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  1. added 2020-01-23
    Considering Intra-Individual Genetic Heterogeneity to Understand Biodiversity.Eva Boon - 2019 - In From Assessing to Conserving Biodiversity. Cham: Springer. pp. 219-232.
    In this chapter, I am concerned with the concept of Intra-individual Genetic Hetereogeneity (IGH) and its potential influence on biodiversity estimates. Definitions of biological individuality are often indirectly dependent on genetic sampling -and vice versa. Genetic sampling typically focuses on a particular locus or set of loci, found in the the mitochondrial, chloroplast or nuclear genome. If ecological function or evolutionary individuality can be defined on the level of multiple divergent genomes, as I shall argue is the case in IGH, (...)
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  2. added 2019-10-27
    Don’T Demean “Invasives”: Conservation and Wrongful Species Discrimination.C. E. Abbate & Bob Fischer - 2019 - Animals 871 (9).
    It is common for conservationists to refer to non-native species that have undesirable impacts on humans as “invasive”. We argue that the classification of any species as “invasive” constitutes wrongful discrimination. Moreover, we argue that its being wrong to categorize a species as invasive is perfectly compatible with it being morally permissible to kill animals—assuming that conservationists “kill equally”. It simply is not compatible with the double standard that conservationists tend to employ in their decisions about who lives and who (...)
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  3. added 2019-09-20
    An Herbiary of Plant Individuality.Sophie Gerber - 2018 - Philosophy, Theory, and Practice in Biology 10 (5):1-5.
    Questioning the nature of individuality has a long and a rich history, both in philosophy and in biology. Because they differ in several features from the pervasive vertebrate-human model, plants have been considered as complicating the question. Here, the various plant species on which authors—whether biologists or philosophers—rely to build the picture of plant individuality are examined and tracked for their peculiarities, thus constituting an “herbiary” of plant individuality. The herbiary of plant individuality has as its members species exhibiting a (...)
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  4. added 2019-09-06
    Disagreement or Denialism? “Invasive Species Denialism” and Ethical Disagreement in Science.David M. Frank - forthcoming - Synthese:1-29.
    Recently, invasion biologists have argued that some of the skepticism expressed in the scientific and lay literatures about the risks of invasive species and other aspects of the consensus within invasion biology is a kind of science denialism. This paper presents an argument that, while some claims made by skeptics of invasion biology share important features with paradigm cases of science denialism, others express legitimate ethical concerns that, even if one disagrees, should not be dismissed as denialist. Further, this case (...)
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  5. added 2019-08-11
    Do Species Really Matter?Brendan Cline - 2019 - Environmental Ethics 40 (3):241-260.
    Many environmentalists hold that the loss of a species is intrinsically bad, and many also think that we have moral obligations to species as such. In an attempt to capture these thoughts, some philosophers have suggested that species are bearers of intrinsic value. This approach works well in paradigmatic cases. However, it begins to break down in more difficult scenarios, such as when species boundaries are unclear or when resources are scarce. The case study of the Galápagos giant tortoises in (...)
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  6. added 2019-06-06
    Reintroduction of Species: Benefits and Harms.Jane Duran - 2012 - International Journal of Applied Philosophy 26 (1):137-145.
    The questions surrounding the reintroduction of species, both avian and mammal, to areas in which they were originally found are examined with citation to the literature involving actual attempts at reintroduction, and lines of argument brought to bear on the discussion by ethicists and ecologists. It is concluded that the dangers surrounding most reintroductions are, if anything, understated, but that deep ecology or preservationist views still support such efforts, if undertaken in sound ways.
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  7. added 2019-06-06
    Comments on William Grove-Fanning’s “Biodiversity Loss, the Motivational Gap, and the Failure of Conservation Education”.Jonathan Parker - 2010 - Southwest Philosophy Review 26 (2):29-32.
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  8. added 2019-06-06
    Biodiversity and Environmental Philosophy: An Introduction. [REVIEW]Bruce Morito - 2008 - Environmental Ethics 30 (1):101-104.
