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  1. Bodily Rights in Personal Ventilators?Sean Aas & David Wasserman - forthcoming - Wiley: Journal of Applied Philosophy.
    This article asks whether personal ventilators should be redistributed to maximize lives saved in emergency condition, like the COVID-19 pandemic. It begins by examining extant claims that items like ventilators are literally parts of their user’s bodies. Arguments in favor of incorporation for ventilators fail to show that they meet valid sufficient conditions to be body parts, but arguments against incorporation also fail to show that they fail to meet clearly valid necessary conditions. Further progress on this issue awaits clarification (...)
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  2. Quotas: Enabling Conscientious Objection to Coexist with Abortion Access.Daniel Rodger & Bruce P. Blackshaw - 2020 - Health Care Analysis 29 (2):154-169.
    The debate regarding the role of conscientious objection in healthcare has been protracted, with increasing demands for curbs on conscientious objection. There is a growing body of evidence that indicates that in some cases, high rates of conscientious objection can affect access to legal medical services such as abortion—a major concern of critics of conscientious objection. Moreover, few solutions have been put forward that aim to satisfy both this concern and that of defenders of conscientious objection—being expected to participate in (...)
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  3. Targeting the Fetal Body and/or Mother-Child Connection: Vital Conflicts and Abortion.Helen Watt & Anthony McCarthy - 2019 - The Linacre Quarterly:1-14.
    Is the “act itself” of separating a pregnant woman and her previable child neither good nor bad morally, considered in the abstract? Recently, Maureen Condic and Donna Harrison have argued that such separation is justified to protect the mother’s life and that it does not constitute an abortion as the aim is not to kill the child. In our article on maternal–fetal conflicts, we agree there need be no such aim to kill (supplementing aims such as to remove). However, we (...)
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  4. Vital Conflicts, Bodily Respect, and Conjoined Twins: Are We Asking the Right Questions?Helen Watt - 2017 - In Jason Eberl (ed.), Contemporary Controversies in Catholic Bioethics. Springer. pp. 135-145.
    What does it mean to respect life and health in an innocent fellow-human being? Separating conjoined twins where one twin will die as a result need not involve the intention to kill or harm. Arguably, however, not all side-effects are “mere” side-effects which could, in principle, be outweighed by sufficiently good intended effects. Rather, foreseen serious harm for an innocent person we non-therapeutically affect can be morally conclusive when linked to the intention to affect the person’s body or invade the (...)
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  5. Book Review: Body Parts: Property Rights and the Ownership of Human Biological MaterialsGoldE. Richard, Body Parts: Property Bights and the Ownership of Human Biological Materials : 223 Pp., ISBN 0-87840-617-4 , $49.95. To Order Call 800-246-9606. [REVIEW]Lori B. Andrews & Dorothy Nelkin - 1997 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 25 (2-3):210-212.
  6. Liberty for Corvids.Mark Wells, Scott Simmons & Diana Klimas - 2017 - Public Affairs Quarterly 31 (3):231-254.
    We argue that at least some corvids morally ought to be granted a right to bodily liberty in the US legal system and relevantly similar systems. This right would grant immunity to frivolous captivity and extermination. Implementing this right will require new legislation or the expansion of existing legislation including the elimination of various "pest" clauses. This paper proceeds in three parts. First, we survey accounts of the moral grounds of legal rights. Second, to establish an overlapping consensus supporting corvid (...)
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  7. Book Review: Our Bodies, Whose Property?, by Anne PhillipsOur Bodies, Whose Property?, by PhillipsAnne. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2013. [REVIEW]Clare Chambers - 2015 - Political Theory 43 (1):111-118.
  8. Earthquakes, People‐Seeds and a Cabin in the Woods.Scott Woodcock - 2017 - Journal of Social Philosophy 48 (1):71-91.
    John Martin Fischer has published a trilogy of papers discussing Judith Jarvis Thomson’s ground-breaking “A Defense of Abortion”. Fischer claims that neither the unconscious violinist nor the people-seeds thought experiment is persuasive, and he concludes that Thomson’s arguments are incomplete in the sense that they require further support to secure the permissibility of abortion in their respective contexts of pregnancy resulting from rape and pregnancy resulting from voluntary intercourse and contraceptive failure. My aim in this paper is to identify three (...)
