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  1. added 2018-12-03
    Biodiversity Realism: Preserving the Tree of Life.Christopher Lean - 2017 - Biology and Philosophy 32 (6):1083-1103.
    Biodiversity is a key concept in the biological sciences. While it has its origin in conservation biology, it has become useful across multiple biological disciplines as a means to describe biological variation. It remains, however, unclear what particular biological units the concept refers to. There are currently multiple accounts of which biological features constitute biodiversity and how these are to be measured. In this paper, I draw from the species concept debate to argue for a set of desiderata for the (...)
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  2. added 2018-11-01
    Does Cognition Still Matter in Ethnobiology?David Ludwig - 2018 - Ethnobiology Letters 9 (2):269-275.
    Ethnobiology has become increasingly concerned with applied and normative questions about biocultural diversity and the livelihoods of local communities. While this development has created new opportunities for connecting ethnobiological research with ecological and social sciences, it also raises questions about the role of cognitive perspectives in current ethnobiology. In fact, there are clear signs of institutional separation as research on folkbiological cognition has increasingly found its home in the cognitive science community, weakening its ties to institutionalized ethnobiology. Rather than accepting (...)
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  3. added 2018-09-04
    The Commons, Game Theory, and Aspects of Human Nature That May Allow Conservation of Global Resources.Walter K. Dodds - 2005 - Environmental Values 14 (4):411-425.
    Fundamental aspects of human use of the environment can be explained by game theory. Game theory explains aggregate behaviour of the human species driven by perceived costs and benefits. In the 'game' of global environmental protection and conservation, the stakes are the living conditions of all species including the human race, and the playing field is our planet. The question is can we control humanity's hitherto endless appetite for resources before we irreparably harm the global ecosystem and cause extinction of (...)
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  4. added 2018-07-14
    'Biodiversity’ and Biological Diversities: Consequences of Pluralism Between Biology and Policy.David M. Frank - 2017 - In Justin Garson, Sahotra Sarkar & Anya Plutynski (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Biodiversity. New York, NY, USA: pp. 96-109.
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  5. added 2018-05-02
    Ethical Arguments For and Against De-Extinction.Douglas Ian Campbell & Patrick Michael Whittle - 2017 - In Resurrecting Extinct Species Ethics and Authenticity. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 87-124.
    This chapter surveys and critically evaluates all the main arguments both for and against de-extinction. It presents a qualified defence of the claim that conservationists should embrace de-extinction. It ends with a list of do’s and don’ts for conservationist de-extinction projects.
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  6. added 2018-05-01
    Three Case Studies: Aurochs, Mammoths and Passenger Pigeons.Douglas Ian Campbell & Patrick Michael Whittle - 2017 - In Resurrecting Extinct Species: Ethics and Authenticity. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 29-48.
    This chapter examines three prime candidates for de-extinction—namely, the aurochs, the woolly mammoth, and the passenger pigeon. It will be about what these animals were like, why people want to resurrect them, and the methods by which their resurrections could be accomplished.
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  7. added 2018-05-01
    Conservation in a Brave New World.Douglas Ian Campbell & Patrick Michael Whittle - 2017 - In Resurrecting Extinct Species: Ethics and Authenticity. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 1-28.
    This chapter introduces the two main philosophical questions that are raised by the prospect of extinct species being brought back from the dead—namely, the ‘Authenticity Question’ and the ‘Ethical Question’. It distinguishes different types of de-extinction, and different methods by which de-extinction can be accomplished. Finally, it examines the aims of wildlife conservation with a view to whether they are compatible with de-extinction, or not.
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  8. added 2017-09-18
    Well-Ordered Science: The Case of GM Crops.Matthew J. Lister - 2007 - Journal of Philosophical Research 32 (Supplement):127-139.
    The debate over the use of genetically-modified crops is one where the heat to light ratio is often quite low. Both proponents and opponents of GM crops often resort more to rhetoric than argument. This paper attempts to use Philip Kitcher’s idea of a “well-ordered science” to bring coherence to the debate. While I cannot, of course, here decide when and where, if at all, GM crops should be used I do show how Kitcher’s approach provides a useful framework in (...)
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  9. added 2017-08-29
    Revamping the Metaphysics of Ethnobiological Classification.David Ludwig - 2018 - Current Anthropology 59 (4):415-438.
    Ethnobiology has a long tradition of metaphysical debates about the “naturalness,” “objectivity”, “reality”, and “universality” of classifications. Especially the work of Brent Berlin has been influential in developing a “convergence metaphysics” that explains cross-cultural similarities of knowledge systems through shared recognition of objective discontinuities in nature. Despite its influence on the development of the field, convergence metaphysics has largely fallen out of favor as contemporary ethnobiologists tend to emphasize the locality and diversity of classificatory practices. The aim of this article (...)
