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  1. Do Mothers of Extremely Preterm Babies Have a Duty to Express Breastmilk?Fiona Woollard - forthcoming - Acta Paediatrica 1 (00).
    Infant feeding decisions are highly emotionally charged. I argue elsewhere that many problems surrounding infant feeding decisions result from a moralized context created by mistakes in our assumptions about maternal duties including the mistaken assumption that mothers have a defeasible moral duty to breastfeed. Mothers have a reason, but not a moral duty to breastfeed. Even those who are convinced by my argument in the case of full-term babies, might find it harder to accept in the case of premature babies. (...)
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  2. Harm, Consent, and Virtual Selves in Full Body Ownership Illusions: Real Concerns for Immersive Virtual Reality Therapies Upcoming.Maria Botero & Elise Whatley - forthcoming - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics.
    Virtual reality (VR) is increasingly being used to investigate and to treat psychological disorders; the most common application of VR is in the treatment of phobias (e.g. fear of heights, fear of flying, and fear of public speaking) and other anxiety disorders (e.g. panic disorders, post-traumatic stress disorders, generalized anxiety disorders, and stress management) as well as eating disorders, autism spectrum disorders, depression, psychosis, and PTSD. VR technology provides an ideal context in which to study these disorders because, given the (...)
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  3. Autonomy, Rationality, and Contemporary Bioethics.Jonathan Pugh - 2020 - Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    Personal autonomy is often lauded as a key value in contemporary Western bioethics. Though the claim that there is an important relationship between autonomy and rationality is often treated as uncontroversial in this sphere, there is also considerable disagreement about how we should cash out the relationship. In particular, it is unclear whether a rationalist view of autonomy can be compatible with legal judgments that enshrine a patient's right to refuse medical treatment, regardless of whether the reasons underpinning the choice (...)
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  4. The Return of Quarantinism and How to Keep It in Check: From Wishful Regulations to Political Accountability.Giovanni De Grandis - 2010 - Dissertation, University College London
    Concerns about emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases have given a new lease of life to quarantinist measures: a series of time-honoured techniques for controlling the spread of infectious diseases through breaking the chain of human contagion. Since such measures typically infringe individual rights or privacy their use is subject to legal regulations and gives rise to ethical and political worries and suspicions. Yet in some circumstances they can be very effective. After considering some case studies that show how epidemics are (...)
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  5. Improving the Justice‐Based Argument for Conducting Human Gene Editing Research to Cure Sickle Cell Disease.Berman Chan - 2020 - Bioethics 34 (2):200-202.
    In a recent article, Marilyn Baffoe-Bonnie offers three arguments for conducting CRISPR/Cas9 biotechnology research to cure sickle-cell disease (SCD) based on addressing historical and current injustices in SCD research and care. I show that her second and third arguments suffer from roughly the same defect, which is that they really argue for something else rather than for conducting CRISPR/Cas9 research in particular for SCD. For instance, the second argument argues that conducting this gene therapy research would improve the relationship between (...)
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  6. From Solo Decision Maker to Multi-Stakeholder Process: A Defense and Recommendations.David Ozar, Joseph Vukov, Kit Rempala & Rohan Meda - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics 20 (2):53-55.
    Berger (2019) argues effectively that “representativeness is more aptly understood as a variable that is multidimensional and continuous based on relational moral authority,” and also makes some useful suggestions about how taking this observation seriously might require changes in current patterns of practice regarding surrogates. But the essay raises additional important questions about how the Best Interest Standard (BIS) should be used among unrepresented patients and other patients as well because many surrogates besides those who “have no actionable knowledge of (...)
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  7. From Dusk Till Dawn: Bioethical Insights Into the Beginning and the End of Life.Evangelos D. Protopapadakis - 2019 - Berlin, Germany: Logos Verlag.
    From Dawn till Dusk embraces the conceptual challenges often associated with Bioethics by taking the reader on a journey that embodies the circle of life and what it means to be human. The beginning and the end of life have always been an impossible riddle to humans. Bioethics does not aspire to unveil utter truths regarding the purpose of our existence; on the contrary, its task is to settle controversial issues that arise within this finite, very fragile and vulnerable life, (...)
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  8. Moral Normative Force and Clinical Ethics Expertise.Parker Crutchfield - 2019 - American Journal of Bioethics 19 (11):89-91.