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  9. Ethics and the Endangerment of Children's Bodies.Graf Gunter & Gottfried Schweiger - 2017 - Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
    This book addresses the endangerment of children’s bodies in affluent societies. Bodily integrity is an important part of a child’s physical and mental well-being, but it can also be violated through various threats during childhood; not only affecting physical health but also causing mental damage and leading to distortions in the development of the self. The authors give an account of three areas, which present different serious dangers: (1) body and eating, (2) body and sexuality, and (3) body and violence. (...)
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  10. Inequality and Markets.Anne Phillips - 2013 - Political Theory 41 (1):151-155.
  11. The Brain and the I: Neurodevelopment and Personal Identity.Mary B. Mahowald - 1996 - Social Philosophy Today 12:433-448.
  12. Book Review: Our Bodies, Whose Property?, by Anne Phillips. [REVIEW]Clare Chambers - 2015 - Political Theory 43 (1):111-118.
  13. The Value of the Language of Rights in Christian Ethics, with Particular Reference to Reproductive Rights.Kieran James Cronin - 1988 - Dissertation, The University of Edinburgh (United Kingdom)
    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. ;The language of rights has become highly respectable in Church circles and in the works of Christian ethicists, especially since the end of the Second World War. The literature on this subject is immense, yet much of this writing avoids the basic analytical issues presented by this form of moral language. This thesis begins with the conviction that theologians can learn a good deal about the value of the (...)
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Reproductive Rights
  1. The Right to Reproduce.Carolyn McLeod - forthcoming - In Wendy A. Rogers, Catherine Mills & Jackie Leach Scully (eds.), Routledge Handbook of Feminist Bioethics. New York, NY, USA:
    The reproductive rights of women have been a central topic in feminist bioethics. The focus has been predominantly on the right not to reproduce, and so not to be subject to pronatalist social forces that make motherhood compulsory for women. That is the case despite many women and other members of marginalized groups experiencing anti-natalism, or in other words, social pressure to avoid biological reproduction. For these groups, the right to reproduce is as important, if not more important, than the (...)
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  2. Miscarriage Can Kill … But It Usually Does Not: Evaluating Inconsistency Arguments.Jessalyn A. Bohn - 2021 - The New Bioethics 27 (3):245-265.
    Recent publications debate the value of inconsistency arguments. Here, I argue that 'Cause of Death Arguments' - inconsistency arguments that claim miscarriage causes death far more often than induced abortion - are unsound or invalid. 'Miscarriage' ambiguously refers both to intrauterine death, an outcome that does not itself cause death, and preterm delivery, which only sometimes causes death. The referential ambiguity also obscures actions people do take to prevent 'miscarriage.' When using the most plausible versions of each premise, these arguments (...)
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  3. II Simposio de Ética Aplicada: la moralidad del aborto. [REVIEW]Julio C. Silva - 2020 - Analítica 10:151-153.
    Reseña del II Simposio de Ética Aplicada: la moralidad del aborto, evento organizado por el grupo de investigación Sentido y Referencia (Lima, Perú, 2018).
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  4. My Body, Not My Choice: Against Legalised Abortion.Perry Hendricks - forthcoming - Journal of Medical Ethics:medethics-2020-107194.
    There are some cases in which the government should coerce its citizens into providing care to vulnerable persons. For example, suppose that a woman and her infant are snowed in a cabin, and that the only available food for the infant is her mother's breastmilk. The government should coerce the mother into breastfeeding her infant. This fact, however, has significant implications: first, it shows that David Boonin's recent argument for legalised abortion fails. And second, it shows that (given fetal personhood) (...)
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  5. Choice in Fertility Preservation in Girls and Adolescent Women with Cancer.Jeff Nisker, Françoise Baylis & Carolyn McLeod - 2006 - Cancer 107 (S7):1686-1689.
    With the cure rate for many pediatric malignancies now between 70% and 90%, infertility becomes an increasingly important issue. Strategies for preserving fertility in girls and adolescent women occur in two distinct phases. The first phase includes oophorectomy and cryopreservation of ovarian cortex slices or individual oocytes; ultrasound-guided needle aspiration of oocytes, with or without in vitro maturation, followed by cryopreservation; and ovarian autografting to a distant site. The second phase occurs if the woman chooses to pursue pregnancy, and includes (...)