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  10. added 2017-08-04
    The Ecological Catastrophe: The Political-Economic Caste as the Origin and Cause of Environmental Destruction and the Pre-Announced Democratic Disaster.Donato Bergandi - 2017 - In Laura Westra, Janice Gray & Franz-Theo Gottwald (eds.), The Role of Integrity in the Governance of the Commons: Governance, Ecology, Law, Ethics. Dordrecht, Netherland: Springer. pp. 179-189.
    The political, economic and environmental policies of a hegemonic, oligarchic, political-economic international caste are the origin and cause of the ecological and political dystopia that we are living in. An utilitarian, resourcist, anthropocentric perspective guides classical economics and sustainable development models, allowing the enrichment of a tiny part of the world's population, while not impeding but, on the contrary, directly inducing economic losses and environmental destruction for the many. To preserve the integrity of natural systems we must abandon the resourcist (...)
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  11. added 2017-07-31
    From the Protection of Nature to Sustainable Development: The Genesis of an Ethical and Political Oxymoron (Eng. Trans. De la Protection de la Nature au Développement Durable : Genèse d'Un Oxymore Éthique Et Politique, Revue D’Histoire des Sciences, 2012, 65(1):103-142).Donato Bergandi - 2012 - Revue D’Histoire des Sciences 65 (1):103-142.
  12. added 2017-07-02
    Functional Biodiversity, Context-Based Ecological Functions and the Function/Mere Effect Distinction.Antoine C. Dussault - manuscript
    This chapter aims to support non-selectionist elucidations of the notion of ecological role and of the idea of ecosystem-level functional organization associated with it. It does so, first, by noting how non-selectionist elucidations of ecological roles, such as those that appeal to the causal role theory of function, better accord with the context-based (rather than evolutionary-historical) understanding of ecological roles adopted in functional ecology. The chapter then discusses a serious challenge raised by the seeming accidentality of context-based ecological roles, and (...)
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  13. added 2017-06-16
    Is Biodiversity Intrinsically Valuable? (And What Might That Mean?).Katie McShane - 2017 - In Justin Garson, Anya Plutynski & Sahotra Sarkar (eds.), Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Biodiversity. Routledge. pp. 155-167.
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  14. added 2017-05-23
    Wünschenswerte Vielheit. Diversität als Kategorie, Befund und Norm.Thomas Kirchhoff & Kristian Köchy (eds.) - 2016 - Freiburg: Alber.
    Diversität ist ein zentraler Topos einer Vielzahl aktueller gesellschaftlicher Diskurse. Was genau ist aber gemeint, wenn von „Diversität“ oder auch „Vielheit“ und „Vielfalt“ die Rede ist? Handelt es sich um eine beschreibende Kategorie oder aber um eine, die normativ konnotiert ist? Der vorliegende Band analysiert – im Hinblick auf die Debatten um Biodiversität –, welche Bedeutungen und Funktionen „Diversität“, „Vielheit“ und „Vielfalt“ als Kategorie, Befund und Norm zukommen. Dazu rücken die Buchbeiträge die komplexen begriffs- und ideengeschichtlichen Hintergründe dieser Konzepte in (...)
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  15. added 2017-02-15
    Husain Sarkar, A Theory of Method.Russo François - 1986 - Revue d'Histoire des Sciences 39 (3):283-284.
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  16. added 2017-02-14
    The Biodiversity-Ecosystem Function Debate in Ecology.Kevin DeLaplante & Valentin Picasso - 2011 - In Kevin deLaplante, Bryson Brown & Kent A. Peacock (eds.), Philosophy of Ecology. North-Holland. pp. 169--200.
  17. added 2017-02-14
    Should Endangered Species Have Standing? Toward Legal Rights for Listed Species.J. Baird Callicott & William Grove-Fanning - 2009 - Social Philosophy and Policy 26 (2):317-352.
    The Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA) is America's strongest environmental law. Its citizen-suit provisionany personawards implicit intrinsic value, de facto standing, and operational legal rights (sensu Christopher D. Stone) to listed species. Accordingly, some cases had gone forward in the federal courts in the name of various listed species between 1979 (Palila v. Hawaii Dept. of Land & Natural Resources) and 2004 (Cetacean Community v. Bush), when the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals ruled that animals could not sue in (...)
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  18. added 2017-02-14
    Services Culture: A Matrix to Measure Diversity.Barbara B. Stern - 1988 - International Journal of Value-Based Management 1 (2):19-31.
