Biomedical Ethics

Edited by L. Syd M Johnson (SUNY Upstate Medical University)
Assistant editor: Tyler John (Rutgers University - New Brunswick)
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History/traditions: Biomedical Ethics

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  1. Medical Students and COVID-19: The Need for Pandemic Preparedness.Lorcan O'Byrne - forthcoming - Journal of Medical Ethics:medethics-2020-106353.
    The COVID-19 pandemic has prompted unprecedented global disruption. For medical schools, this has manifested as examination and curricular restructuring as well as significant changes to clinical attachments. With the available evidence suggesting that medical students’ mental health status is already poorer than that of the general population, with academic stress being a chief predictor, such changes are likely to have a significant effect on these students. In addition, there is an assumption that these students are an available resource in terms (...)
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  2. The Right to Know: Ethical Implications of Antibody Testing for Healthcare Workers and Overlooked Societal Implications.Kunal Vakharia - forthcoming - Journal of Medical Ethics:medethics-2020-106467.
    After the initial surge in cases of coronavirus, the outbreak has been managed differently in different countries. In the USA, it has been managed in many different ways between states, cities and even counties. This disparity is slowly becoming more and more pronounced with the advent of antibody testing. Although many argue over the potential merits of antibody testing as an immunity passport to allow the economy to restart, there are other implications that stand at the heart of the bioethical (...)
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  3. Designing Babies Robert Klitzman Oxford University Press: Oxford, 2019. 360 Pp. Isbn: 0190054476 (Hardcover) $29.95. [REVIEW]Jonathan Anomaly - forthcoming - Bioethics.
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  4. ‘Aching to Be a Boy’: A Preliminary Analysis of Gender Assignment of Intersex Persons in India in a Culture of Son Preference.Arpita Das - forthcoming - Bioethics.
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  5. Reconstructing Feminist Perspectives of Women’s Bodies Using a Globalized View: The Changing Surrogacy Market in Japan.Yoshie Yanagihara - forthcoming - Bioethics.
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  6. Application of METAP Methodology for Clinical Ethics Consultation in End-of-Life Care in Bulgaria.Silviya Stoyanova Aleksandrova-Yankulovska - forthcoming - Clinical Ethics:147775092093037.
    Although clinical ethics consultation has existed for more than 40 years in the USA and Europe, it was not available in Bulgaria until recently. In introducing clinical ethics consultation into our country, the Modular, Ethical, Treatment, Allocation of resources, Process methodology has been preferred because of its potential to be used in resource-poor settings and its strong educational function. This paper presents the results of a METAP evaluation in a hospital palliative care ward in the town of Vratsa. The evaluation (...)
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  7. Do Moral Development Levels of the Nurses Affect Their Ethical Decision Making? A Descriptive Correlational Study.Sümeyye Arslan, Sinem Türer Öztik & Nevin Kuzu Kurban - forthcoming - Clinical Ethics:147775092093037.
    Background In the globalizing world, nurses often meet humans from different cultures and values. This fact has led them to make ethical decisions, which do not comply with their own moral jurisdictions at care setting. Objectives The objective of the study was to investigate the relationships between moral development levels of the nurses and their scores of nursing principled thinking and practical consideration during decision making for ethical dilemmas. Methods This was a descriptive correlational study. Nursing Dilemma Test, Moral Development (...)
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  8. Physicians’ and Nurses’ Decision Making to Encounter Neonates with Poor Prognosis in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.Zahra Rafiee, Maryam Rabiee, Shiva Rafati, Nahid Rejeh, Hajieh Borna & Mojtaba Vaismoradi - forthcoming - Clinical Ethics:147775092092717.
    Background Decision making regarding the treatment of neonates with poor prognoses is difficult for healthcare staff working in the neonatal intensive care unit. This study aimed to investigate the attitudes of physicians and nurses about the value of life and ethical decision making when encountering neonates with poor prognosis in the NICU. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in five NICUs of five hospitals in Tehran city, Iran. The attitudes of 144 pediatricians, gynecologists and nurses were assessed using the questionnaire (...)
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  9. How to Regulate the Right to Self-Medicate.Joseph T. F. Roberts - forthcoming - HEC Forum:1-23.
    In Pharmaceutical Freedom Professor Flanigan argues we ought to grant people self-medication rights for the same reasons we respect people’s right to give informed consent to treatment. Despite being the most comprehensive argument in favour of self-medication written to date, Flanigan’s Pharmaceutical Freedom leaves a number of questions unanswered, making it unclear how the safe-guards Flanigan incorporates to protect people from harming themselves would work in practice. In this paper, I extend Professor Flanigan’s account by discussing a hypothetical case to (...)