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  9. added 2019-06-06
    Robert E. Kohler, All Creatures: Naturalists, Collectors, and Biodiversity, 1850–1950. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2006. Pp. Xiii+363. ISBN 978-0-691-12539-2. $35.00, £22.95. [REVIEW]Kristin Johnson - 2007 - British Journal for the History of Science 40 (3):452.
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  10. added 2019-06-06
    Biodiversity and Democracy: Rethinking Society and Nature. [REVIEW]Thomas Heyd - 2002 - Environmental Ethics 24 (2):217-218.
  11. added 2019-06-06
    Bioinvasion, Globalization, and the Contingency of Cultural and Biological Diversity: Some Ecosemiotic Observations.Claus Emmeche - 2001 - Sign Systems Studies 29 (1):237-261.
    The increasing problem of bioinvasion is investigated as an example of an ecosemiotic problematic. One concern is the scarcity of scientific knowledge about long term ecological and evolutionary consequences of invading species. It is argued that a natural science conception of the ecology of bioinvasion should be supplemented with an ecosemiotic understanding of the significance of these problems in relation to human culture, the question of cultural diversity, and what it means to be indigenous or foreign. Bioinvasion, extinction of native (...)
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  12. added 2019-06-06
    The Idea of Biodiversity: Philosophies of Paradise. [REVIEW]H. Sterling Burnett - 1998 - Environmental Ethics 20 (2):203-206.
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  13. added 2019-06-06
    Conservation and Preservation: A Conceptual Rehabilitation.Bryan G. Norton - 1986 - Environmental Ethics 8 (3):195-220.
    Philosophers have paid little attention to the distinction between conservation and preservation, apparently because they have accepted John Passmore’s suggestion that conservationism is an expression of anthropocentric motives and that “true” preservationism is an expression of nonanthropocentric motives. Philosophers have therefore concentrated their efforts on this distinction in motives. This reduction,however, is insensitive to important nuances of environmentalist objectives: there are a wide variety of human reasons for preserving natural ecosystems and wild species. Preservationist policies represent a concem to protect (...)
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  14. added 2019-06-05
    The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity: Ecological and Economic Foundations, Edited by Pushpam Kumar. London: Earthscan, 2010, 400pp. [REVIEW]John Livernois - 2011 - Erasmus Journal for Philosophy and Economics 4 (2):130.
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  15. added 2019-06-05
    Book ReviewsSanford Levinson,. Wrestling with Diversity.Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2003. Pp. Xi+336. $74.95 ; $21.95. [REVIEW]Shaun P. Young - 2005 - Ethics 115 (3):618-621.
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  16. added 2019-06-05
    A Theory of Method. Husain Sarkar.Daniel Garber - 1985 - Philosophy of Science 52 (2):315-317.
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  17. added 2019-04-26
    What Is It Like To Become a Bat? Heterogeneities in an Age of Extinction.Stephanie Erev - 2018 - Environmental Humanities 1 (10):129-149.
    In his celebrated 1974 essay “What Is It Like to Be a Bat?,” Thomas Nagel stages a human-bat encounter to illustrate and support his claim that “subjective experience” is irreducible to “objective fact”: because Nagel cannot experience the world as a bat does, he will never know what it is like to be one. In Nagel’s account, heterogeneity is figured negatively—as a failure or lack of resemblance—and functions to constrain his knowledge of bats. Today, as white-nose syndrome threatens bat populations (...)
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  18. added 2019-03-31
    What Explains Patterns of Biodiversity Across the Tree of Life?John J. Wiens - 2017 - Bioessays 39 (3):1600128.
    A major challenge in biology is to explain why some groups have thousands or millions of species whereas others have few. Here, I review the causes of this variation. New studies reveal that higher species numbers in many major groups are explained by higher diversification rates (and traits that accelerate these rates). These traits span most of biology (e.g. genomics, ecology, morphology). Rather than simply testing individual traits, research should now focus on comparing how much variation in diversification rates is (...)
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  19. added 2019-03-11
    In Defense of Living Fossils.Derek Turner - 2019 - Biology and Philosophy 34 (2):23.