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  19. added 2017-02-12
    “Support Your Local Invasive Species”: Animal Protection Rhetoric and Nonnative Species.Mona Seymour - 2013 - Society and Animals 21 (1):54-73.
    This article explores protection efforts that have arisen in the New York City metropolitan area around the monk parakeet, a nonnative bird that has achieved a broad distribution outside its native habitat range. In some urban regions in which populations are established, controversy has developed around the parakeets’ use of utility infrastructure and potential impacts on native species and agricultural crops. This case provides an opportunity to explore animal protection rhetoric about nonnative species, an understudied topic, considering the great extent (...)
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  20. added 2017-02-12
    When Species Meet.Margrit Shildrick - 2008 - Society and Animals 16 (4):373-375.
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  21. added 2017-02-12
    The History and Survival of Traditional Heirloom Vegetable Varieties in the Southern Appalachian Mountains of Western North Carolina.James R. Veteto - 2008 - Agriculture and Human Values 25 (1):121-134.
    Southern Appalachia is unique among agroecological regions of the American South because of the diverse environmental conditions caused by its mountain ecology, the geographic and commercial isolation of the region, and the relative cultural autonomy of the people that live there. Those three criteria, combined with a rich agricultural history and the continuance of the homegardening tradition, make southern Appalachia an area of relatively high crop biodiversity in America. This study investigated the history and survival of traditional heirloom vegetable crops (...)
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  22. added 2017-02-12
    The Ethics of Biological Control: Understanding the Moral Implications of Our Most Powerful Ecological Technology.Jeffrey A. Lockwood - 1996 - Agriculture and Human Values 13 (1):2-19.
    A system of environmental ethics recently developed by Lawrence Johnson may be used to analyze the moral implications of biological control. According to this system, entities are morally relevant when they possess well-being interests (i.e., functions or processes that can be better or worse in so far as the entity is concerned). In this formulation of ethical analysis, species and ecosystems are morally relevant because they are not simply aggregates of individuals, so their processes, properties, and well-being interests are not (...)
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  23. added 2017-02-12
    Ethical and Environmental Considerations in the Release of Herbicide Resistant Crops.Jack Dekker & Gary Comstock - 1992 - Agriculture and Human Values 9 (3):31-43.
    Recent advances in molecular genetics, plant physiology, and biochemistry have opened up the new biotechnology of herbicide resistant crops (HRCs). Herbicide resistant crops have been characterized as the solution for many environmental problems associated with modern crop production, being described as powerful tools for farmers that may increase production options. We are concerned that these releases are occurring in the absence of forethought about their impact on agroecosystems, the broader landscape, and the rural and urban economies and cultures. Many of (...)
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  24. added 2017-02-12
    The New Agriculture. Genetic Engineering of Plants: Agricultural Research Opportunities and Policy Concerns. National Academic Press, 1984. Pp. 83. Paperback $9.50. [REVIEW]Donald Boulter - 1985 - Bioessays 3 (4):190-190.
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  25. added 2017-02-11
    Reintroduction of Species.Jane Duran - 2012 - International Journal of Applied Philosophy 26 (1):137-145.
    The questions surrounding the reintroduction of species, both avian and mammal, to areas in which they were originally found are examined with citation to the literature involving actual attempts at reintroduction, and lines of argument brought to bear on the discussion by ethicists and ecologists. It is concluded that the dangers surrounding most reintroductions are, if anything, understated, but that deep ecology or preservationist views still support such efforts, if undertaken in sound ways.
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  26. added 2017-02-11
    Conservation of Adaptive Self-Construction: A Flux-Centred Solution to the Paradox of Nature Preservation.Matthew F. Child - 2011 - Environmental Values 20 (4):527-548.
    There is widespread public misunderstanding of ecology and conservation. A culturally entrenched ' balance of nature ' paradigm abets consumerism by encouraging the use of materialism to preserve a static socioeconomic identity. Static self -identities do not foster the depth and breadth of individual self -meaning that is necessary to integrate the existential properties of biodiversity into a popular culture of conservation. The 'flux of nature ' paradigm, however, provides dynamic narrative devices for expounding the link between adaptive individuality and (...)
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  27. added 2017-02-11
    Conflict Between International Treaties: Failing to Mitigate the Effects of Introduced Marine Species.M. L. Campbell, A. Grage, C. J. Mabin & C. L. Hewitt - 2009 - Dialogue (Misc) 28:46-56.