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  10. Key Ethical Concepts and Their Application to COVID-19 Research.Angus Dawson, Ezekiel J. Emanuel, Michael Parker, Maxwell J. Smith & Teck Chuan Voo - forthcoming - Public Health Ethics:phaa017.
    During the WHO-GloPID COVID-19 Global Research and Innovation Forum meeting held in Geneva on the 11th and 12th of February 2020 a number of different ethical concepts were used. This paper briefly states what a number of these concepts mean and how they might be applied to discussions about research during the COVID-19 pandemic and related outbreaks. This paper does not seek to be exhaustive and other ethical concepts are, of course, relevant and important.
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  11. Positive Public Health Ethics: Toward Flourishing and Resilient Communities and Individuals.Jennifer Prah Ruger - forthcoming - American Journal of Bioethics:1-11.
    The COVID-19 pandemic is a global contagion of unprecedented proportions and health, economic, and social consequences. As with many health problems, its impact is uneven. This article argues the C...
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  12. The Reliability of the Internet for Patient-Centred Education for Surgical Procedures.Ca Slinger & I. Smillie - forthcoming - Clinical Ethics:147775092092717.
    Background There is increasing use of the Internet by patients as an educational tool prior to a surgical procedure. However, the quality of information is highly variable, and it is imperative that as clinicians, we are aware of the information available to ensure that consent is valid and avoid unrealistic expectations. Our aim is to assess the quality of medical information available on the Internet related to common surgical procedures. Methods Analysis of the quality of patient information on 10 websites (...)
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  13. Commentary: Whose Suffering?Martin Buijsen - 2020 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 29 (3):346-353.
    Marije Brouwer et al. contend that collecting treatment experiences of newborns with life-threatening conditions can support both caregivers and parents in making difficult end-of-life decisions. They illustrate the importance of that understanding by narrating the heartbreaking story of the sisters Roos and Noor, two newborns in the last stage of their lives.1.
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  14. Death and Disbelief.Robert A. Burton - 2020 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 29 (3):403-403.
    A middle-aged woman had a massive stroke and would be dead within hours. The husband was in the ER waiting room. I took him aside and explained the grim prognosis. He paused, his expression blank, his lips searching for something to say. Finally, he blurted out, “I think I’ll go home and take a shower.”.
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  15. Counting Cases of Termination of Life Without Request: New Dances with Data.Govert den Hartogh - 2020 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 29 (3):395-402.
    This paper explores the common argument proposed by opponents of the legalization of euthanasia that permitting ending a patient’s life at their request will lead to the eventual legalization of terminating life without request. The author’s examination of data does not support the conclusion that a causal connection exists between legalizing ending of life on request and an increase in the number of cases without request.
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  16. Commentary: In Search of Medical Ethics and Its Foundation with Rosamond Rhodes.Tuija Takala & Matti Häyry - 2020 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 29 (3):429-436.
    In her thorough and thoughtful contribution to the Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics titled “Medical Ethics: Common or Uncommon Morality” Rosamond Rhodes argues that contrary to American mainstream bioethics, medical ethics is not, and should not be, based on common morality, but rather, that the medical profession requires its own distinctive morality.1 She goes on to list sixteen duties that, according to her, form the core of medical ethics proper.
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  17. And What About the Pharmacist?Martin Buijsen & Wilma Göttgens - 2020 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 29 (3):375-385.
    In the Netherlands, euthanasia has been decriminalized. Termination of life on request and assisted suicide are criminal offences under Dutch law; but if physicians comply with the due care requirements of the Euthanasia Act and report their actions in the manner prescribed by law, they will not be prosecuted. One of the requirements relates to the act of euthanasia itself. If this is to be performed with due medical care, the physician relies on the services of a pharmacist. However, the (...)
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  18. From Death to Life: Ethical Issues in Postmortem Sperm Retrieval as a Source of New Life.Brian M. Cummings & John J. Paris - 2020 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 29 (3):369-374.
    This paper examines and critiques the ethical issues in postmortem sperm retrieval and the use of postmortem sperm to create new life. The article was occasioned by the recent request of the parents of a West Point cadet who died in a skiing accident at the Academy to retrieve and use his sperm to honor his memory and perpetuate the family name. The request occasioned national media attention. A trial court judge in New York in a two-page order authorized both (...)
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  19. Thinking About Difficulties: Using Poetry to Enhance Interpretative and Collaborative Skills in Healthcare Ethics Education.Amy Haddad - 2020 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 29 (3):459-469.