    Lately there has been a wave of criticism of the concept of living fossils. First, recent research has challenged the status of paradigmatic living fossil taxa, such as coelacanths, cycads, and tuataras. Critics have also complained that the living fossil concept is vague and/or ambiguous, and that it is responsible for misconceptions about evolution. This paper defends a particular phylogenetic conception of living fossils, or taxa that exhibit deep prehistoric morphological stability; contain few extant species; and make a high contribution (...)
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  20. added 2019-03-11
    Biases in the Selection of Candidate Species for De-Extinction.Derek D. Turner - 2017 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 20 (1):21-24.
    Entrenched biases in favour of large, charismatic mammals, towards predators, towards terrestrial animals and towards species that have cultural importance can influence the selection of candidate species for de-extinction research. Often, the species with the highest existence value will also be the ones that raise the most serious animal welfare concerns.
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  21. added 2019-02-04
    Biodiversity is a Chimera, and Chimeras Aren’T Real.Carlos Santana - 2018 - Biology and Philosophy 33 (1-2):15.
    A recent article by Burch-Brown and Archer provides compelling arguments that biodiversity is either a natural kind or a pragmatically-valid scientific entity. I call into question three of these arguments. The first argument contends that biodiversity is a Homeostatic Property Cluster. I respond that there is no plausible homeostatic mechanism that would make biodiversity an HPC natural kind. The second argument proposes that biodiversity is a multiply-realizable functional kind. I respond that there is no shared function to ground this account. (...)
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  22. added 2018-12-03
    Biodiversity Realism: Preserving the Tree of Life.Christopher Lean - 2017 - Biology and Philosophy 32 (6):1083-1103.
    Biodiversity is a key concept in the biological sciences. While it has its origin in conservation biology, it has become useful across multiple biological disciplines as a means to describe biological variation. It remains, however, unclear what particular biological units the concept refers to. There are currently multiple accounts of which biological features constitute biodiversity and how these are to be measured. In this paper, I draw from the species concept debate to argue for a set of desiderata for the (...)
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  23. added 2018-11-01
    Does Cognition Still Matter in Ethnobiology?David Ludwig - 2018 - Ethnobiology Letters 9 (2):269-275.
    Ethnobiology has become increasingly concerned with applied and normative questions about biocultural diversity and the livelihoods of local communities. While this development has created new opportunities for connecting ethnobiological research with ecological and social sciences, it also raises questions about the role of cognitive perspectives in current ethnobiology. In fact, there are clear signs of institutional separation as research on folkbiological cognition has increasingly found its home in the cognitive science community, weakening its ties to institutionalized ethnobiology. Rather than accepting (...)
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  24. added 2018-09-04
    The Commons, Game Theory, and Aspects of Human Nature That May Allow Conservation of Global Resources.Walter K. Dodds - 2005 - Environmental Values 14 (4):411-425.
    Fundamental aspects of human use of the environment can be explained by game theory. Game theory explains aggregate behaviour of the human species driven by perceived costs and benefits. In the 'game' of global environmental protection and conservation, the stakes are the living conditions of all species including the human race, and the playing field is our planet. The question is can we control humanity's hitherto endless appetite for resources before we irreparably harm the global ecosystem and cause extinction of (...)
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  25. added 2018-07-14
    'Biodiversity’ and Biological Diversities: Consequences of Pluralism Between Biology and Policy.David M. Frank - 2017 - In Justin Garson, Sahotra Sarkar & Anya Plutynski (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Biodiversity. New York, NY, USA: pp. 96-109.
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  26. added 2018-05-02
    Ethical Arguments For and Against De-Extinction.Douglas Ian Campbell & Patrick Michael Whittle - 2017 - In Resurrecting Extinct Species Ethics and Authenticity. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 87-124.
    This chapter surveys and critically evaluates all the main arguments both for and against de-extinction. It presents a qualified defence of the claim that conservationists should embrace de-extinction. It ends with a list of do’s and don’ts for conservationist de-extinction projects.
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  27. added 2018-05-01
    Conservation in a Brave New World.Douglas Ian Campbell & Patrick Michael Whittle - 2017 - In Resurrecting Extinct Species: Ethics and Authenticity. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 1-28.
