Brain Death

Edited by Craig Paterson (Complutense University of Madrid)
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  1. added 2020-02-09
    Cell Death During Normal Development of the Brain: What is its Significance?Günter Rager - 1988 - Epistemologia 11:133.
  2. added 2020-01-29
    Legal Frontiers of Death and Dying.Robert M. Walker - 1989 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 32 (2):310-313.
  3. added 2020-01-18
    The Neurologist and the Concept of Brain Death.James F. Toole - 1971 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 14 (4):599-607.
  4. added 2020-01-18
    Thoughts on Life and Death.Gunnar Biörck - 1968 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 11 (4):527-543.
  5. added 2019-11-17
    Authenticity, Insight and Impaired Decision-Making Capacity in Acquired Brain Injury.Gareth S. Owen, Fabian Freyenhagen & Wayne Martin - 2018 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 25 (1):29-32.
    Thanks to Barton Palmer and John McMillan for these thoughtful commentaries. We found much to agree with and it is striking how so many of the issues relating to decision-making capacity assessment find resonances outside of an English jurisdiction. California and New Zealand are clearly grappling with a very similar set of issues and the commentaries speak to the international nature of these discussions.We will pick up on some main points the commentaries raise.As Palmer notes, DMC law is vulnerable to (...)
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  6. added 2019-10-26
    Reply: Conscientious Objection to Deceased Organ Donation by Healthcare Professionals.Michal Pruski & Toni C. Saad - 2018 - Journal of the Intensive Care Society 19 (4):NP1.
    Here we respond to Shaw et al., and show why the application of Conscientious Objection cannot be dismissed from cases of organ donation, where the donor is presumed to be dead.
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  7. added 2019-10-10
    The Demise of Brain Death.Lukas J. Meier - forthcoming - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science.
    Fifty years have passed since brain death was first proposed as a criterion of death. Its advocates believe that with the destruction of the brain, integrated functioning ceases irreversibly, somatic unity dissolves, and the organism turns into a corpse. In this article, I put forward two objections against this assertion. First, I draw parallels between brain death and other pathological conditions and argue that whenever one regards the absence or the artificial replacement of a certain function in these disorders as (...)
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  8. added 2019-10-10
    Is Brain Death Death?Lukas J. Meier - 2016 - Dissertation, University of Oxford
    For hundreds of years, death had been defined by cardiopulmonary criteria. When heart and respiratory functions were permanently absent, doctors declared their patients dead. Three developments in intensive care medicine called into question these widely-accepted criteria, however: the advent of positive pressure ventilation and the promotion of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, both in the early 1950s, and the first successful heart transplantation in 1967. What had previously been diagnosed as the permanent absence of vital functions, suddenly became reversible. Not only could doctors (...)
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  9. added 2019-09-24
    Organ Donation and Declaration of Death: Combined Neurologic and Cardiopulmonary Standards.Stephen E. Doran & Joseph Michael Vukov - forthcoming - The Linacre Quarterly 86.
    Prolonged survival after the declaration of death by neurologic criteria creates ambiguity regarding the validity of this methodology. This ambiguity has perpetuated the debate among secular and nondissenting Catholic authors who question whether the neurologic standards are sufficient for the declaration of death of organ donors. Cardiopulmonary criteria are being increasingly used for organ donors who do not meet brain death standards. However, cardiopulmonary criteria are plagued by conflict of interest issues, arbitrary standards for candidacy, and the lack of standardized (...)
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  10. added 2019-09-21
    Brain Death as the End of a Human Organism as a Self-Moving Whole.Adam Omelianchuk - forthcoming - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy.
    The biophilosophic justification for the idea that “brain death” (or total brain failure) is death needs to support two claims: (1) that what dies in human death is a human organism, not merely a psychological entity distinct from it; (2) that total brain failure signifies the end of the human organism as a whole. Defenders of brain death typically assume without argument the first claim is true and argue for the second by defending the “integrative unity” rationale. Yet the integrative (...)
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  11. added 2019-09-09
    What It Is To Die.Cody Gilmore - forthcoming - In Michael Cholbi & Travis Timmerman (eds.), Exploring the Philosophy of Death and Dying. New York: Routledge.