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  28. added 2017-02-09
    Species Are Processes: A Solution to the 'Species Problem' Via an Extension of Ulanowicz's Ecological Metaphysics. [REVIEW]Jeffrey Lockwood - 2012 - Axiomathes 22 (2):231-260.
    Abstract The ‘species problem’ in the philosophy of biology concerns the nature of species. Various solutions have been proposed, including arguments that species are sets, classes, natural kinds, individuals, and homeostatic property clusters. These proposals parallel debates in ecology as to the ontology and metaphysics of populations, communities and ecosystems. A new solution—that species are processes—is proposed and defended, based on Robert Ulanowicz’s metaphysics of process ecology. As with ecological systems, species can be understood as emergent, autocatalytic systems with propensities (...)
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  29. added 2017-02-08
    On Governance, Embedding and Marketing: Reflections on the Construction of Alternative Sustainable Food Networks. [REVIEW]Dirk Roep & Johannes Wiskerke - 2012 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 25 (2):205-221.
    Based on the reconstruction of the development of 14 food supply chain initiatives in 7 European countries, we developed a conceptual framework that demonstrates that the process of increasing the sustainability of food supply chains is rooted in strategic choices regarding governance , embedding, and marketing and in the coordination of these three dimensions that are inextricably interrelated. The framework also shows that when seeking to further develop an initiative (e.g., through scaling up or product diversification) these interrelations need continuous (...)
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  30. added 2017-02-07
    The Convergence Hypothesis Falsified: Implicit Intrinsic Value, Operational Rights, and de Facto Standing in the Endangered Species Act.J. Baird Callicott - 2009 - In Ben A. Minteer (ed.), Nature in Common?: Environmental Ethics and the Contested Foundations of Environmental Policy. Temple University Press.
  31. added 2017-02-07
    Sanford Levinson, Wrestling with Diversity:Wrestling with Diversity.Shaun P. Young - 2005 - Ethics 115 (3):618-621.
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  32. added 2017-02-07
    Book Review:A Theory of Method Husain Sarkar. [REVIEW]Daniel Garber - 1985 - Philosophy of Science 52 (2):315-.
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  33. added 2017-02-03
    Endangered Species? An Interview with Jean Baudrillard.Paul Sutton - 1997 - Angelaki 2 (3):217 – 224.
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  34. added 2017-02-02
    Imaging Oxygen Distribution in Marine Sediments: The Importance of Bioturbation and Sediment Heterogeneity.L. Pischedda, J. C. Poggiale, P. Cuny & F. Gilbert - 2008 - Acta Biotheoretica 56 (1-2):123-135.
    The influence of sediment oxygen heterogeneity, due to bioturbation, on diffusive oxygen flux was investigated. Laboratory experiments were carried out with 3 macrobenthic species presenting different bioturbation behaviour patterns: the polychaetes Nereis diversicolor and Nereis virens, both constructing ventilated galleries in the sediment column, and the gastropod Cyclope neritea, a burrowing species which does not build any structure. Oxygen two-dimensional distribution in sediments was quantified by means of the optical planar optode technique. Diffusive oxygen fluxes and a variability index were (...)
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  35. added 2017-02-02
    The Details of Food-Sharing Interactions – Their Cost in Social Prestige.Amotz Zahavi - 2004 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (4):570-571.
    I agree with Gurven that costly signaling can explain food-sharing phenomena. However, costly signaling may also explain the role of food sharing in deterring rivals. Details of food-sharing interactions may reveal gains and losses in the social prestige of the interacting parties. The evolutionary models of kin selection and of reciprocal altruism are unstable and should be avoided.
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  36. added 2017-02-02
    The Value of Endangered Species.Ben Bradley - 2001 - Journal of Value Inquiry 35 (1):43-58.
    I argue against several extant views (Rolston, etc) about the value of endangered species. I argue that the best way to defend a non-anthropocentric view about the value of endangered species is to appeal to the intrinsic value of biological diversity.
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  37. added 2017-02-02
    Why Should We Care About Rare Species?Alastair S. Gunn - 1980 - Environmental Ethics 2 (1):17-37.
    Concern for the fate of rare species leads us to ask why the extermination of species is wrong. No satisfactory account can be given in terms of animal rights, and a speciesist perspective can yield at best only a case for preservation of those species which enough people happen to care about. An attempt is made to analyze the concept of rarity, and its relation to value. Finally, it is suggested that the problem can be resolved only in terms of (...)
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  38. added 2017-02-01
    Basic Principles of Agroecology and Sustainable Agriculture.V. G. Thomas & P. G. Kevan - 1993 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 6 (1):1-19.
