all of the pertinent properties of quantum theory but is much easier to fully comprehend. It is shown here that, contrary to recent claims, the model theory is incompatible with the locality idea mentioned above. The logical structure of the argument, (...)
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  25. Daniel Bell – American Menshevik.Peter Beilharz - 2013 - Thesis Eleven 118 (1):64-71.
    Long before he became one of the leading voices in American sociology and letters, Daniel Bell had a tough early life. He experienced poverty and socialism early, in a life taking on the big themes of the 20th century: communism, capitalism, Marxism, Americanism, modernism. In this he was the beneficiary as well as the critic of modern Americanism, or American modernism. In this essay I focus on a relatively overlooked Bell classic, Marxian Socialism in the United States (1996 [1952]). Here (...)
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  26. Vivisection Up-to-Date [by E. Bell].Ernest Bell - 1899
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  27. Atomic-Cascade Photons and Quantum-Mechanical Nonlocality.J. S. Bell - 2004 - In Speakable and Unspeakable in Quantum Mechanics. Cambridge University Press. pp. 105--110.
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  28. On the Problem of Hidden Variables in Quantum Mechanics.J. S. Bell - 2004 - In Speakable and Unspeakable in Quantum Mechanics. Cambridge University Press. pp. 1--13.
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  29. An Exchange on Local Beables.John S. Bell, J. Clauser, M. Horne & A. Shimony - 1985 - Dialectica 39 (2):85-96.
    Summarya) Bell tries to formulate more explicitly a notion of “local causality”: correlations between physical events in different space‐time regions should be explicable in terms of physical events in the overlap of the backward light cones. It is shown that ordinary relativistic quantum field theory is not locally causal in this sense, and cannot be embedded in a locally causal theory.b) Clauser, Home and Shimony criticize several steps in Bell's argument that any theory of local “beables” is incompatible with quantum (...)
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  30. Bell's Theorem, Nonseparability, and Spacetime Individuation in Quantum Mechanics.Darrin W. Belousek - 1999 - Philosophy of Science 66 (3):46.
    We first examine Howard's analysis of the Bell factorizability condition in terms of 'separability' and 'locality' and then consider his claims that the violations of Bell's inequality by the statistical predictions of quantum mechanics should be interpreted in terms of 'nonseparability' rather than 'nonlocality' and that 'nonseparability' implies the failure of spacetime as a principle of individuation for quantum-mechanical systems. We will argue that his argument for the first claim is less than compelling and that any argument for the second (...)
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  31. The Bell Phenomenon in a Probabilistic Approach.Enrico G. Beltrametti & Sławomir Bugajski - 2002 - In T. Placek & J. Butterfield (eds.), Non-Locality and Modality. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 205--220.
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  32. On Bell-Type Inequalities.Enrico G. Beltrametti & Maciej J. Maczynski - 1994 - Foundations of Physics 24 (8):1153-1159.
    A Bell-type inequality is defined as an inequality of the type 0⩽L⩽1,where L is a linear combination with real coefficients of probabilities p i and joint probabilities p ij ,p ijk ,...,p l ,...,n corresponding to n events. A general theorem on the validity of such inequalities in correspondence to physical assumptions about commutativity or noncommutativity is given. Examples and possible physical applications are discussed.
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  33. Dummett Vs Bell on Quantum Mechanics.Yemima Ben-Menahem - 1997 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 28 (2):277-290.
  34. Higher-Order Tensors and Tests of Quantum Mechanics.S. Bergia & F. Cannata - 1982 - Foundations of Physics 12 (9):843-859.
    We illustrate a generalization of Bell's inequality which is not limited to spin-1/2 or photon systems and does not depend on model-dependent assumptions. We then construct a specific class of examples, in terms of the decaying state and the correlated observables to be measured on the decay products, for which this inequality is violated by quantum mechanics. Finally we discuss the basic and practical problems involved in the measurement of these correlations.
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  35. Explicit Examples of Theories Satisfying Bell's Inequalities: Do They Miss Their Goal Prior to Contradicting Experiments? [REVIEW]S. Bergia, F. Cannata & V. Monzoni - 1985 - Foundations of Physics 15 (2):145-154.