    This chapter introduces the two main philosophical questions that are raised by the prospect of extinct species being brought back from the dead—namely, the ‘Authenticity Question’ and the ‘Ethical Question’. It distinguishes different types of de-extinction, and different methods by which de-extinction can be accomplished. Finally, it examines the aims of wildlife conservation with a view to whether they are compatible with de-extinction, or not.
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  28. added 2018-05-01
    Three Case Studies: Aurochs, Mammoths and Passenger Pigeons.Douglas Ian Campbell & Patrick Michael Whittle - 2017 - In Resurrecting Extinct Species: Ethics and Authenticity. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 29-48.
    This chapter examines three prime candidates for de-extinction—namely, the aurochs, the woolly mammoth, and the passenger pigeon. It will be about what these animals were like, why people want to resurrect them, and the methods by which their resurrections could be accomplished.
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  29. added 2017-09-18
    Well-Ordered Science: The Case of GM Crops.Matthew Lister - 2007 - Journal of Philosophical Research 32 (Supplement):127-139.
    The debate over the use of genetically-modified crops is one where the heat to light ratio is often quite low. Both proponents and opponents of GM crops often resort more to rhetoric than argument. This paper attempts to use Philip Kitcher’s idea of a “well-ordered science” to bring coherence to the debate. While I cannot, of course, here decide when and where, if at all, GM crops should be used I do show how Kitcher’s approach provides a useful framework in (...)
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  30. added 2017-08-29
    Revamping the Metaphysics of Ethnobiological Classification.David Ludwig - 2018 - Current Anthropology 59 (4):415-438.
    Ethnobiology has a long tradition of metaphysical debates about the “naturalness,” “objectivity”, “reality”, and “universality” of classifications. Especially the work of Brent Berlin has been influential in developing a “convergence metaphysics” that explains cross-cultural similarities of knowledge systems through shared recognition of objective discontinuities in nature. Despite its influence on the development of the field, convergence metaphysics has largely fallen out of favor as contemporary ethnobiologists tend to emphasize the locality and diversity of classificatory practices. The aim of this article (...)
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  31. added 2017-08-04
    The Ecological Catastrophe: The Political-Economic Caste as the Origin and Cause of Environmental Destruction and the Pre-Announced Democratic Disaster.Donato Bergandi - 2017 - In Laura Westra, Janice Gray & Franz-Theo Gottwald (eds.), The Role of Integrity in the Governance of the Commons: Governance, Ecology, Law, Ethics. Dordrecht, Netherland: Springer. pp. 179-189.
    The political, economic and environmental policies of a hegemonic, oligarchic, political-economic international caste are the origin and cause of the ecological and political dystopia that we are living in. An utilitarian, resourcist, anthropocentric perspective guides classical economics and sustainable development models, allowing the enrichment of a tiny part of the world's population, while not impeding but, on the contrary, directly inducing economic losses and environmental destruction for the many. To preserve the integrity of natural systems we must abandon the resourcist (...)
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  32. added 2017-07-31
    From the Protection of Nature to Sustainable Development: The Genesis of an Ethical and Political Oxymoron (Eng. Trans. De la Protection de la Nature au Développement Durable : Genèse d'Un Oxymore Éthique Et Politique, Revue D’Histoire des Sciences, 2012, 65(1):103-142).Donato Bergandi - 2012 - Revue D’Histoire des Sciences 65 (1):103-142.
  33. added 2017-07-02
    Functional Biodiversity and the Concept of Ecological Function.Antoine C. Dussault - 2019 - In Elena Casetta, Davide Vecchi & Jorge Miguel Luz Marques da Silva (eds.), From Assessing to Conserving biodiversity: Beyond the Species Approach. Dordrecht, Pays-Bas: Springer. pp. 297-316.
    This chapter argues that the common claim that the ascription of ecological functions to organisms in functional ecology raises issues about levels of natural selection is ill-founded. This claim, I maintain, mistakenly assumes that the function concept as understood in functional ecology aligns with the selected effect theory of function advocated by many philosophers of biology (sometimes called “The Standard Line” on functions). After exploring the implications of Wilson and Sober’s defence of multilevel selection for the prospects of defending a (...)
