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1 — 50 / 119
  1. added 2018-12-01
    Eugenics and IQ Testing.Aida Roige - 2014 - Eugenics Archives.
    Intelligence, genius and mental ability were a cluster of traits that received much attention in eugenics discourse. Intelligence was regarded as one of the good qualities superior men possessed, in turn beneficial for society as a whole. On the other hand, the socially problematic or unproductive were identified as being of inferior mental quality: “feeble-minded”. By and large, eugenicists thought that (1) intelligence was a unitary psychological trait that could be measured, being quantified as an intelligence quotient (IQ); (2) intelligence (...)
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  2. added 2018-11-18
    Science: How the Status Quo Harms its Cultural Authority.Brendon King & Michael Short - 2017 - Bioessays 39 (12):1700154.
    Three distinct explanatory models are described which underpin the relationship between the cultural authority of science and public trust. This essay describes how current discourses framed around how the enterprise of science is undertaken; damage these models, diminishing knowledge–attitudes, alienating the public while reducing the cultural meaning of science.
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  3. added 2018-08-17
    Sex Inequality and Bias in Sex Differences Research.Alison M. Jaggar - 1987 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 17 (sup1):24-39.
    In this essay, I want to identify an invidious bias that is embedded in much research into sex differences. I shall argue that bias against women is endemic in any such research programme that fails to take account at every stage of women's social inequality. It is primarily because its view of the relation between sexual difference and sexual inequality is too simplistic that much sex differences research rationalizes and so perpetuates women's subordination.
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  4. added 2018-08-14
    Sexual Difference and Sexual Equality.Alison M. Jaggar - 1990 - In Deborah L. Rhode (ed.), Theoretical Perspectives on Sexual Difference. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.
  5. added 2018-08-14
    Conceptions of Sex Equality and Human Biology in Modem Political Theory.Alison M. Jaggar - 1988 - Philosophie Et Culture: Actes du XVIIe Congrès Mondial de Philosophie 5:62-69.
    The theme of human biology recurs continually both in feminist and in anti-ferminist literature. Reflection on human biology has seemed to promise answers to the urgent questions of why women everywhere are subordinated and whether and how that subordination can be ended. Invariably, anti-feminists have justified women's subordination in terms of perceived biological differences between the sexes, and feminists have responded to their claims in a variety of ways. In this paper, I want to look critically at the ways in (...)
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  6. added 2018-07-24
    Eugenic Thinking.Robert A. Wilson - 2018 - Philosophy, Theory, and Practice in Biology 10.
    Projects of human improvement take both individual and intergenerational forms. The biosciences provide many technologies, including prenatal screening and the latest gene editing techniques, such as CRISPR, that have been viewed as providing the means to human improvement across generations. But who is fit to furnish the next generation? Historically, eugenics epitomizes the science-based attempt to improve human society through distinguishing kinds of people and then implementing social policies—from immigration restriction to sexual sterilization and euthanasia—that influence and even direct what (...)
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  7. added 2018-03-10
    Judaism as a Group Evolutionary Strategy.Nathan Cofnas - 2018 - Human Nature 29 (2):134-156.
    MacDonald argues that a suite of genetic and cultural adaptations among Jews constitutes a “group evolutionary strategy.” Their supposed genetic adaptations include, most notably, high intelligence, conscientiousness, and ethnocentrism. According to this thesis, several major intellectual and political movements, such as Boasian anthropology, Freudian psychoanalysis, and multiculturalism, were consciously or unconsciously designed by Jews to promote collectivism and group continuity among themselves in Israel and the diaspora and undermine the cohesion of gentile populations, thus increasing the competitive advantage of Jews (...)
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  8. added 2017-10-22
    How Today's Scientific Culture Affects Young Scientists.Mirko Bischofberger & Enrico Guarnera - 2010 - Bioessays 32 (5):369-371.
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  9. added 2017-10-22
    Does Help in Decision-Making in Biology Help in Decision-Making in Human Sciences and Conversely?E. Bernard-Weil - 2000 - Acta Biotheoretica 48 (3-4):243-257.
    A link between biological and human sciences may be established, under the condition that we should admit the existence of reciprocal influences between them. The model for the regulation of agonistic antagonistic couples (MRAAC) is built from the study of biological systems and gives rise to specific types of control. This model can be helpful in decision processes in some human sciences such as management, economical and political strategies. The reason for such an opportunity lies in the fact that MRAAC (...)
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  10. added 2017-09-29
    But is It Research? What Price Interdisciplinary Interests?Marc Bekoff - 1994 - Biology and Philosophy 9 (2):249-252.