    A defense of the view that (i) to be alive is to be actively undergoing (not merely capable of undergoing) certain vital processes, that (ii) to die is cease to be capable of undergoing those processes (not to cease undergoing them), and that (iii) organisms in cryptobiosis (suspended animation) are not undergoing those processes but are capable of doing so, and are neither alive nor dead.
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  12. added 2019-06-10
    Brain Death and Brainstem Death: Philosophical and Ethical Considerations.David Lamb - 1987 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Lectures 22:231-249.
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  13. added 2019-06-06
    Persons, Humanity, and the Definition of Death—John P. Lizza. [REVIEW]Joseph W. Koterski - 2007 - International Philosophical Quarterly 47 (3):385-387.
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  14. added 2019-06-06
    Death, Medicine, and Religious Solidarity in Martin Scorsese's Bringing Out the Dead.David M. Hammond & Beverly J. Smith - 2004 - Logos: A Journal of Catholic Thought and Culture 7 (3):109-123.
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  15. added 2019-06-06
    Brain Death: Philosophical Concepts and Problems: T Russell. Ashgate, 2000, Pound40.00, Pp 183. ISBN 0 7546 1210. [REVIEW]B. Jennett - 2002 - Journal of Medical Ethics 28 (2):130-130.
  16. added 2019-06-06
    Ethics and Brain Death: A Response.D. Alan Shewmon - 1987 - New Scholasticism 61 (3):321-344.
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  17. added 2019-06-06
    Confirmatory Tests in the Diagnosis of Brain Death: The Role of the Radioisotope Brain Scan.Ronald E. Cranford & Barbara K. Patrick - 1981 - Journal of Medical Humanities 3 (2):67-72.
    In recent years physicians have used a variety of laboratory studies as confirmatory tests in the diagnosis of brain death. The most widely used test has been the EEG. However, with the development of newer technologies capable of measuring other parameters of brain functions, other laboratory studies are playing an increasingly important role in confirming brain death. In this article, we discuss the role of one of these newer tests, the radioactive brain scan, and compare its advantages and limitations with (...)
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  18. added 2019-06-06
    Case Study: Research with Brain-Dead Children.Ronald Carson - 1981 - Journal of Medical Humanities 3 (1):50-53.
    The esophageal obturator airway is a device used throughout the United States to facilitate artificial respiration of critically ill patients who are not hospitalized. Its use is restricted to persons who are over 15 years old because obturators for children are not available. A protocol submitted to an institutional review board intended to develop EOAs suitable for use in children. The investigators proposed to perform preliminary testing of these devices on children who had sustained irreversible loss of brain function. In (...)
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  19. added 2019-06-06
    The EEG as Confirmatory Evidence of Brain Death: Previous and Current Approaches.Robert J. Wilkus - 1980 - Journal of Medical Humanities 2 (1):39-45.
    The role of EEG in confirming the clinical diagnosis of isolated brain death has undergone evolutionary changes since the original recommendations concerning its use. Accumulated evidence now supports that approach that the EEG can be used not only as a confirmatory test for brain death, but one which considerably facilitates making the diagnosis. Using the EEG, brain death can often be identified with absolute certainty within just a few, rather than the previously recommended 24 or more hours after a known (...)
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  20. added 2019-06-05
    Ethics After God's Death and the Time of the Angels.Marianna Papastephanou - 2012 - Cosmos and History : The Journal of Natural and Social Philosophy 8 (1):94-130.
    The philosophical idea of the death of God has had various semantic operations within dominant modern positions on human empowerment. Beginning with the significance of this, the article aims to discuss the half-life of a God who has become a metaphor. In other words, it explores the reverberation of God and God's death in secularized philosophy as well as the consequences of this for ethics and the conception of the Good. Then, the article illustrates the complex connection of this aim (...)
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  21. added 2019-06-05
    Paper: Brain Death Revisited: It is Not ‘Complete Death’ According to Islamic Sources.Ahmet Bedir & Şahin Aksoy - 2011 - Journal of Medical Ethics 37 (5):290-294.