    Brummett and Salter propose a useful and timely taxonomy of clinical ethics expertise (2019). As the field becomes further “professionalized” this taxonomy is important, and the core of it is right. It needs some refinement around the edges, however. In their conclusion, Brummett and Salter rightly point out that there is a significant difference between the ethicist whose recommendations are procedure- and process-heavy, consensus-driven, and dialogical and the authoritarian ethicist whose recommendations flow from “private moral views” (Brummett and Salter, 2019). (...)
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  9. The Multiplicity of Bioethical Expertise in the Context of Secular Liberal Democracies.Nathan Emmerich - forthcoming - Society.
    Whilst the notion of bioethical expertise might raise a host of questions concerning moral authority it is nevertheless the case that bioethicists continue to advance well thought out, detailed and comprehensive arguments concerning the ethical implications of the biosciences and healthcare. Not to make use of such work or those who produce it when it comes to the work of government and the development of policies would seem misguided at best. Thus, in the light of existing analysis of scientific expertise (...)
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  10. Questionable Benefits and Unavoidable Personal Beliefs: Defending Conscientious Objection for Abortion.Bruce Philip Blackshaw & Daniel Rodger - 2020 - Journal of Medical Ethics 3 (46):178-182.
    Conscientious objection in healthcare has come under heavy criticism on two grounds recently, particularly regarding abortion provision. First, critics claim conscientious objection involves a refusal to provide a legal and beneficial procedure requested by a patient, denying them access to healthcare. Second, they argue the exercise of conscientious objection is based on unverifiable personal beliefs. These characteristics, it is claimed, disqualify conscientious objection in healthcare. Here, we defend conscientious objection in the context of abortion provision. We show that abortion has (...)
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  11. Understanding the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative: A Multidisciplinary Analysis.Erica Preston-Roedder, Hannah Fagen, Jessica Martucci & Anne Barnhill - 2019 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 12 (2):117-147.
    In the United States, roughly 1 out of 4 births takes place at a hospital certified as Baby-Friendly. This paper offers a multi-disciplinary perspective on the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI), including empirical, normative, and historical perspectives. Our analysis is novel in that we trace how medical practices of “quality improvement,” which initially appear to have little to do with breastfeeding, may have shaped the BFHI. Ultimately, we demonstrate that a rich understanding of the BFHI can be obtained by tracing how (...)
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  12. Using Animal-Derived Constituents in Anaesthesia and Surgery: The Case for Disclosing to Patients.Daniel Rodger & Bruce P. Blackshaw - 2019 - BMC Medical Ethics 20 (1):1-9.
    Animal-derived constituents are frequently used in anaesthesia and surgery, and patients are seldom informed of this. This is problematic for a growing minority of patients who may have religious or secular concerns about their use in their care. It is not currently common practice to inform patients about the use of animal-derived constituents, yet what little empirical data does exist indicates that many patients want the opportunity to give their informed consent. First, we review the nature and scale of the (...)
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  13. Meeting the Epicurean Challenge: A Reply to Christensen.Bruce P. Blackshaw & Daniel Rodger - 2019 - Journal of Medical Ethics 45 (7):478-479.
    In ’Abortion and deprivation: a reply to Marquis’, Anna Christensen contends that Don Marquis’ influential ’future like ours’ argument for the immorality of abortion faces a significant challenge from the Epicurean claim that human beings cannot be harmed by their death. If deprivation requires a subject, then abortion cannot deprive a fetus of a future of value, as no individual exists to be deprived once death has occurred. However, the Epicurean account also implies that the wrongness of murder is also (...)
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  14. Medical Error and Moral Repair.Ben Almassi - 2018 - International Journal of Applied Philosophy 32 (2):143-154.
    One limitation of medical ethics modeled on ideal moral theory is its relative silence on the aftermath of medical error: not just on the recognition and avoidance of malpractice, wrongdoing, or other such failures of medical ethics, but on how to respond given medical wrongdoing. Ideally, we would never do each other wrong; but given that inevitably we do, as fallible, imperfect agents we require non-ideal ethical guidance. For such non-ideal contexts, Nancy Berlinger’s analysis of medical error and Margaret Walker’s (...)
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  15. Medical Error and Moral Repair.Ben Almassi - 2018 - International Journal of Applied Philosophy 32 (2):143-154.