    Viewing difficulty as an opportunity for learning runs counter to the common view of difficulty as a source of frustration and confusion. The aim of this article is to focus on the idea of difficulty as a stepping-off point for learning. The literature on difficulty in reading texts, and its impact on thinking and the interpretive process, serve as a foundation for the use of poetry in healthcare ethics education. Because of its complexity and strangeness compared to the usual scientific (...)
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  20. How to Legalize Medically Assisted Death in a Free and Democratic Society.Alister Browne & J. S. Russell - 2020 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 29 (3):361-368.
    In 2015, the Supreme Court of Canada struck down the criminal law prohibiting physician assisted death in Canada. In 2016, Parliament passed legislation to allow what it called ‘medical assistance in dying.’ The authors first describe the arguments the Court used to strike down the law, and then argue that MAID as legalized in Bill C-14 is based on principles that are incompatible with a free and democratic society, prohibits assistance in dying that should be permitted, and makes access to (...)
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  21. Commentary: Beyond Common or Uncommon Morality.Leslie Francis - 2020 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 29 (3):426-428.
    In “Medical Ethics: Common or Uncommon Morality,”1 Rosamond Rhodes defends a specialist view of medical ethics, specifically the ethics of physicians. Rhodes’s account is specifically about the ethics of medical professionals, rooted in what these professionals do. It would seem to follow that other healthcare professions might be subject to ethical standards that differ from those applicable to physicians, rooted in what these other professions do, but I leave this point aside for purposes of this commentary. Rhodes’s view includes both (...)
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  22. Death and Irreversibility.Nada Gligorov - 2020 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 29 (3):334-336.
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  23. Pediatric Brain Tumors: Narrating Suffering and End-of-Life Decisionmaking.Marije Brouwer, Els Maeckelberghe, Henk-jan ten Brincke, Marloes Meulenbeek-ten Brincke & Eduard Verhagen - 2020 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 29 (3):338-345.
    When talking about decisionmaking for children with a life-threatening condition, the death of children with brain tumors deserves special attention. The last days of the lives of these children can be particularly harsh for bystanders, and raise questions about the suffering of these children themselves. In the Netherlands, these children are part of the group for whom a wide range of end-of-life decisions are discussed, and questions raised. What does the end-of-life for these children look like, and what motivates physicians (...)
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  24. Medical Ethics: Common or Uncommon Morality?Rosamond Rhodes - 2020 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 29 (3):404-420.
    This paper challenges the long-standing and widely accepted view that medical ethics is nothing more than common morality applied to clinical matters. It argues against Tom Beauchamp and James Childress’s four principles; Bernard Gert, K. Danner Clouser and Charles Culver’s ten rules; and Albert Jonsen, Mark Siegler, and William Winslade’s four topics approaches to medical ethics. First, a negative argument shows that common morality does not provide an account of medical ethics and then a positive argument demonstrates why the medical (...)
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  25. Avoiding Gender Exploitation and Ethics Dumping in Research with Women.Julie Cook - 2020 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 29 (3):470-479.
    There is a long history of women being underrepresented in biomedical and health research. Specific women’s health needs have been, and in some cases still are, comparatively neglected areas of study. Concerns about the health and social impacts of such bias and exclusion have resulted in inclusion policies from governments, research funders, and the scientific establishment since the 1990s. Contemporary understandings of foregrounding sex and gender issues within biomedical research range from women’s rights to inclusion, to links between human rights, (...)
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  26. Neuroscience-Based Psychiatric Assessments of Criminal Responsibility: Beyond Self-Report?Gerben Meynen - 2020 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 29 (3):446-458.
    Many legal systems have an insanity defense, which means that although a person has committed a crime, she is not held criminally responsible for the act. A challenge with regard to these assessments is that forensic psychiatrists have to rely to a considerable extent on the defendant's self-report. Could neuroscience be a way to make these evaluations more objective? The current value of neuroimaging in insanity assessments will be examined. The author argues that neuroscience can be valuable for diagnosing neurological (...)
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  27. Tainted Largess: A Moral Framework For Medical School Donations.Charles Sanky & Jacob M. Appel - 2020 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 29 (3):437-445.
    Rather than being a neutral phenomenon, the authors propose that medical school donations should be viewed as a social good for advancing education and improving healthcare. Seen in this light, they aim to offer a framework for analysis that will be useful to medical institutions and their stakeholders in addressing proposed donations from contentious or divisive sources, and in managing those donations that subsequently appear controversial.