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  6. Kantian Approaches to Human Reproduction: Both Favorable and Unfavorable.Lantz Fleming Miller - 2021 - Kantian Journal 40 (1):51-96.
    Recent years have seen a surge of interest in the question of whether humans should reproduce. Some say human life is too punishing and cruel to impose upon an innocent. Others hold that such harms do not undermine the great and possibly unique value of human life. Tracing these outlooks historically in the debate has barely begun. What might philosophers have said, or what did they say, about human life itself and its value to merit reproduction? This article looks to (...)
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  7. A Problem of Self-Ownership for Reproductive Justice.Elizabeth Lanphier - 2021 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 30 (2):312-327.
    This paper raises three concerns regarding self-ownership rhetoric to describe autonomy within healthcare in general and reproductive justice in specific. First, private property and the notion of “ownership” embedded in “self-ownership,” rely on and replicate historical injustices related to the initial acquisition of property. Second, not all individuals are recognized as selves with equal access to self-ownership. Third, self-ownership only justifies negative liberties. To fully protect healthcare access and reproductive care in specific, we must also be able to make claims (...)
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  8. The Complex Case of Ellie Anderson.Joona Räsänen & Anna Smajdor - forthcoming - Journal of Medical Ethics:medethics-2020-106998.
    Ellie Anderson had always known that she wanted to have children. Her mother, Louise, was aware of this wish. Ellie was designated male at birth, but according to news sources, identified as a girl from the age of three. She was hoping to undergo gender reassignment surgery at 18, but died unexpectedly at only 16, leaving Louise grappling not only with the grief of losing her daughter, but with a complex legal problem. Ellie had had her sperm frozen before starting (...)
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  9. It’s Complicated: What Our Attitudes Toward Pregnancy, Abortion, and Miscarriage Tell Us About the Moral Status of Early Fetuses.K. Lindsey Chambers - 2020 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 50 (8):950-965.
    Many accounts of the morality of abortion assume that early fetuses must all have or lack moral status in virtue of developmental features that they share. Our actual attitudes toward early fetuses don’t reflect this all-or-nothing assumption: early fetuses can elicit feelings of joy, love, indifference, or distress. If we start with the assumption that our attitudes toward fetuses reflect a real difference in their moral status, then we need an account of fetal moral status that can explain that difference. (...)
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  10. Legal and Ethical Dimensions of Artificial Reproduction and Related Rights.Deepa Kansra - 2012 - Women's Link 4 (18):7-17.
    Recent years have illustrated how the reproductive realm is continuously drawing the attention of medical and legal experts worldwide. The availability of technological services to facilitate reproduction has led to serious concerns over the right to reproduce, which no longer is determined as a private/personal matter. The growing technological options do implicate fundamental questions about human dignity and social welfare. There has been an increased demand for determining (a) the rights of prisoners, unmarried and homosexuals to such services, (b) concerns (...)
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  11. Gender-Based Administrative Violence as Colonial Strategy.Elena Ruíz & Nora Berenstain - 2018 - Philosophical Topics 46 (2):209-227.
    There is a growing trend across North America of women being criminalized for their pregnancy outcomes. Rather than being a series of aberrations resulting from institutional failures, we argue that this trend is part of a colonial strategy of administrative violence aimed at women of color and Native women across Turtle Island. We consider a range of medical and legal practices constituting gender-based administrative violence, and we argue that they are the result of non-accidental and systematic production of population-level harms (...)
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  12. Post-Mortem Reproduction From a Vietnamese Perspective—an Analysis and Commentary.Hai Thanh Doan, Diep Thi Phuong Doan & Nguyen Kim The Duong - 2020 - Asian Bioethics Review 12 (3):257–288.
    Post-mortem reproduction is a complex and contested matter attracting attention from a diverse group of scholars and resulting in various responses from a range of countries. Vietnam has been reluctant to deal directly with this matter and has, accordingly, permitted post-mortem reproduction implicitly. First, by analysing Vietnam’s post-mortem reproduction cases, this paper reflects on the manner in which Vietnamese authorities have handled each case in the context of the contemporary legal framework, and it reveals the moral questions arising therefrom. The (...)