    One limitation of medical ethics modeled on ideal moral theory is its relative silence on the aftermath of medical error: not just on the recognition and avoidance of malpractice, wrongdoing, or other such failures of medical ethics, but on how to respond given medical wrongdoing. Ideally, we would never do each other wrong; but given that inevitably we do, as fallible, imperfect agents we require non-ideal ethical guidance. For such non-ideal contexts, Nancy Berlinger’s analysis of medical error and Margaret Walker’s (...)
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  16. On the Strength of Children's Right to Bodily Integrity: The Case of Circumcision.Joseph Mazor - 2017 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 36 (1):1-16.
    This article considers the question of how much weight the infringement of children's right to bodily integrity should be given compared with competing considerations. It utilises the example of circumcision to explore this question, taking as given this practice's opponents' view of circumcision's harmfulness. The article argues that the child's claim against being subjected to circumcision is neither a mere interest nor a right so strong that it trumps all competing interests. Instead, it is a right of moderate strength. Indeed, (...)
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  17. Ethics and the Endangerment of Children's Bodies G. Graf & G. Schweiger Basingstoke, Palgrave MacMillan Xix 283 Pp, £55.99 £66.99. [REVIEW]Rosana Triviño Caballero - 2017 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 36 (1):164-166.
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  18. Más allá de la retórica: algunas claves sobre la contribución del enfoque narrativo a la bioética.Oscar Vergara - 2018 - Revista Internacional de Éticas Aplicadas 26:257 - 264.
    Resumen: Todo hecho debe ser narrado para ser objeto de examen valorativo. Pero este examen depende, en parte, de cómo aquél sea narrado. Algunos autores han señalado el valor democrático que posee el enfoque narrativo, en la medida en que permite que una narración sea construida a partir de diferentes puntos de vista. El problema es que estos puntos de vista pueden conducir a soluciones alternativas o incluso antagónicas, fenómeno no infrecuente en una sociedad multicultural como la nuestra. Desde un (...)
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  19. Disease Awareness Campaigns in Printed and Online Media in Latvia: Cross-Sectional Study on Consistency with WHO Ethical Criteria for Medicinal Drug Promotion and European Standards.Teresa Leonardo Alves, Elita Poplavska, Signe Mezinska, Ieva Salmane-Kulikovska, Liga Andersone, Aukje K. Mantel-Teeuwisse & Barbara Mintzes - 2018 - BMC Public Health 18 (18):1322.
    Background European legislation prohibits direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription medicines, but allows drug manufacturers to provide information to the public on health and diseases. Our aim was to measure the frequency of disease awareness campaigns in Latvian media and assess their compliance with international and European standards. Methods Materials on health/disease and treatments were collected between April and September 2015 from 12 newspapers and magazines and six online portals. Disease awareness campaigns were assessed using a previously developed instrument based on the (...)
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  20. Review of Challenging Nature: The Clash of Science and Spirituality at the New Frontiers of Life by Lee M. Silver. [REVIEW]W. Malcolm Byrnes - 2007 - Worldviews: Environment, Culture, Religion 11:248-253.
  21. ANT-OAR Fails on All Counts: Method of Harvesting Stem Cells Riddled with Scientific and Ethical Flaws.W. Malcolm Byrnes & Jose Granados - 2006 - Science and Theology News (1):23-25.
    The altered nuclear transfer-oocyte assisted reprogramming (ANT-OAR) proposal has serious scientific and philosophical flaws, and it is not a morally acceptable means of obtaining embryonic stem cells. Note that this is the final preprint of an article that was published in the newspaper Science and Theology News in June 2006.
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  22. Partial Trajectory: The Story of the Altered Nuclear Transfer-Oocyte Assisted Reprogramming (ANT-OAR) Proposal.W. Malcolm Byrnes - 2007 - Linacre Quarterly 1 (74):50-59.
    This essay aims to tell the story of the “altered nuclear transfer-oocyte assisted reprogramming,” or ANT-OAR, proposal—from its conception by Professor William Hurlbut of the President’s Council on Bioethics—to its adoption and promotion by a group of conservative, mostly Catholic philosophers, theologians and scientists—to its eventual demise in Congress. It also will give some reflections on how ANT-OAR promotes a genetically deterministic view of the human organism and can lead down a slippery slope into a future in which human cloning (...)