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  11. added 2017-09-18
    Well-Ordered Science: The Case of GM Crops.Matthew J. Lister - 2007 - Journal of Philosophical Research 32 (Supplement):127-139.
    The debate over the use of genetically-modified crops is one where the heat to light ratio is often quite low. Both proponents and opponents of GM crops often resort more to rhetoric than argument. This paper attempts to use Philip Kitcher’s idea of a “well-ordered science” to bring coherence to the debate. While I cannot, of course, here decide when and where, if at all, GM crops should be used I do show how Kitcher’s approach provides a useful framework in (...)
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  12. added 2017-08-08
    Stuffed Animals and Pickled Heads: The Culture and Evolution of Natural History Museums.Stephen T. Asma - 2002 - Journal of the History of Biology 35 (1):185-187.
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  13. added 2017-08-08
    The Development of a College Biology Self-Efficacy Instrument for Nonmajors.Julie A. Baldwin, Diane Ebert-May & Dennis J. Burns - 1999 - Science Education 83 (4):397-408.
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  14. added 2017-08-08
    Do Universities Do Too Much Research?Jonathan B. L. Bard - 1996 - Bioessays 18 (1):1-2.
  15. added 2017-08-08
    What the Books Say: The Fifth Day of Creation.Jonathan Bard - 1990 - Bioessays 12 (6):303-306.
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  16. added 2017-08-04
    Engineers of Life? A Critical Examination of the Concept of Life in the Debate on Synthetic Biology.Johannes Steizinger - 2016 - In Georg Toepfer & Margret Engelhard (eds.), : Ambivalences of Creating Life – Societal and Philosophical Dimensions of Synthetic Biology. Heidelberg: Springer. pp. 275−292.
    The concept of life plays a crucial role in the debate on synthetic biology. The first part of this chapter outlines the controversial debate on the status of the concept of life in current science and philosophy. Against this background, synthetic biology and the discourse on its scientific and societal consequences is revealed as an exception. Here, the concept of life is not only used as buzzword but also discussed theoretically and links the ethical aspects with the epistemological prerequisites and (...)
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  17. added 2017-03-24
    Environment Debate.Bina Agarwal - 1998 - In Roger Keil (ed.), Political Ecology: Global and Local. Routledge. pp. 193.
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  18. added 2017-03-21
    It Ain’T Necessarily So: The Misuse of 'Human Nature' in Law and Social Policy and Bankruptcy of the 'Nature-Nurture' Debate.Schwartz Justin - 2012 - Texas Journal of Women and the Law 21:187-239.
    Debate about legal and policy reform has been haunted by a pernicious confusion about human nature, the idea that it is a set of rigid dispositions, today generally conceived as genetic, that is manifested the same way in all circumstances. Opponents of egalitarian alternatives argue that we cannot depart far from the status quo because human nature stands in the way. Advocates of such reforms too often deny the existence of human nature because, sharing this conception, they think it would (...)
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  19. added 2017-01-25
    Der biomedizinische Fortschritt: Chancen, Grenzen und Verantwortung.Paul Gottlob Layer - 2003 - Darmstädter Interdisziplinäre Beiträge 8:63-76.
    Berge von brennenden Tieren, Bilder vom „Keulen“, Bilder vom geklonten Menschen. Aber auch Euphorisches: nach der Aufklärung des menschlichen Genoms schöpfen Krebs- und AIDS-Kranke, Querschnittsgelähmte und Alzheimer-Patienten neue Hoffnung. Bilder auch von Börsenkursen: vom neuen Markt der Informations- und Biotechnologien hängt unsere ökonomische Zukunft ab. Hinter allem stecken die „Life Sciences“, und oft wird man mit schrägem Blick gefragt, was das für Leute sind, diese Bio- bzw. Lebenswissenschaftler? Die Frage nach den Möglichkeiten und dem wahren Wert des biomedizinischen Fortschritts, nach (...)
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  20. added 2017-01-20
    Philosophy, Human Nature and the Collapse of Civilization -- Articles and Reviews 2006-2017 by Michael Starks 2nd Ed. 667p (2017).Michael Starks - 2017 - Henderson: Michael Starks.
    This collection of articles was written over the last 10 years and the most important and longest within the last year. Also I have edited them to bring them up to date (2017). The copyright page has the date of this first edition and new editions will be noted there as I edit old articles or add new ones. All the articles are about human behavior (as are all articles by anyone about anything), and so about the limitations of having (...)