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  28. Retrieving the Moral in the Ethics of Maternal-Fetal Surgery.Virginia L. Bartlett & Mark J. Bliton - 2020 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 29 (3):480-493.
    Open-uterine surgery to repair spina bifida, or ‘fetal surgery of open neural tube defects,’ has generated questions throughout its history—and continues to do so in a variety of contexts. As clinical ethics consultants who worked and trained at Vanderbilt University—where the first successful cases of open-uterine repair of spina bifida were carried out—we lived with these questions for nearly two decades. We worked with clinicians as they were developing and offering the procedure, with researchers in refining and studying the procedure, (...)
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  29. Conceptual Barriers to Palliative Care and Enlightenment From Chuang-Tze’s Thoughts.Junxiang Liu, Tianyu Zhang, Yiyao Lian, Fei Li & Xiaohong Ning - 2020 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 29 (3):386-394.
    This paper claims that palliative care is a suitable approach for offering comprehensive support to patients with life-threatening illness and unavoidable asthenia, to enhance their quality of life in aging and chronic illness. There are however some conceptual barriers to accessing that care on the Chinese Mainland: Death-denying culture and society; Misguidance and malpractice derived from the biomedical model; Prejudice against PC and certain deviant understandings of filial piety culture. To counter these obstacles, the study introduces the philosophy of Chinese (...)
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  30. The Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: From Aggressive Treatment to Care of the Dying, Insights From Art and Poetry.John J. Paris, Shelby Vallandingham, Brian Cummings & Ronald Cohen - 2020 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 29 (3):354-360.
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  31. Commentary: Medical Ethics: A Distinctive Species of Ethics.Leonard M. Fleck - 2020 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 29 (3):421-425.
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  32. Ethics in Speech-Language Pathology: Beyond the Codes and Canons.T. L. Eadie & Louis C. Charland - 2005 - Journal of Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology 29 (1):29-36.
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  33. The Varieties of Compulsion in Addiction.Louis C. Charland - 2012 - American Journal of Bioethics 2 (2):50-51.
    Pickard’s attempt to undermine the disease view of addiction by arguing that addiction is never a matter of irresistible compulsion fails on two accounts. First, it fallaciously hinges on the construction of a straw figure, a metaphysical postulate that misrepresents the nature and complexity of the real empirical issues at hand. Second, it goes on to frame the issues according to a false dichotomy, an all-or-nothing opposition between irresistible compulsion and its metaphysical counterpart, the philosopher’s free will.
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  34. Passion and Decision-Making Capacity in Anorexia Nervosa.Louis C. Charland - 2015 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 6 (4):66-68.
    The question of decision-making capacity for informed consent to experimental brain surgery for severely ill anorectic patients is about as dramatic an ethical issue one can imagine. Sabine Muller and her co-authors (2015) should be commended for this extremely timely and original clinical and ethical discussion of decision-making capacity in relation to the issues raised by informed consent to such therapies. In this commentary, I elaborate on the new account of the nature of anorexia nervosa that the authors allude to (...)
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  35. Bill C-203: A Postmortem Analysis of the "Right-to-Die" Legislation That Died.Louis C. Charland & Peter A. Singer - 1993 - Canadian Medical Association Journal 148 (10):1705-1708.
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  36. Should Compassion Be Included in Codes of Ethics for Physicians?Louis C. Charland & Paul T. Dick - 1995 - Annals of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada 28 (7):415-418.
    Compassion is mentioned in the Principles of the American Medical Association but not in the Code of Ethics of the Canadian Medical Association. In this article, we assess the case for including compassion in a code of ethics for physicians. We argue that, properly understood, there is a strong case for including compassion in codes of ethics for physicians on the basis that it is both clinically and ethically central to the practice of medicine.
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  37. The Torture Doctors: Human Rights Crimes and the Road to Justicesteven H. Miles (Ed.) Georgetown University Press: Washington, Dc, 2020. Isbn-13: 978-1626167520. [REVIEW]Michael L. Gross - forthcoming - Bioethics.
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  38. The Death of Dignity is Greatly Exaggerated: Reflections 15 Years After the Declaration of Dignity as a Useless Concept.Bjørn Hofmann - forthcoming - Bioethics.
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  39. Children as Research Subjects: A Dilemma.Loretta M. Kopelman - 2000 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 25 (6):745-764.
    ABSTRACT A complex problem exists about how to promote the best interests of children as a group through research while protecting the rights and welfare of individual research subjects. The Nuremberg Code forbids studies without consent, eliminating most children as subjects, and the Declaration of Helsinki disallows non-therapeutic research on non-consenting subjects. Both codes are unreasonably restrictive. Another approach is represented by the Council for the International Organizations of Medical Science, the U.S. Federal Research Guidelines, and many other national policies. (...)