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  13. The Axiology of Abortion: Should We Hope Pro-Choicers or Pro-Lifers Are Right?Perry Hendricks - forthcoming - Ergo: An Open Access Journal of Philosophy.
    The ethics of abortion considers whether abortion is immoral. Pro-choice philosophers think that it is not immoral, while pro-life philosophers think that it is. The axiology of abortion considers whether world would be better if the pro-choice or pro-life position is right. While much attention has been given to the ethics of abortion, there has been no attention given to the axiology of abortion. In this article, I seek to change that. I consider various arguments for thinking our world would (...)
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  14. New Zealand Policy on Frozen Embryo Disputes.Carolyn Mason - 2020 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 17 (1):121-131.
    Disputes between separated couples over whether frozen embryos can be used in an attempt to create a child create a moral dilemma for public policy. When a couple create embryos intending to parent any resulting children, New Zealand’s current policy requires the consent of both people at every stage of the ART process. New Zealand’s Advisory Committee on Assisted Reproductive Technology has proposed a policy change that would give ex-partners involved in an embryo dispute twelve months to come to an (...)
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  15. What Is the Question to Which Anti-Natalism Is the Answer?Nicholas Smyth - 2020 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 23 (1):1-17.
    The ethics of biological procreation has received a great deal of attention in recent years. Yet, as I show in this paper, much of what has come to be called procreative ethics is conducted in a strangely abstract, impersonal mode, one which stands little chance of speaking to the practical perspectives of any prospective parent. In short, the field appears to be flirting with a strange sort of practical irrelevance, wherein its verdicts are answers to questions that no-one is asking. (...)
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  16. The Challenge for Medical Ethicists: Weighing Pros and Cons of Advanced Reproductive Technologies to Screen Human Embryos During IVF.Inmaculada de Melo-Martin - 2019 - In E. Scott Sills & Gianpiero D. Palermo (eds.), Human Embryos and Preimplantation Genetic Technologies. San Diego, CA, USA: Elsevier. pp. 1-10.
    Embryo screening technologies offer important benefits to individuals who use them and society. These techniques can expand the reproductive options of many prospective parents and can contribute to reducing the burdens of disease and disability. Nonetheless, embryo screening techniques present individuals and societies with important ethical challenges. Here, I explore some of them. In particular, I discuss the costs for prospective parents of increased reproductive choices, as well as concerns about sanctioning problematic social norms, increasing social injustice, limiting the ways (...)
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  17. Eugenics Undefended.Robert A. Wilson - 2019 - Monash Bioethics Review 37 (1-2):68-75.
  18. Questionable Benefits and Unavoidable Personal Beliefs: Defending Conscientious Objection for Abortion.Bruce Philip Blackshaw & Daniel Rodger - 2020 - Journal of Medical Ethics 3 (46):178-182.
    Conscientious objection in healthcare has come under heavy criticism on two grounds recently, particularly regarding abortion provision. First, critics claim conscientious objection involves a refusal to provide a legal and beneficial procedure requested by a patient, denying them access to healthcare. Second, they argue the exercise of conscientious objection is based on unverifiable personal beliefs. These characteristics, it is claimed, disqualify conscientious objection in healthcare. Here, we defend conscientious objection in the context of abortion provision. We show that abortion has (...)
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  19. Thinking Critically About Abortion: Why Most Abortions Aren’T Wrong & Why All Abortions Should Be Legal.Nathan Nobis & Kristina Grob - 2019 - Atlanta, GA: Open Philosophy Press.
    This book introduces readers to the many arguments and controversies concerning abortion. While it argues for ethical and legal positions on the issues, it focuses on how to think about the issues, not just what to think about them. It is an ideal resource to improve your understanding of what people think, why they think that and whether their (and your) arguments are good or bad, and why. It's ideal for classroom use, discussion groups, organizational learning, and personal reading. -/- (...)
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  20. Teaching Medical Ethics and Law Within Medical Education: A Model for the UK Core Curriculum.Richard Ashcroft & Donna Dickenson - 1998 - Journal of Medical Ethics 24:188-192.