    We show that a local theory conforming to the requirement of reducing to usual quantum mechanics for single-particle states and describing two-particle correlations in terms of mixtures violates the condition of perfect anticorrelation between spin components in the case of Bohm's version of EPR.
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  36. What Econometrics Cannot Teach Quantum Mechanics.J. Berkovitz - 1995 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 26 (2):163-200.
    Cartwright (1989) and Humphreys (1989) have suggested theories of probabilistic causation for singular events, which are based on modifications of traditional causal linear modelling. On the basis of her theory, Cartwright offered an allegedly local, and non-factorizable, common-cause model for the EPR experiment. In this paper I consider Cartwright's and Humphrey's theories. I argue that, provided plausible assumptions obtain, local models for EPR in the framework of these theories are committed to Bell inequalities, which are violated by experiment.
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  37. Bell's Inequalities and Quantum Non-Separability.S. V. Bhave - 1991 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 42 (4):541-545.
    The separable hidden variables theory (Bhave [1986]) of Aspect's [1982] four single channel polarizers is developed further to consider possible modified Aspect's experiment with four double channel polarizers. It is shown that Aspect's commutator is not a truly stochastic commutator, and that until such a truly stochastic commutator is devised, experiments based on Bell's inequalities (like those of Aspect's) cannot be adequate experimental tests of quantum nonseparability.
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  38. A Rigorous Analysis of the Clauser–Horne–Shimony–Holt Inequality Experiment When Trials Need Not Be Independent.Peter Bierhorst - 2014 - Foundations of Physics 44 (7):736-761.
    The Clauser–Horne–Shimony–Holt (CHSH) inequality is a constraint that local hidden variable theories must obey. Quantum Mechanics predicts a violation of this inequality in certain experimental settings. Treatments of this subject frequently make simplifying assumptions about the probability spaces available to a local hidden variable theory, such as assuming the state of the system is a discrete or absolutely continuous random variable, or assuming that repeated experimental trials are independent and identically distributed. In this paper, we do two things: first, show (...)
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  39. How to (Properly) Strengthen Bell's Theorem Using Counterfactuals.Tomasz Bigaj - 2010 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 41 (1):58-66.
    Bell’s theorem in its standard version demonstrates that the joint assumptions of the hidden-variable hypothesis and the principle of local causation lead to a conflict with quantum-mechanical predictions. In his latest counterfactual strengthening of Bell’s theorem, Stapp attempts to prove that the locality assumption itself contradicts the quantum-mechanical predictions in the Hardy case. His method relies on constructing a complex, non-truth functional formula which consists of statements about measurements and outcomes in some region R, and whose truth value depends on (...)
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  40. How to Strengthen Bell's Theorem Using Counterfactuals.Tomasz Bigaj - 2010 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 41 (1):58-66.
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  41. Counterfactuals and Non-Locality of Quantum Mechanics: The Bedford–Stapp Version of the GHZ Theorem.Tomasz Bigaj - 2007 - Foundations of Science 12 (1):85-108.
    In the paper, the proof of the non-locality of quantum mechanics, given by Bedford and Stapp (1995), and appealing to the GHZ example, is analyzed. The proof does not contain any explicit assumption of realism, but instead it uses formal methods and techniques of the Lewis calculus of counterfactuals. To ascertain the validity of the proof, a formal semantic model for counterfactuals is constructed. With the help of this model it can be shown that the proof is faulty, because it (...)
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  42. Non-Locality and Possible Worlds. A Counterfactual Perspective on Quantum Entanglement.Tomasz Bigaj - 2006 - Ontos Verlag.
    This book uses the formal semantics of counterfactual conditionals to analyze the problem of non-locality in quantum mechanics. Counterfactual conditionals enter the analysis of quantum entangled systems in that they enable us to precisely formulate the locality condition that purports to exclude the existence of causal interactions between spatially separated parts of a system. They also make it possible to speak consistently about alternative measuring settings, and to explicate what is meant by quantum property attributions. The book develops the possible-world (...)