    Concepts, such as death, life and spirit cannot be known in their quintessential nature, but can be defined in accordance with their effects. In fact, those who think within the mode of pragmatism and Cartesian logic have ignored the metaphysical aspects of these terms. According to Islam, the entity that moves the body is named the soul. And the aliment of the soul is air. Cessation of breathing means leaving of the soul from the body. Those who agree on the (...)
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  22. added 2019-06-05
    Norman Doidge, The Brain That Changes Itself.1.Peter B. Reiner - 2008 - American Journal of Bioethics 8 (1):62-63.
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  23. added 2019-06-05
    An Alternative to Brain Death.Jeff McMahan - 2006 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 34 (1):44-48.
    This article criticizes a range of assumptions that proponents of brain death usually share. It argues that one of the main contentions made in defense of brain death – that the brain is necessary for integrated functioning in a human organism – is mistaken. It then sketches an alternative account of human death that distinguishes between the biological death of a human organism and the death or ceasing to exist of a person.
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  24. added 2019-06-05
    Death's Irreducible UnrulinessDeath Is That Man Taking Names.Ronald A. Carson & Robert Burt - 2004 - Hastings Center Report 34 (2):46.
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  25. added 2019-06-05
    Book ReviewsStuart J. Youngner,, Robert M. Arnold,, and Renie Schapiro,, Eds.The Definition of Death: Contemporary Perspectives. Baltimore Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999. Pp. 339. $54.00. [REVIEW]Douglas Walton - 2000 - Ethics 111 (1):196-198.
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  26. added 2019-06-05
    At Law: Liberty, Equality, Death!Alexander Morgan Capron - 1996 - Hastings Center Report 26 (3):23.
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  27. added 2019-06-05
    At Law: Constitutionalizing Death.Alexander Morgan Capron - 1995 - Hastings Center Report 25 (6):23.
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  28. added 2019-06-05
    Legal Status of Brain Death in Japan: Why Many Japanese Do Not Accept "Brain Death" as a Definition of Death.Kazumasa Hoshino - 1993 - Bioethics 7 (2):234.
  29. added 2019-06-05
    Brain Death Symposium: Danish Ethics Council Rejects Brain Death as Criterion of Death.B. A. Rix - 1990 - Journal of Medical Ethics 16 (1):5.
    In Denmark, which alone in Western Europe has not accepted brain death as the criterion of death, the newly established Danish Council of Ethics has issued a report suggesting that in Denmark the criterion of death should still be the cessation of cardiac activity. The council bases its conclusion on the concept of death in everyday experience and its ethical implications.
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  30. added 2019-06-05
    A Case Conference Revisited: Commentary 1: Comments on an Obstructed Death.Peter Byrne - 1990 - Journal of Medical Ethics 16 (2):88.
    The paper comments on Scott Dunbar's "An obstructed death and medical ethics," arguing contra Dunbar that we should not view truth-telling to the terminally ill as primarily governed by principles of veracity and respect for autonomy. All such rules are of limited value in medical ethics. We should instead turn to an ethics deriving from the centrality of moral relationships and virtues. A brief analysis of the connections between moral relationships and moral rules is offered. Such an ethics would lower (...)
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  31. added 2019-06-05
    Commentary: Whole-Brain Death Reconsidered-Physiological Facts and Philosophy.C. Pallis - 1983 - Journal of Medical Ethics 9 (1):32.
    Four main areas generating confusion in discussion on brain death are identified as a) the relation of criteria of death to concepts of death, b) the argument about whether death is an event or a process, c) the inadequate differentiation of different neurological entities having different cardiac prognoses, and d) insufficient awareness of the separate issues of 'determining death' and 'allowing to die'. It is argued that if by death we mean the dissolution of the human 'organism as a whole', (...)
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  32. added 2019-06-05
    Accepting Death: A Critique of Kübler‐Ross.James C. Carpenter, Elisabeth Kübler-Ross & Elisabeth Kubler-Ross - 1979 - Hastings Center Report 9 (5):42.
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  33. added 2019-06-05
    Case for a Statutory 'Definition of Death'.P. D. Skegg - 1976 - Journal of Medical Ethics 2 (4):190.