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  21. added 2017-01-16
    Vererbungslehre auf schwankendem Grund: Von der Genetik zur Epigenetik.Paul Gottlob Layer - 2016 - BRIEFE Zur Orientierung Im Konflikt Mensch - Erde, Evangelische Akademie Sachsen-Anhalt E.V 121 (4):7-15.
    Die Frage nach der Vererbung von Eigenschaften bei Lebewesen beschäftigt den Menschen seit alters her: das ist Genetik. Auch lange schon beschäftigen sich Biologen mit der Frage, wie sich die vielen Tierarten im Laufe einer langen Stammesgeschichte herausbilden konnten: das ist Evolution. Wie wird Konstantes über Generationen bewahrt und Diverses/Neues eingeführt? Die überragenden Erfolge der Genetik haben uns im Glauben eingelullt, wir hätten diese Prozesse vollständig verstanden. Mit dem Aufkommen der so genannten Epigenetik kommen Grundlagen sowohl der Individual-, wie auch (...)
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  22. added 2017-01-03
    Essay Review: The Roots of Biological Determinism.Garland E. Allen - 1984 - Journal of the History of Biology 17 (1):141-145.
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  23. added 2016-12-12
    Why Collaborate?Jane Maienschein - 1993 - Journal of the History of Biology 26 (2):167-183.
    The recent escalation of concern about scientific integrity has provoked a larger discussion of many questions about why we do science the way we do, as well as about how we should do it. One of these questions concerns collaboration: who should count as a collaborator? This, in turn, raises the question why collaborators collaborate, and whether and when they should. Here, history offers insights that can illuminate the current debate.
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  24. added 2016-12-08
    Demarcating Public From Private Values in Evolutionary Discourse.Evelyn Fox Keller - 1988 - Journal of the History of Biology 21 (2):195-211.
    What I suggest we can see in this brief overview of the literature is an extensive interpenetration on both sides of these debates between scientific, political, and social values. Important shifts in political and social values were of course occurring over the same period, some of them in parallel with, and perhaps even contributing to, these transitions I have been speaking of in evolutionary discourse. The developments that I think of as at least suggestive of possible parallels include the progressive (...)
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  25. added 2016-12-08
    Darwin as a Social Evolutionist.John C. Greene - 1977 - Journal of the History of Biology 10 (1):1-27.
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  26. added 2016-12-02
    Science and Values.Matthew J. Barker - 2015 - Eugenics Archive.
  27. added 2016-09-06
    The Enemy: A Thought Experiment on Patriarchies, Feminisms and Memes.Robert James M. Boyles - 2011 - In Jeane Peracullo & Noelle Leslie Dela Cruz (eds.), Feminista: Gender, Race, and Class in the Philippines. Anvil Publishing, Inc. pp. 53–64.
    This article examines who or what should be the target of feminist criticism. Throughout the discussion, the concept of memes is applied in analyzing systems such as patriarchy and feminism itself. Adapting Dawkins' theory on genes, this research puts forward the possibility that patriarchies and feminisms are memeplexes competing for the limited energy and memory space of humanity.
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  28. added 2016-03-31
    Mating Intelligence, Moral Virtues, and Methodological Vices.Tomislav Bracanovic - 2010 - In Henk W. de Regt (ed.), Epsa Philosophy of Science: Amsterdam 2009. Springer. pp. 13--22.
    According to the ‘mating intelligence’ theory by evolutionary psychologist Geoffrey Miller, human morality is a system of sexually selected traits which serve as costly signals to the other sex about one’s fitness and readiness to take care for possible offspring. Starting from the standard prediction of evolutionary psychology that sexual selection produces psychological sex differences in human mating strategies, ‘mating intelligence’ theory is analyzed for its compatibility with several psychological theories about sex differences in moral traits like moral reasoning, judgment (...)
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  29. added 2016-03-08
    Psychology.Robert A. Wilson - 2014 - Eugenics Archive.
    Genetics and the biological sciences are the two contemporary scientific fields most readily called to mind in thinking about science and eugenics. Yet the history of another discipline, psychology, is enmeshed more intricately with eugenics than are the histories of either genetics or even the biological sciences more generally. This is true of the history of eugenics in Canada. Moreover, continuities in the roles that psychology plays in how we think about sorts of people and their ability and right to (...)
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  30. added 2016-03-08
    Eugenics: Positive Vs Negative.Robert A. Wilson - 2014 - Eugenics Archives.