    In the final analysis, sustainable agriculture must derive from applied ecology, especially the principle of the regulation of the abundance and distribution of species (and, secondarily, their activities) in space and time. Interspecific competition in natural ecosystems has its counterparts in agriculture, designed to divert greater amounts of energy, nutrients, and water into crops. Whereas natural ecosystems select for a diversity of species in communities, recent agriculture has minimized diversity in favour of vulnerable monocultures. Such systems show intrinsically less stability (...)
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  39. added 2017-01-30
    Exotic Species, Naturalisation, and Biological Nativism.N. Hettinger - 2001 - Environmental Values 10 (2):193-224.
    Contrary to frequent characterisations, exotic species should not be identified as damaging species, species introduced by humans, or species originating from some other geographical location. Exotics are best characterised ecologically as species that are foreign to an ecological assemblage in the sense that they have not significantly adapted with the biota constituting that assemblage or to the local abiotic conditions. Exotic species become natives when they have ecologically naturalised and when human influence over their presence in an assemblage (if any) (...)
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  40. added 2017-01-29
    SARKAR, HUSAIN.: "A Theory of Method". [REVIEW]Alan Chalmers - 1985 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 36:228.
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  41. added 2017-01-28
    Saving Nature's Legacy: Origins of the Idea of Biological Diversity.Timothy J. Farnham - 2008 - Journal of the History of Biology 41 (1):191-193.
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  42. added 2017-01-27
    Sarkar on Frank.David Robert Crawford - 2015 - Philosophy of Science 82 (1):122-128.
    In a recent paper, Sahotra Sarkar compares the Standard Dynamical interpretation of natural selection with the Information-Theoretic interpretation from Steven A. Frank. I address Sarkar’s three arguments against Frank’s interpretation. I show that Sarkar’s major argument that a key component of Frank’s account “does not have any natural biological interpretation” is premised on a contradiction stemming from a mathematical error. Consequently, Sarkar’s major argument is unsound. I also address Sarkar’s claim that a central equation in Frank’s interpretation is dynamically insufficient (...)
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  43. added 2017-01-27
    Sahotra Sarkar, Environmental Philosophy: From Theory to Practice. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell , Xii+226 Pp., $96.95. [REVIEW]Jay Odenbaugh - 2014 - Philosophy of Science 81 (2):292-296.
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  44. added 2017-01-27
    A Constructivist Approach Toward a General Definition of Biodiversity.Yves Meinard, Coq Sylvain & Schmid Bernhard - 2014 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 17 (1):88-104.
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  45. added 2017-01-27
    Review: Sahotra Sarkar. Environmental Philosophy: From Theory to Practice. [REVIEW]Review by: Jay Odenbaugh - 2014 - Philosophy of Science 81 (2):292-296,.
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  46. added 2017-01-27
    Choreographing Biodiversity with Peace in Environmental Governance Regime? Making Sense of Bioethics From the Convention on Biological Diversity [CBD].Onkwok Lai - 2012 - Eubios Journal of Asian and International Bioethics 22 (3):102-108.
    Soft-targeting biodiversity development without strong sanctioning –cum- incentive mechanism is the key policy achievement for CBD in Nagoya October 2010 so far….Let us see how CBD can possibly work in 21st Century of informational urban system….How far the instrumentality of the soft-targeting for environmental governance can functionally proceed in the coming decade requires much beefing-up not just in terms of mass-media and non-governmental organizations -driven activism, but also a set of well-coherent framework of reasoning and discourses, exploitable by the action (...)
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  47. added 2017-01-27
    The Puzzling Inventory of Life.Elena Casetta - unknown
    In this paper I introduce the concept of biodiversity by means of its peculiar story and defend the importance of biodiversity as an autonomous object of scientific enquiry (Sections 1 and 2). I then discuss two difficulties, (i) the lack of an agreed definition and (ii) the elusiveness of the notion of biodiversity. While I argue that (i) is a problem that can be handled, I suggest that (ii) follows from the vagueness of the concept of diversity and its cognate (...)
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  48. added 2017-01-27
    Introductory Note to the Contributions by Sarkar and Thaler.S. Sarkar & D. S. Thaler - 1996 - Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science 183:185-186.
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  49. added 2017-01-27
    The Environment in Slovakia and Biodiversity.Martin Hajduch & Anna Pretova - 1996 - Eubios Journal of Asian and International Bioethics 6 (6):165-166.
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  50. added 2017-01-26
    The Phenomenon of Biodiversity.Julia Koricheva, Helena Siipi, Markku Oksanen & Juhani Pietarinen - 2004 - In Markku Oksanen & Juhani Pietarinen (eds.), Philosophy and Biodiversity. Cambridge University Press.
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