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  40. How Do Clinical Psychologists Make Ethical Decisions? A Systematic Review of Empirical Research.Becky Grace, Tony Wainwright, Wendy Solomons, Jenna Camden & Helen Ellis-Caird - forthcoming - Clinical Ethics:147775092092716.
    Given the nature of the discipline, it might be assumed that clinical psychology is an ethical profession, within which effective ethical decision-making is integral. How then, does this ethical decision-making occur? This paper describes a systematic review of empirical research addressing this question. The paucity of evidence related to this question meant that the scope was broadened to include other professions who deliver talking therapies. This review could support reflective practice about what may be taken into account when making ethical (...)
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  41. Fostering Hope in the Face of Death.Adam Kadlac - forthcoming - Clinical Ethics:147775092092716.
    I contend that hope can be of significant value to individuals even as they acknowledge that there is no cure for their affliction. In particular, I argue that it is good for such patients to hope for a meaningful quality of life in their remaining days and a good death. If this thesis is on target, then there is an important place for clinicians to employ the language of hope with reference to ends other than a cure. I then conclude (...)
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  42. Revisiting the Ethical Framework Governing Water Fluoridation and Food Fortification.Ahmad Shakeri, Christopher Adanty & Howsikan Kugathsan - forthcoming - Clinical Ethics:147775092092716.
    Food fortification and water fluoridation are two public health initiatives that involve the passive consumption of nutrients through food and water supplies. While ethical analyses of food fortification and water fluoridation have been done separately, none have been done together. In this paper, we will consider whether the similarities between food fortification and water fluoridation override their differences and thus what ethical conclusions can be cross-pollinated between the two interventions. This study does three things: first, we review the origin, reasoning (...)
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  43. Validation of Simple Dichotomous Self-Report on Prenatal Alcohol and Other Drug Use in Women Attending Midwife Obstetric Units in the Cape Metropole, South Africa.Petal Petersen Williams, Catherine Mathews, Esmé Jordaan, Yukiko Washio, Mishka Terplan & Charles D. H. Parry - forthcoming - Clinical Ethics:147775092092888.
    Background This paper examines the degree of agreement among simple dichotomous self-report, validated screening results, and biochemical screening results of prenatal alcohol and other drug use among pregnant women. Method Secondary analysis was conducted on a cohort of pregnant women 16 years or older, presenting for prenatal care in the greater Cape Town, South Africa. Dichotomous verbal screening is a standard of care, and pregnant patients reporting alcohol and other drug use in dichotomous verbal screenings were asked to engage in (...)
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  44. The Ethical Dilemma of Granulocyte Transfusions.Erik Gustavsson, Rune Sjödahl & Elvar Theodorsson - forthcoming - Clinical Ethics:147775092092716.
    Granulocyte transfusions have been administered to patients with life-threatening infections for more than five decades. However, to what extent this should be the case is far from established. On the one hand, the clinical effects of these transfusions are difficult to prove in clinical studies, and the donors of granulocytes may be exposed to certain risks. On the other hand, clinical experience seems to support the idea that granulocyte transfusions do play an important role for severely ill patients, and the (...)
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  45. Rethinking Race in Medical Decision Making.Clement J. Bottino - 2020 - Bioethics 34 (5):447-449.
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  46. Altered Inheritance: CRISPR and the Ethics of Human Genome Editing Françoise Baylis Cambridge, MA, USA: Harvard University Press: 2019. 287 Pp. ISBN 9780674976719. US$24.95. [REVIEW]Walter Glannon - 2020 - Bioethics 34 (5):555-556.
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  47. Weiqu, Structural Injustice and Caring for Sick Older People in Rural Chinese Families: An Empirical Ethical Study.Xiang Zou, Jing‐Bao Nie & Ruth Fitzgerald - forthcoming - Bioethics.
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  48. From Dawn Till Dusk. Bioethical Insights Into the Beginning and the End of Life.Torbjörn Tännsjö - 2020 - Bioethics 34 (5):557-558.
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  49. Metaphysics to the Rescue?: Four‐Dimensionalism and the Twinning Argument Against Conceptionism.Chunghyoung Lee - 2020 - Bioethics 34 (5):542-548.
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  50. Paternalism and Certitude.Shlomo Cohen, Noam Cohen & Ezra Gabbay - 2020 - Bioethics 34 (5):478-482.
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