    The distinction between positive and negative eugenics is perhaps the best-known distinction that has been made between forms that eugenics takes. Roughly, positive eugenics refers to efforts aimed at increasing desirable traits, while negative eugenics refers to efforts aimed at decreasing undesirable traits. Still, it is easy to fall into confusion in drawing and deploying the distinction in particular contexts. Clarity here is important not only historically, but also for appeals to the distinction in contemporary discussions of “new eugenics” or (...)
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  31. added 2016-01-24
    Medicine, Science and Society in Ferrara from the Middle Ages to the Nineteenth Century.Rossano Pancaldi - forthcoming - Xxx.
  32. added 2016-01-15
    Sanità, Scienza E Società a Ferrara Dal Medioevo all'Ottocento.Rossano Pancaldi - forthcoming - Medicina Nei Secoli.
    MALARIA, SCIENCE AND SOCIETY IN FERRARA FROM THE MIDDLE AGES TO THE NINETEENTH CENTURY -/- In this paper it is outlined the history of malaria in Ferrara and its suburbs, from ancient times up to the nineteenth century. It is considered the issue of malaria in Roman times, during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, the discovery of quinine, the first scientific studies made at the University of Ferrara, the first analysis about the causes and the spread of the disease. (...)
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  33. added 2015-12-07
    Review of Nicolas Langlitz's Neuropsychedelia: The Revival of Hallucinogen Research Since the Decade of the Brain. [REVIEW]Meg Stalcup - 2015 - Somatosphere 2015.
    Humphry Osmond wrote to Aldous Huxley in 1956 proposing the term “psychedelic,” coined from two Greek words to mean “mind manifesting.” The scholars, one a psychiatrist and the other a celebrated novelist and philosopher, were exuberant about the potential of drugs for accessing the mind. Huxley favored a phrase from William Blake: -/- If the doors of perception were cleansed everything would appear to man as it is, infinite. -/- He postulated that psychedelics disturbed the “cerebral reducing valve” (1954), and (...)
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  34. added 2015-11-05
    Biology: Scientific Process and Social Issues.Garland Allen & Jeffrey Baker - 2002 - Journal of the History of Biology 35 (3):622-623.
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  35. added 2015-07-28
    The Generalized Darwinian Research Programme.Nicholas Maxwell - 1984 - In From Knowledge to Wisdom. Blackwell. pp. 269-275.
    The generalized Darwinian research programme accepts physicalism, but holds that all life is purposive in character. It seeks to understand how and why all purposiveness has evolved in the universe – especially purposiveness associated with what we value most in human life, such as sentience, consciousness, person-to-person understanding, science, art, free¬dom, love. As evolution proceeds, the mechanisms of evolution themselves evolve to take into account the increasingly important role that purposive action can play - especially when quasi-Lamarckian evolution by cultural (...)
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  36. added 2015-04-17
    Eugenic Traits.Robert A. Wilson - 2014 - Eugenics Archives.
    Certain traits, such as intelligence and mental deficiency, have been the focus of eugenic research and propaganda. This focus on such eugenic traits builds on three commonsense ideas: (1) People differ with respect to some of their traits, such as eye-colour and height; (2) Many traits run in families, being passed on from parents to their children; (3) Some traits are desirable, while others are undesirable. These three ideas about traits—their variability, heritability, and desirability—fed the much more controversial eugenicist view (...)
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  37. added 2015-04-17
    Roles of Science in Eugenics.Robert A. Wilson - 2014 - Eugenics Archives.
    The relationship of eugenics to science is intricate and many-layered, starting with Sir Francis Galton’s original definition of eugenics as “the science of improving stock”. Eugenics was originally conceived of not only as a science by many of its proponents, but as a new, meliorative science emerging from findings of a range of nascent sciences, including anthropology and criminology in the late 19th-century, and genetics and psychiatry in the early 20th-century. Although during the years between the two World Wars many (...)
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  38. added 2015-04-17
    Sociobiology.Robert A. Wilson - 2014 - Eugenics Archives.
    Sociobiology developed in the 1960s as a field within evolutionary biology to explain human social traits and behaviours. Although sociobiology has few direct connections to eugenics, it shares eugenics’ optimistic enthusiasm for extending biological science into the human domain, often with reckless sensationalism. Sociobiology's critics have argued that sociobiology also propagates a kind of genetic determinism and represents the zealous misapplication of science beyond its proper reach that characterized the eugenics movement. More recently, evolutionary psychology represents a sophistication of sociobiology (...)
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  39. added 2014-08-25
    A Radical Solution to the Race Problem.Quayshawn Spencer - 2014 - Philosophy of Science 81 (5):1025-1038.