    Karen Quinlan, the American girl who has lain in deep coma for many months, is still 'alive', that is to say, her heart is still beating and brain death has not occurred. However, several other cases have raised difficult issues about the time of death. Dr Skegg argues that there is a case for a legal definition of death enshrined in statutory form. He suggests that many of the objections to a statutory provision on death are misplaced, and that a (...)
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  34. added 2019-06-05
    Case Studies in Bioethics: Brain Death: Welcome Definition... Or Dangerous Judgment?Robert M. Veatch - 1972 - Hastings Center Report 2 (5):10.
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  35. added 2019-02-28
    An Obstructed Death and Medical Ethics -- A Case Conference Revisited: Commentary.Roger Higgs - 1990 - Journal of Medical Ethics 16 (2):90-92.
    The dilemma of whether or not a doctor should tell a patient dying of cancer the truth remains a difficult one, as the disagreement between the two previous writers shows. One favours giving priority to patient autonomy, the other feels the doctor's duty of beneficence should be the overriding principle governing such decisions. To this contributor it seems both approaches have something to offer. By being sensitive to what and how much the patient wishes to know and by learning from (...)
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  36. added 2019-01-11
    Death is a Biological Phenomenon.Don Marquis - 2018 - Diametros 55:20-26.
    John Lizza says that to define death well, we must go beyond biological considerations. Death is the absence of life in an entity that was once alive. Biology is the study of life. Therefore, the definition of death should not involve non-biological concerns.
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  37. added 2019-01-11
    A Biological Theory of Death: Characterization, Justification, and Implications.Michael Nair-Collins - 2018 - Diametros 55:27-43.
    John P. Lizza has long been a major figure in the scholarly literature on criteria for death. His searching and penetrating critiques of the dominant biological paradigm, and his defense of a theory of death of the person as a psychophysical entity, have both significantly advanced the literature. In this special issue, Lizza reinforces his critiques of a strictly biological approach. In my commentary, I take up Lizza’s challenge regarding a biological concept of death. He is certainly right to point (...)
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  38. added 2019-01-11
    What Does a Definition of Death Do?Laura Specker Sullivan - 2018 - Diametros 55:63-67.
    In his article, “Defining Death: Beyond Biology,” John Lizza argues in favor of a civil definition of death, according to which the potential for consciousness and social interaction marks us as the “kind of being that we are.” In this commentary, I critically discuss this approach to the bioethical debate on the definition of death. I question whether Lizza’s account is based on a full recognition of the “practical, moral, religious, philosophical, and cultural considerations” at play in this debate. I (...)
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  39. added 2019-01-11
    A Holistic Understanding of Death: Ontological and Medical Considerations.Doyen Nguyen - 2018 - Diametros 55:44-62.
    In the ongoing ‘brain death’ controversy, there has been a constant push for the use of the ‘higher brain’ formulation as the criterion for the determination of death on the grounds that brain-dead individuals are no longer human beings because of their irreversible loss of consciousness and mental functions. This essay demonstrates that such a position flows from a Lockean view of human persons. Compared to the ‘consciousness-related definition of death,’ the substance view is superior, especially because it provides a (...)
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  40. added 2018-12-03
    In Defense of Brain Death: Replies to Don Marquis, Michael Nair-Collins, Doyen Nguyen, and Laura Specker Sullivan.John P. Lizza - 2018 - Diametros 55:68-90.
    In this paper, I defend brain death as a criterion for determining death against objections raised by Don Marquis, Michael Nair-Collins, Doyen Nguyen, and Laura Specker Sullivan. I argue that any definition of death for beings like us relies on some sortal concept by which we are individuated and identified and that the choice of that concept in a practical context is not determined by strictly biological considerations but involves metaphysical, moral, social, and cultural considerations. This view supports acceptance of (...)
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  41. added 2018-11-26
    Defining Death: Beyond Biology.John P. Lizza - 2018 - Diametros 55:1-19.