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  23. The Quest for Human Dignity in the Ethics of Pregnancy Termination.Tom J. Obengo (ed.) - 2016 - Eugene, Oregon, USA: Wipf & Stock.
    This study describes and analyses the problem of termination of pregnancy, with special attention to its prevalence in Kenya, where more than seven hundred abortions are performed daily on girls between fifteen and seventeen years of age. Although pregnancy termination is illegal in Kenya, its practice goes on in the rural villages, in homes, in urban streets and in private clinics. The book focuses on the ethical quest for human dignity in the context of the church’s response to the challenge (...)
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  24. On the Oregon Health Authority's Recent Ban on Elective Surgery for Smokers with Medicaid: An Ethical Analysis.Marvin J. H. Lee & Peter Grossnickle - 2017 - Journal of Healthcare Ethics and Administration 3 (2):40-50.
    Starting January 1, 2017, the Oregon Health Authority (OHA, henceforth) made a sweeping decision that no elective surgery is to be performed for Medicaid recipients who smoke tobacco. The authors of this paper investigate the administrative procedures behind the OHA’s decision, explore some possible ethical arguments for and against the decision, and render our ethical verdict about the ban and our suggestion for the OHA. Meanwhile, since this issue involves the problems of smoking-related addiction, the agent’s autonomy which may be (...)
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  25. Eutanasia: dalle aporie al metodo pragmatico dell’etica combinatoria.Damiano Migliorini - 2017 - Dialegesthai. Rivista Telematica di Filosofia 19.
    Referring to Reichlin’s reflections, the author analyzes the aporias arised in the debate on euthanasia, proposes to establish some general principles (e.g. inviolability of human life, the prohibition of extend unnecessary suffering, the principle of autonomy) and a method of application of them to controversial cases. The combinatorial ethics that emerges can probably solve the aporias and can harmonize the common sense (about the possibility of euthanasia in extreme cases) with Catholic doctrine – specifically referring to the Natural Moral Law (...)
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  26. The Counseling, Self-Care, Adherence Approach to Person-Centered Care and Shared Decision Making: Moral Psychology, Executive Autonomy, and Ethics in Multi-Dimensional Care Decisions.Anders Herlitz, Christian Munthe, Marianne Törner & Gun Forsander - 2016 - Health Communication 31 (8):964-973.
    This article argues that standard models of person-centred care (PCC) and shared decision making (SDM) rely on simplistic, often unrealistic assumptions of patient capacities that entail that PCC/SDM might have detrimental effects in many applications. We suggest a complementary PCC/SDM approach to ensure that patients are able to execute rational decisions taken jointly with care professionals when performing self-care. Illustrated by concrete examples from a study of adolescent diabetes care, we suggest a combination of moral and psychological considerations to support (...)
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  27. Beyond Infanticide: How Psychological Accounts of Persons Can Justify Harming Infants.Daniel Rodger, Bruce P. Blackshaw & Calum Miller - 2018 - The New Bioethics 24 (2):106-121.
    It is commonly argued that a serious right to life is grounded only in actual, relatively advanced psychological capacities a being has acquired. The moral permissibility of abortion is frequently argued for on these grounds. Increasingly it is being argued that such accounts also entail the permissibility of infanticide, with several proponents of these theories accepting this consequence. We show, however, that these accounts imply the permissibility of even more unpalatable acts than infanticide performed on infants: organ harvesting, live experimentation, (...)
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  28. Response to Commentaries.Julian Savulescu, Thomas Douglas & Ingmar Persson - 2014 - In Akira Akabayashi (ed.), The Future of Bioethics: International Dialogues. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
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  29. Fair Subject Selection in Clinical Research: Formal Equality of Opportunity.Douglas MacKay - 2016 - Journal of Medical Ethics 42 (10):672-677.
    In this paper, I explore the ethics of subject selection in the context of biomedical research. I reject a key principle of what I shall refer to as the standard view. According to this principle, investigators should select participants so as to minimise aggregate risk to participants and maximise aggregate benefits to participants and society. On this view, investigators should exclude prospective participants who are more susceptible to risk than other prospective participants. I argue instead that investigators should select subjects (...)
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  30. Métaphysique et éthique de la reproduction.Lynda Gaudemard - 2017 - Dialogue 56 (1):1-19.