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  34. added 2017-06-16
    Is Biodiversity Intrinsically Valuable? (And What Might That Mean?).Katie McShane - 2017 - In Justin Garson, Anya Plutynski & Sahotra Sarkar (eds.), Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Biodiversity. Routledge. pp. 155-167.
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  35. added 2017-05-23
    Wünschenswerte Vielheit. Diversität als Kategorie, Befund und Norm.Thomas Kirchhoff & Kristian Köchy (eds.) - 2016 - Freiburg: Alber.
    Diversität ist ein zentraler Topos einer Vielzahl aktueller gesellschaftlicher Diskurse. Was genau ist aber gemeint, wenn von „Diversität“ oder auch „Vielheit“ und „Vielfalt“ die Rede ist? Handelt es sich um eine beschreibende Kategorie oder aber um eine, die normativ konnotiert ist? Der vorliegende Band analysiert – im Hinblick auf die Debatten um Biodiversität –, welche Bedeutungen und Funktionen „Diversität“, „Vielheit“ und „Vielfalt“ als Kategorie, Befund und Norm zukommen. Dazu rücken die Buchbeiträge die komplexen begriffs- und ideengeschichtlichen Hintergründe dieser Konzepte in (...)
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  36. added 2017-02-15
    Husain Sarkar, A Theory of Method.Russo François - 1986 - Revue d'Histoire des Sciences 39 (3):283-284.
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  37. added 2017-02-14
    The Biodiversity-Ecosystem Function Debate in Ecology.Kevin DeLaplante & Valentin Picasso - 2011 - In Kevin deLaplante, Bryson Brown & Kent A. Peacock (eds.), Philosophy of Ecology. North-Holland. pp. 169--200.
  38. added 2017-02-14
    Should Endangered Species Have Standing? Toward Legal Rights for Listed Species.J. Baird Callicott & William Grove-Fanning - 2009 - Social Philosophy and Policy 26 (2):317-352.
    The Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA) is America's strongest environmental law. Its citizen-suit provisionany personawards implicit intrinsic value, de facto standing, and operational legal rights (sensu Christopher D. Stone) to listed species. Accordingly, some cases had gone forward in the federal courts in the name of various listed species between 1979 (Palila v. Hawaii Dept. of Land & Natural Resources) and 2004 (Cetacean Community v. Bush), when the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals ruled that animals could not sue in (...)
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  39. added 2017-02-14
    Services Culture: A Matrix to Measure Diversity.Barbara B. Stern - 1988 - International Journal of Value-Based Management 1 (2):19-31.
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  40. added 2017-02-12
    “Support Your Local Invasive Species”: Animal Protection Rhetoric and Nonnative Species.Mona Seymour - 2013 - Society and Animals 21 (1):54-73.
    This article explores protection efforts that have arisen in the New York City metropolitan area around the monk parakeet, a nonnative bird that has achieved a broad distribution outside its native habitat range. In some urban regions in which populations are established, controversy has developed around the parakeets’ use of utility infrastructure and potential impacts on native species and agricultural crops. This case provides an opportunity to explore animal protection rhetoric about nonnative species, an understudied topic, considering the great extent (...)
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  41. added 2017-02-12
    The History and Survival of Traditional Heirloom Vegetable Varieties in the Southern Appalachian Mountains of Western North Carolina.James R. Veteto - 2008 - Agriculture and Human Values 25 (1):121-134.
    Southern Appalachia is unique among agroecological regions of the American South because of the diverse environmental conditions caused by its mountain ecology, the geographic and commercial isolation of the region, and the relative cultural autonomy of the people that live there. Those three criteria, combined with a rich agricultural history and the continuance of the homegardening tradition, make southern Appalachia an area of relatively high crop biodiversity in America. This study investigated the history and survival of traditional heirloom vegetable crops (...)
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  42. added 2017-02-12
    When Species Meet.Margrit Shildrick - 2008 - Society and Animals 16 (4):373-375.
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  43. added 2017-02-12
    The Ethics of Biological Control: Understanding the Moral Implications of Our Most Powerful Ecological Technology.Jeffrey A. Lockwood - 1996 - Agriculture and Human Values 13 (1):2-19.