    The debate over whether brain death is death has focused on whether individuals who have sustained total brain failure have satisfied the biological definition of death as “the irreversible loss of the integration of the organism as a whole.” In this paper, I argue that what it means for an organism to be integrated “as a whole” is undefined and vague in the views of those who attempt to define death as the irreversible loss of the integration of the organism (...)
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  42. added 2018-11-26
    Śmierć mózgowa – zmiana w rozumieniu człowieka?Jacek Meller - 2018 - Diametros 56:151-156.
    Review of the book: Człowiek na granicy istnienia. Dyskusje o śmierci mózgowej i innych aspektach umierania, Grzegorz Hołub, Piotr Duchliński, Akademia Ignatianum w Krakowie, Wydawnictwo WAM, Kraków 2017.
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  43. added 2018-11-22
    Problemy etyczne transplantologii. Perspektywa niedoboru narządów do przeszczepu.Piotr Grzegorz Nowak - 2014 - Diametros 42:150-177.
    The article provides a critical overview of the Polish bioethics literature concerning the shortage of organs for transplantation. Problems related to this issue bear, to a considerable degree, on the attempt to answer the question how to increase the number of organs available in ethically acceptable ways. Polish authors have focused, in this respect, on the analysis and assessment of two solutions: an opt out system of acquiring organs and a system that allows the aquisition of organs on a “free (...)
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  44. added 2017-06-02
    Natural Right to Grow and Die in the Form of Wholeness: A Philosophical Interpretation of the Ontological Status of Brain-Dead Children.Masahiro Morioka - 2010 - Diogenes 57 (3):103-116.
    In this paper, I would like to argue that brain-dead small children have a natural right not to be invaded by other people even if their organs can save the lives of other suffering patients. My basic idea is that growing human beings have the right to grow in the form of wholeness, and dying human beings also have the right to die in the form of wholeness; in other words, they have the right to be protected from outside invasion, (...)
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  45. added 2017-02-15
    Being-Towards-Death and Owning One's Judgment.Denis McManus - 2015 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 91 (2):245-272.
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  46. added 2017-02-15
    Understanding Death in Custody: A Case for a Comprehensive Definition.Géraldine Ruiz, Tenzin Wangmo, Patrick Mutzenberg, Jessica Sinclair & Bernice Simone Elger - 2014 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 11 (3):387-398.
    Prisoners sometimes die in prison, either due to natural illness, violence, suicide, or a result of imprisonment. The purpose of this study is to understand deaths in custody using qualitative methodology and to argue for a comprehensive definition of death in custody that acknowledges deaths related to the prison environment. Interviews were conducted with 33 experts, who primarily work as lawyers or forensic doctors with national and/or international organisations. Responses were coded and analysed qualitatively. Defining deaths in custody according to (...)
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  47. added 2017-02-15
    Beyond the Essence of Death.Brendan Leier - 2014 - American Journal of Bioethics 14 (8):24-25.
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  48. added 2017-02-15
    Thanatological Pluralism and the Epistemic Openness of 'Death'.Marko Stamenkovic - unknown
    This article discusses the conceptual ambiguities in relation to the current definitions of ‘death’. It addresses the need for an essentially pluralistic approach that probes the limits of epistemic singularity and perceives death as an open concept. Despite the views dependent upon the irrevocable termination of existence, I assume the opposite: first, that there are manifold ways to respond philosophically to the issue, without giving priority to any sovereign or prescribed position; second, that the plurality of unequally convincing positions opens (...)
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  49. added 2017-02-15
    Preparing Well for Death.Kevin McGovern - 2013 - Chisholm Health Ethics Bulletin 18 (3):9.
    McGovern, Kevin How might we prepare well for death? And how might we help other people also to prepare well for death? Spiritual guide Henri Nouwen suggests that we should strive to recognise that we are children of God, brothers and sisters of one another, and parents of the generations to come. This article explores what he means.
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  50. added 2017-02-15
    The Death of Art.B. R. Sharma - 2006 - Upa.
    The Death of Art evaluates the philosopher Theodor W. Adorno's ideas on music, visual arts, and literature and their relevance to today's mass culture. This book is a comprehensive and clear overview of Adorno's cultural theories and their impact.
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