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  43. The Effectiveness of a Computer Simulation for Identifying Conceptual Difficulties with the Local Realistic Theories.Sharon Rebecca Blake - 1992 - Dissertation, University of South Florida
    John Bell developed a proof demonstrating that modern quantum physics experiments violate our common sense view of objective reality. These experiments have profound philosophical implications. Philosophers and physicists contend that this challenge to our common sense should be included in science education courses. A curriculum, Conceptual Difficulties With Local Realistic Theories, written entirely in Hypercard for Macintosh computers, was developed by the researcher. This interdisciplinary curriculum includes a tutorial on the Bell's Theorem experiments, a computer simulation of these experiments, a (...)
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  44. Nonlocality in Quantum Theory Understood in Terms of Einstein's Nonlinear Field Approach.D. Bohm & B. J. Hiley - 1981 - Foundations of Physics 11 (7-8):529-546.
    We discuss Einstein's ideas on the need for a theory that is both objective and local and also his suggestion for realizing such a theory through nonlinear field equations. We go on to analyze the nonlocality implied by the quantum theory, especially in terms of the experiment of Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen. We then suggest an objective local field model along Einstein's lines, which might explain quantum nonlocality as a coordination of the properties of pulse-like solutions of the nonlinear equations (...)
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  45. Does Bell’s Theorem Imply Metaphysical Realism?Ron Bombardi - 2014 - In Javier Cumpa, Greg Jesson & Guido Bonino (eds.), Defending Realism: Ontological and Epistemological Investigations. De Gruyter. pp. 311-322.
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  46. Mathematical Quantum Theory I: Random Ultrafilters as Hidden Variables.William Boos - 1996 - Synthese 107 (1):83 - 143.
    The basic purpose of this essay, the first of an intended pair, is to interpret standard von Neumann quantum theory in a framework of iterated measure algebraic truth for mathematical (and thus mathematical-physical) assertions — a framework, that is, in which the truth-values for such assertions are elements of iterated boolean measure-algebras (cf. Sections 2.2.9, 5.2.1–5.2.6 and 5.3 below).The essay itself employs constructions of Takeuti's boolean-valued analysis (whose origins lay in work of Scott, Solovay, Krauss and others) to provide a (...)
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  47. Local and Non-Local Aspects of Quantum Gravity.H. -H. V. Borzeszkowski, B. K. Datta, V. De Sabbata, L. Ronchetti & H. -J. Treder - 2002 - Foundations of Physics 32 (11):1701-1716.
  48. Bell's Inequality Tests with Meson–Antimeson Pairs.A. Bramon, R. Escribano & G. Garbarino - 2006 - Foundations of Physics 36 (4):563-584.
    Recent proposals to test Bell’s inequalities with entangled pairs of pseudoscalar mesons are reviewed. This includes pairs of neutral kaons or B-mesons and offers some hope to close both the locality and the detection loopholes. Specific difficulties, however, appear thus invalidating most of those proposals. The best option requires the use of kaon regeneration effects and could lead to a successful test if moderate K0 and k̄0 detection efficiencies are achieved.
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  49. Another No‐Go Theorem for Hidden Variable Models of Inaccurate Spin 1 Measurements.Thomas Breuer - 2003 - Philosophy of Science 70 (5):1368-1379.
    Uncertainty about the actual orientation of the measurement device has been claimed to open a loophole for hidden variable models of quantum mechanics. In this paper I describe the statistics of inaccurate spin measurements by unsharp spin observables. A no‐go theorem for hidden variable models of the inaccurate measurement statistics follows: There is a finite set of directions for which not all results of inaccurate spin measurements can be predetermined in a non‐contextual way. In contrast to an earlier theorem (Breuer (...)
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  50. Another No-Go Theorem for Hidden Variable Models of Inaccurate Spin 1 Measurements.Thomas Breuer - 2003 - Philosophy of Science 70 (5):1368-1379.
    Uncertainty about the actual orientation of the measurement device has been claimed to open a loophole for hidden variable models of quantum mechanics. In this paper I describe the statistics of inaccurate spin measurements by unsharp spin observables. A no-go theorem for hidden variable models of the inaccurate measurement statistics follows: There is a finite set of directions for which not all results of inaccurate spin measurements can be predetermined in a non-contextual way. In contrast to an earlier theorem [Breuer, (...)
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