  21. Review of Cynthia Daniels, At Women's Expense. [REVIEW]Donna Dickenson - 1995 - Journal of Medical Ethics 21 (1):61.
  22. Ethical Issues in Pre-Cancer Testing: The Parallel with Huntington's Disease.Donna L. Dickenson - 2002 - In Bill Fulford, Donna Dickenson & Thomas Murray Murray (eds.), Healthcare Ethics and Human Values: An Introductory Text with Readings and Case Studies. Oxford: Blackwell. pp. 97-100.
    This chapter considers ethical issues involved in genetic testing and screening for susceptibility to various forms of cancer.
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  23. What Should Be the RCOG's Relationship with Older Women?Donna Dickenson - 2009 - In Susan Bewley, William Ledger & Dimitrios Nikolaou (eds.), Reproductive Ageing. London: Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. pp. 277-286.
    Reproductive ageing has effects on individual and public health, now and in generations to come. This volume of presentations from a conference at the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists brings together a diverse but timely set of contributions.. in ny chapter I specifically examine the responsibilities of the College to women outside normal reproductive age.
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  24. The New French Resistance: Commodification Rejected?Donna Dickenson - 2005 - Medical Law International 7 (1):41-63.
    In this article I evaluate a resurrected French resistance movement--to biotechnological commodification. The official French view that ‘the body is the person’ has been dismissed as a ‘taboo’ by the French political scientist Dominique Memmi . Yet France has indeed resisted the models of globalised commodification adopted in US bioechnology, as, for example, when the government blocked a research collaboration between the American firm Millennium Pharmaceuticals and a leading genomics laboratory, le Centre d’Etude du Polymorphisme Humain, on the grounds the (...)
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  25. Ownership, Property and Women's Bodies.Donna Dickenson - 2006 - In Heather Widdows, Aitsiber Emaldi Cirion & Itziar Alkorta Idiakez (eds.), Women's Reproductive Rights. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 188-198.
    Does advocating women's reproductive rights require us to believe that women own property in their bodies? In this chapter I conclude that it does not. Although the concept of owning our own bodies — ‘whose body is it anyway?’ — has polemical and political utility, it is incoherent in philosophy and law. Rather than conflate the entirely plausible concept of women’s reproductive rights and the implausible notion of property in the body, we should keep them separate, so that the weakness (...)
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  26. What Should Be the RCOG's Relationship with Older Women?Donna Dickenson - 2009 - In Reproductive Ageing. London: Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists Press. pp. 277-286.
    A ‘should’ question normally signals work for an ethicist but this ethicist’s task is complicated by the normative dimension of all the chapters in this volume. Each author was asked to come up with three recommendations from their own subject area – ’should’ statements deriving from the ‘is’ analysis that they present. If those prescriptions cover the relevant topics, what more is there for an ethicist to do? I have had a personal interest in obstetricians’ relationship with ‘older women’ since (...)
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  27. Regulating (or Not) Reproductive Medicine: An Alternative to Letting the Market Decide.Donna Dickenson - 2011 - Indian Journal of Medical Ethics 8 (3):175-179.
    Whilst India has been debating how to regulate 'surrogacy' the UK has undergone a major consultation on increasing the amount of 'expenses'paid to egg 'donors', while France has recently finished debating its entire package of bioethics regulation and the role of its Biomedicine Agency. Although it is often claimed that there is no alternative to the neo-liberal, market-based approach in regulating (or not) reproductive medicine--the ideology prevalent in both India and the UK--advocates of that position ignore the alternative model offered (...)
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  28. Feminist Perspectives on Human Genetics and Reproductive Technologies.Donna Dickenson - 2016 - eLS (Formerly Known as the Encyclopedia of Life Sciences).
    Feminism offers three separate but equally important insights about human genetics and the new reproductive technologies. First, feminism is concerned with ways in which these new technologies have the potential to exploit women, particularly in the treatment of their reproductive tissue, while seeming to offer both sexes greater reproductive freedom. This risk has been largely ignored by much bioethics, which has concentrated on choice and autonomy at the expense of justice, giving it little to say about the concept of exploitation. (...)
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  29. The Commodification of Women's Reproductive Tissue and Services.Donna Dickenson - 2017 - In Leslie Francis (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Reproductive Ethics. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 118-140.