    A system of environmental ethics recently developed by Lawrence Johnson may be used to analyze the moral implications of biological control. According to this system, entities are morally relevant when they possess well-being interests (i.e., functions or processes that can be better or worse in so far as the entity is concerned). In this formulation of ethical analysis, species and ecosystems are morally relevant because they are not simply aggregates of individuals, so their processes, properties, and well-being interests are not (...)
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  44. added 2017-02-12
    Ethical and Environmental Considerations in the Release of Herbicide Resistant Crops.Jack Dekker & Gary Comstock - 1992 - Agriculture and Human Values 9 (3):31-43.
    Recent advances in molecular genetics, plant physiology, and biochemistry have opened up the new biotechnology of herbicide resistant crops (HRCs). Herbicide resistant crops have been characterized as the solution for many environmental problems associated with modern crop production, being described as powerful tools for farmers that may increase production options. We are concerned that these releases are occurring in the absence of forethought about their impact on agroecosystems, the broader landscape, and the rural and urban economies and cultures. Many of (...)
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  45. added 2017-02-12
    The New Agriculture. Genetic Engineering of Plants: Agricultural Research Opportunities and Policy Concerns. National Academic Press, 1984. Pp. 83. Paperback $9.50. [REVIEW]Donald Boulter - 1985 - Bioessays 3 (4):190-190.
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  46. added 2017-02-11
    Conservation of Adaptive Self-Construction: A Flux-Centred Solution to the Paradox of Nature Preservation.Matthew F. Child - 2011 - Environmental Values 20 (4):527-548.
    There is widespread public misunderstanding of ecology and conservation. A culturally entrenched ' balance of nature ' paradigm abets consumerism by encouraging the use of materialism to preserve a static socioeconomic identity. Static self -identities do not foster the depth and breadth of individual self -meaning that is necessary to integrate the existential properties of biodiversity into a popular culture of conservation. The 'flux of nature ' paradigm, however, provides dynamic narrative devices for expounding the link between adaptive individuality and (...)
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  47. added 2017-02-11
    Conflict Between International Treaties: Failing to Mitigate the Effects of Introduced Marine Species.M. L. Campbell, A. Grage, C. J. Mabin & C. L. Hewitt - 2009 - Dialogue (Misc) 28:46-56.
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  48. added 2017-02-09
    Species Are Processes: A Solution to the ‘Species Problem’ Via an Extension of Ulanowicz’s Ecological Metaphysics. [REVIEW]Jeffrey A. Lockwood - 2012 - Axiomathes 22 (2):231-260.
    Abstract The ‘species problem’ in the philosophy of biology concerns the nature of species. Various solutions have been proposed, including arguments that species are sets, classes, natural kinds, individuals, and homeostatic property clusters. These proposals parallel debates in ecology as to the ontology and metaphysics of populations, communities and ecosystems. A new solution—that species are processes—is proposed and defended, based on Robert Ulanowicz’s metaphysics of process ecology. As with ecological systems, species can be understood as emergent, autocatalytic systems with propensities (...)
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  49. added 2017-02-08
    On Governance, Embedding and Marketing: Reflections on the Construction of Alternative Sustainable Food Networks. [REVIEW]Dirk Roep & Johannes S. C. Wiskerke - 2012 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 25 (2):205-221.
    Based on the reconstruction of the development of 14 food supply chain initiatives in 7 European countries, we developed a conceptual framework that demonstrates that the process of increasing the sustainability of food supply chains is rooted in strategic choices regarding governance , embedding, and marketing and in the coordination of these three dimensions that are inextricably interrelated. The framework also shows that when seeking to further develop an initiative (e.g., through scaling up or product diversification) these interrelations need continuous (...)
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  50. added 2017-02-07
    The Convergence Hypothesis Falsified: Implicit Intrinsic Value, Operational Rights, and de Facto Standing in the Endangered Species Act.J. Baird Callicott - 2009 - In Ben A. Minteer (ed.), Nature in Common?: Environmental Ethics and the Contested Foundations of Environmental Policy. Temple University Press.
1 — 50 / 293