    It has become customary among philosophers and biologists to claim that folk racial classification has no biological basis. This paper attempts to debunk that view. In this paper, I show that ‘race’, as used in current U.S. race talk, picks out a biologically real entity. I do this by, first, showing that ‘race’, in this use, is not a kind term, but a proper name for a set of human population groups. Next, using recent human genetic clustering results, I show (...)
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  40. added 2014-07-30
    The Evolutionary Path of the Law. [REVIEW]Enrique Guerra-Pujol - 2014 - Indonesian Journal of International and Comparative Law 1 (3):878-890.
    What lessons can legal scholars learn from the life and work of W. D. "Bill" Hamilton, a lifelong student of nature? From my small corner of the legal Academia, three aspects of Bill Hamilton’s work in evolutionary biology stand out in particular: (i) Hamilton’s simple and beautiful model of social behavior in terms of costs and benefits; (ii) his fruitful collaboration with the political theorist Robert Axelrod and their unexpected yet elegant solution of the Prisoner’s Dilemma, an important game or (...)
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  41. added 2014-04-02
    The Cultural Embodiment of Biology.Susanne Lettow - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 44:53-61.
    Biology, established around 1800 as the “science of life,” has developed as not only a specific scientific discipline but it has also continually served as a kind of social knowledge. Biological knowledge supported the modern order of the sexes and the two-sex model that it was structured along, as well as modern racism and multiple forms of social inequality articulated by dichotomizing the normal and abnormal. However, the fledgling discipline of biology alone was not capable of developing the epistemological as (...)
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  42. added 2014-03-30
    Sociobiology Sex and Science.Harmon R. Holcomb Iii & Douglas Allchin - 1997 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 19 (3):423.
    This book examines sociobiology’s validity and significance, using the sociobiological theory of the evolution of mating and parenting as an example. It identifies and discusses the array of factors that determine sociobiology’s effort to become a science, providing a rare, balanced account—more critical than that of its advocates and more constructive than that of its critics. It sees a role for sociobiology in changing the way we understand the goals of evolutionary biology, the proper way to evaluate emerging sciences, and (...)
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  43. added 2014-03-27
    Darwin's Lost Theory and its Implications for the 21st Century.David Loye - 2000 - World Futures 55 (3):201-226.
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  44. added 2014-03-25
    The New Scientific Spirit.Sylvain Lavelle & Richard D'ari - 1996 - Bioessays 18 (7):603-606.
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  45. added 2014-03-24
    The Cultural Politics of the Sociobiology Debate.Neil Jumonville - 2002 - Journal of the History of Biology 35 (3):569 - 593.
    The sociobiology debate, in the final quarter of the twentieth century, featured many of the same issues disputed in the culture war in the humanities during this same time period. This is evident from a study of the writings of Edward O. Wilson, the best known of the sociobiologists, and from an examination of both the minutes of the meetings of the Sociobiology Study Group (SSG) and the writings of Stephen Jay Gould, the SSG's most prominent member. Many critics of (...)
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  46. added 2014-03-23
    Science as Ideology: The Rejection and Reception of Sociobiology in China.Li Jianhui & Hong Fan - 2003 - Journal of the History of Biology 36 (3):567-578.
    The spread of sociobiology in China is not simply an internal event in the development of science. From the day it was introduced to China, its destiny was closely bound up with the development and change of Chinese society. Although it did not create as great a disturbance as in America, it did have a significant impact in academic circles. However, scholars have paid little attention to these historical events. Today, sociobiology seems outdated and Wilson's grand agenda seems to have (...)
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  47. added 2014-03-20
    Lessons From Biology for Philosophy of the Human Sciences.Alex Rosenberg - 2005 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 35 (1):3-19.
    The social sciences must be biological ones, owing simply to the fact that they focus on the causes and effects of the behavior of members of a biological species, Homo sapiens. Our improved understanding of biology as a science and of the biological realm should enable us therefore to solve several of the outstanding problems of the philosophy of social science. The solution to these problems leaves most of the social and behavioral sciences pretty much as it finds them, though (...)
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  48. added 2014-03-18
    Why Biologists Should Support the Exploration of Mars.Marie-Christine Maurel & Giuseppe Zaccai - 2001 - Bioessays 23 (10):977-978.
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  49. added 2014-03-18
    O'Brave New World That has Such Technologies in It!Adam S. Wilkins - 2001 - Bioessays 23 (4):301-303.
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  50. added 2014-03-17
    Biology and Religion.Robert T. Pennock - 2007 - In David L. Hull & Michael Ruse (eds.), The Cambridge Companion to the Philosophy of Biology. Cambridge University Press.
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1 — 50 / 119