||Formal and informal concepts of information are invoked throughout the biological sciences. Genes are said to carry information about environmental conditions, animal signals are said to carry information about mate quality or the presence of predators, chemical signals are said to carry information about the metabolic status of cells. Philosophical work on biological information seeks to categorise these uses in order to relate them to each other and to concepts outside biology. In formal contexts, several mathematical definitions of information and related concepts are available, and debates continue as to the relevance and importance of these formulations. In informal contexts, attributions of information are often closely tied to attributions of meaning, linking these issues with philosophical questions about semantic content. When questions about information attribution arise in the context of neuronal signalling, these issues are closely related to debates in the philosophy of cognitive science.