    In this article, I examine the standard assumption that ethical disagreements on abortion and human embryonic stem cells research are grounded on metaphysical claims that underlie these ethical issues. Contrary to what some philosophers have claimed, I argue that, although the bioethical positions about the human embryo’s moral status are partly grounded on metaphysical claims, incorporating metaphysical arguments in the debates about the ethics of reproduction will not resolve this issue.
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  31. Indulging Anxiety: Human Enhancement From a Protestant Perspective.M. J. Hanson - 1999 - Christian Bioethics 5 (2):121-138.
    At the heart of any ethics of human enhancement must be some normative assumptions about human nature. The purpose of this essay is to draw on themes from a Protestant theological anthropology to provide a basis for understanding and evaluating the tension between maintaining our humanity and enhancing it. Drawing primarily on the work of theologian Reinhold Niebuhr, I interpret enhancement as proceeding from the anxiety that characterizes human experience at the juncture of freedom and finiteness. Religious and moral dimensions (...)
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  32. Enhancements and the Quest for Perfection.G. P. Mckenny - 1999 - Christian Bioethics 5 (2):99-103.
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  33. Against Paternalism: Justifying Coercive Paternalism by Sarah Conly, 2012 Cambridge, Cambridge University Press216 Pp, £55.00. [REVIEW]David Archard - 2013 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 30 (4):397-400.
  34. Better Humans? Understanding the Enhancement Project by M. Hauskeller, 2013 Durham, NC, Acumen Publishingix + 212 Pp, £18.99. [REVIEW]Mirko D. Garasic - 2014 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 31 (2):215-217.
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  35. Highlights From This Issue: The Biomedical Enhancement of Moral Status.Russell Powell - 2013 - Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (2):65-66.
    The biomedical enhancement of human capacities has emerged as one of the most philosophically invigorating areas of contemporary bioethical research. In exploring the ethical dimensions of emerging biotechnologies and human–machine interfaces, the literature on human enhancement has made significant contributions to traditional problems in moral philosophy. One such area concerns the enhancement of cognitive capacities that bear on moral status. Could biotechnological or other forms of neurocognitive intervention result in the creation of ‘postpersons’ who possess a moral status that is (...)
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  36. Teaching Health Law: Teaching Law and Medicine on the Interdisciplinary Cutting Edge: Assisted Reproductive Technologies.Susan Apel - 2010 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 38 (2):420-426.
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  37. History page.Jorge Álvarez Vázquez - 2007 - Humanidades Médicas 7 (3).
    En la Universidad Médica “Carlos J. Finlay”, se realiza una intervención educativa con el objetivo de valorar la concepción y aplicación de un programa para un curso de preparación de metodólogos en correspondencia con sus funciones en condiciones de universalización de las Ciencias Médicas de Camagüey, en el periodo de septiembre de 2005 a junio de 2007. Se emplean diferentes métodos investigativos: los teóricos, así como la técnica de discusión grupal, permitió diseñar el programa del curso para la preparación de (...)
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  38. Biomedical Enhancement and Social Development: A Conservative Techno‐Fix.Sagar Sanyal - 2016 - Bioethics 30 (9):733-740.
    Allen Buchanan has argued for a linking of the ethics of human enhancement to the ethics of development more generally. The promise of the ‘enhancement enterprise' is that it may help develop society, just as other technological advances have in the past. He proposes a framework of intellectual property rights, government action to ensure the poor can access the enhancements, an international organization to administer the diffusion of new enhancement technologies from the West to poor countries, and the diffusion within (...)
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  39. Questioning Engelhardt’s Assumptions in Bioethics and Secular Humanism.Shahram Ahmadi Nasab Emran - 2016 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 19 (2):169-176.
    In Bioethics and Secular Humanism: The Search for a Common Morality, Tristram Engelhardt examines various possibilities of finding common ground for moral discourse among people from different traditions and concludes their futility. In this paper I will argue that many of the assumptions on which Engelhardt bases his conclusion about the impossibility of a content-full secular bioethics are problematic. By starting with the notion of moral strangers, there is no possibility, by definition, for a content-full moral discourse among moral strangers. (...)
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  40. Integrating Ethical Analysis “Into the DNA” of Synthetic Biology.Patrick Heavey - 2015 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 18 (1):121-127.