    Although the term commodification is sometimes criticised as imprecise or overused, in fact it has a complex philosophical ancestry and can never be used too much, because the phenomena that it describes are still gaining ground. The issues that commodification raises in relation to reproductive technologies include whether it is wrong to commodify human tissues generally and gametes particularly, and whether the person as subject and the person as object can be distinguished in modern biomedicine. This chapter examines three areas (...)
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  30. The Duty to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions and the Limits of Permissible Procreation.Trevor Hedberg - 2019 - Essays in Philosophy 20 (1):42-65.
    Many environmental philosophers have argued that there is an obligation for individuals to reduce their individual carbon footprints. However, few of them have addressed whether this obligation would entail a corresponding duty to limit one’s family size. In this paper, I examine several reasons that one might view procreative acts as an exception to a more general duty to reduce one’s individual greenhouse gas emissions. I conclude that none of these reasons are convincing. Thus, if there is an obligation to (...)
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  31. Toward a Small Family Ethic: How Overpopulation and Climate Change Are Affecting the Morality of Procreation by Travis Rieder.Trevor Hedberg - 2019 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 28 (4):8-13.
    Travis Rieder's Toward a Small Family Ethic confronts the effects of population growth and addresses what individual procreative obligations might follow from it. In this review, I summarize the main arguments that Rieder deploys to defend his position that those with large ecological footprints morally ought to follow a small family ethic. I express sympathy with some of his claims and praise the book's accessibility, but its short length inevitably means that some important issues are omitted or given only superficial (...)
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  32. Ectogenesis and the Case Against the Right to the Death of the Foetus.Bruce P. Blackshaw & Daniel Rodger - 2019 - Bioethics 33 (1):76-81.
    Ectogenesis, or the use of an artificial womb to allow a foetus to develop, will likely become a reality within a few decades, and could significantly affect the abortion debate. We first examine the implications for Judith Jarvis Thomson’s violinist analogy, which argues for a woman’s right to withdraw life support from the foetus and so terminate her pregnancy, even if the foetus is granted full moral status. We show that on Thomson’s reasoning, there is no right to the death (...)
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  33. I Love My Children: Am I Racist? On the Wish to Be Biologically Related to One’s Children.Ezio Di Nucci - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (12):814-816.
    Is the wish to be biologically related to your children legitimate? Here, I respond to an argument in support of a negative answer to this question according to which a preference towards having children one is biologically related to is analogous to a preference towards associating with members of one’s own race. I reject this analogy, mainly on the grounds that only the latter constitutes discrimination; still, I conclude that indeed a preference towards children one is biologically related to is (...)
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  34. Reproduktionstechnologien und Bionormative Familienkonzeptionen.Ezio Di Nucci - forthcoming - In Handbuch Philosophie der Kindheit.
  35. Even If the Fetus is Not a Person, Abortion is Immoral: The Impairment Argument.Perry Hendricks - 2019 - Bioethics 33 (2):245-253.
    Much of the discussion surrounding the ethics of abortion has centered around the notion of personhood. This is because many philosophers hold that the morality of abortion is contingent on whether the fetus is a person - though, of course, some famous philosophers have rejected this thesis (e.g. Judith Thomson and Don Marquis). In this article, I construct a novel argument for the immorality of abortion based on the notion of impairment. This argument does not assume that the fetus is (...)
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  36. Review of The Practice of Death by Eike-Henner W. Kluge.Alison Jaggar - 1976 - The Queen's Quarterly (Canada) (1).
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  37. Conscientious Refusal of Abortion in Emergency Life-Threatening Circumstances and Contested Judgments of Conscience.Wojciech Ciszewski & Tomasz Żuradzki - 2018 - American Journal of Bioethics 18 (7):62-64.
    Lawrence Nelson (2018) criticizes conscientious objection (CO) to abortion statutes as far as they permit health care providers to escape criminal liability for what would otherwise be the legally wrongful taking of a pregnant woman’s life by refusing treatment (i.e. abortion). His key argument refers to the U.S. Supreme Court judgment (Roe v. Wade 1973) that does not treat the unborn as constitutional persons under the Fourteenth Amendment. Therefore, Nelson claims that within the U.S. legal system any vital interests of (...)
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