    Current ethical analysis tends to evaluate synthetic biology at an overview level. Synthetic biology, however, is an umbrella term that covers a variety of areas of research. These areas contain, in turn, a hierarchy of different research fields. This abstraction hierarchy—the term is borrowed from engineering—permits synthetic biologists to specialise to a very high degree. Though synthetic biology per se may create profound ethical challenges, much of the day-to-day research does not. Yet seemingly innocuous research could lead to ethically problematic (...)
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  41. Incapacity and Care: Controversies in Healthcare and Research.Helen Watt (ed.) - 2009 - Linacre Centre.
    What are the duties of carers and health professionals to people with mental incapacity? How ought we to think about the ethical and legal issues? What can any of us do to improve and safeguard the lives of those cared for? This book seeks to examine in detail and find ethically robust answers to such questions. Among the topics discussed are withholding treatment, tube-feeding patients with dementia, the 'persistent vegetative state', medical research, and sterilisation of intellectually disabled adults. Contributors come (...)
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  42. "Ethics and Clinical Research" in Biographical Perspective.Susan E. Lederer - 2016 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 59 (1):18-36.
    Fifty years ago, Henry Knowles Beecher published his essay on clinical research ethics in the New England Journal of Medicine. The culmination of more than a decade and a half’s rumination and reflection on the use of patients and “captive populations” in research, Beecher’s 1966 article understandably casts a large shadow in American bioethics. In 1976, the Institute of Society, Ethics and the Life Sciences established the Henry Knowles Beecher Award for Contributions to Ethics and the Life Sciences and named (...)
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  43. Context, Existing Frameworks, and Practicality:Moving Forward with Synthetic Biology.Sarah R. Carter - 2014 - Hastings Center Report 44 (S5):S46-S48.
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  44. The Ethics of Synthetic Biology:Next Steps and Prior Questions.Gregory E. Kaebnick, Michael K. Gusmano & Thomas H. Murray - 2014 - Hastings Center Report 44 (S5):S4-S26.
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  45. A Personalist Ontological Approach to Synthetic Biology.Lucía Gómez-Tatay, José Miguel Hernández-Andreu & Justo Aznar - 2016 - Bioethics 30 (6):397-406.
    Although synthetic biology is a promising discipline, it also raises serious ethical questions that must be addressed in order to prevent unwanted consequences and to ensure that its progress leads toward the good of all. Questions arise about the role of this discipline in a possible redefinition of the concept of life and its creation. With regard to the products of synthetic biology, the moral status that they should be given as well as the ethically correct way to behave towards (...)
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  46. Design for Values in Agricultural Biotechnology.Henk Belt - unknown
    Agricultural biotechnology dates from the last two decades of the twentieth century. It involves the creation of plants and animals with new useful traits by inserting one or more genes taken from other species. New legal possibilities for patenting transgenic organisms and isolated genes have been provided to promote the development of this new technology. The applications of biotechnology raise a whole range of value issues, like consumer and farmer autonomy, respect for intellectual property, environmental sustainability, food security, social justice, (...)
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  47. Contamination and Contagion: Environmental Toxins, HIV/AIDS, and the Problem of the Maternal Body.Bernice L. Hausman - 2006 - Hypatia 21 (1):137-156.
    Contemporary global health crises that involve mothers necessarily invoke the varied cultural problematics of maternal embodiment. Examining breastfeeding in light of current concerns about maternal contagion and contamination, with special attention to HIV and environmental toxins, allows us to consider how ambivalence toward maternal embodiment affects the ways we address these health crises within which mothers figure so significantly.
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  48. Why and How States Are Updating Their Public Health Laws.Susan M. Allan, Benjamin Mason Meier, Joan Miles, Gregg Underheim & Anne C. Haddix - 2007 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 35 (4_suppl):39-42.
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  49. Survey of Regional Medical Libraries Raises Important Issues.George J. Annas - 1975 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 3 (4):5-6.
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  50. A Personalist Ontological Approach to Synthetic Biology.Lucía Gómez‐Tatay, José Miguel Hernández‐Andreu & Justo Aznar - 2016 - Bioethics 30 (5):397-406.
    Although synthetic biology is a promising discipline, it also raises serious ethical questions that must be addressed in order to prevent unwanted consequences and to ensure that its progress leads toward the good of all. Questions arise about the role of this discipline in a possible redefinition of the concept of life and its creation. With regard to the products of synthetic biology, the moral status that they should be given as well as the ethically correct way to behave towards (...)
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